Legal system of Macau
Macau law is broadly based on Portuguese law, therefore part of the civil law tradition of continental European legal systems. Portuguese law is itself influenced by German law. However, many other influences are present, including Chinese law, Italian law, some narrow aspects of common law. Macau's legal code is written in Portuguese; the apex of the legal system is the Basic Law of the Macau SAR, a Chinese law approved in accordance with and due to the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau and with article 31 of the Constitution of the PRC. Within Macau, the Basic Law has constitutional rank; the Basic Law of Macau is modelled upon the Basic Law of Hong Kong, although it is not equal, as it namely is influenced by the Portuguese Constitution in some points as, for example, in some norms concerning fundamental rights. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights applies in Macau; the legal system of Macau was not modified in 1999, as a result of the transfer of power from Portugal to the PRC, given that there is a principle of continuity of the pre-existing legal system, according to which all sources in force prior to the transfer of sovereignty continued to apply, with some minor exceptions that were specified in December 1999.
The courts of the Macau SAR are structured in three levels and have final power of adjudication, except in narrow areas. The Court of Final Appeal has three judges, the Court of Second Instance has five judges. Trial by jury is not used. Prior to 1991, Macau judicial system was a sub-judiciary district of the judicial framework of the Portuguese legal system and was affiliated to the Judiciary District of Lisbon; the Higher Court of Justice of Macau replaced the role of Court of Appeal of the Judiciary District of Lisbon. This highest court would be replaced by the current Court of Appeal in 1999; the courts prior to the handover in 1999: Superior Council of Magistrates Superior Council of Public Prosecutors Court of Justice of Macau Criminal Preliminary Hearing Court of Macau Administrative Court of Macau Constitutional Court of the Republic of Portugal Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Portugal Supreme Court of Justice of the Republic of Portugal Audit Court of the Republic of PortugalThe courts of Macau consists of: Court of Final Appeal – 終審法院/Tribunal de Ultima Instância Court of General Competence Administrative Court Criminal Preliminary Hearing Court – Audit Court Higher Court of Justice Judiciary Council of Macau Court of Second Instance or Court of Appeal Court of First Instance Primary Court of Macau – 初級法院/ Judiciary Council of Macau Macau is a civil law legal system, in that legislation is the main source of law and case law, while relevant, is not a major source of law.
Macau has the five'classic' codifications: the Civil Code, the Commercial Code, the Civil Procedure Code, the Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code. In addition, there are a number of other smaller codifications. Private law in Macau is codified in two separate codes: the 1999 Civil Code and the 1999 Commercial code. A number of other pieces of legislation, such as the law on standard contract terms, are of importance; the Commercial Code has been translated into English and is available in the website of the Macau Official Printing House. For a partial translation of the Civil Code, see the bibliography below; the Faculty of Law of the University of Macau was created in the late 1980s and offers law degrees and master programmes conducted in Chinese and Portuguese languages. It offers two master and postgraduate programmes in English, one in EU, international and comparative law, the other in international business law. In addition, it offers PhD programs in law; the Department of Public Prosecution is the judicial authorities of Macau.
It is assisted by the Assistant-Prosecutor General. Day to day legal activities are performed by general prosecutors. Macau gaming law is discussed in a separate entry. Legal systems of the world Civil law Civil code Commercial code Immigration to Macau Macau Law Directory Traditional Chinese version Portuguese version English version at the Wayback Machine Macau Courts Faculty of Law, University of Macau Personal page of Prof. Jorge Godinho, University of Macau Links to sites of legal interest Brief Introduction of Judicial System of Macau
2012 Hong Kong Chief Executive election
The 2012 Hong Kong Chief Executive election was held on 25 March 2012 to select the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, the highest office in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, by a 1,193-member Election Committee to replace the incumbent Chief Executive. Won by the former non-official convenor of the Executive Council of Hong Kong Leung Chun-ying, the election was the most competitive as it was the first election with more than one pro-Beijing candidate since the 1996 election; the incumbent Chief Executive Donald Tsang, who served for the second half of the second term and a full third term was ineligible to run for the re-election as stated in the Basic Law. Leung Chun-ying, seen as the underdog, ran a successful campaign against Chief Secretary for Administration Henry Tang, seen as the favourite candidate by Beijing officials and business tycoons; the pan-democrats successfully fielded their own candidate, Democratic Party chairman and Legislative Councillor Albert Ho, who won the primary against another pan-democrat legislator Frederick Fung, former chairman of the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood on 8 January 2012.
The campaign was marked by scandals, dirty tactics and smears from both Tang's and Leung's sides, notably Henry Tang illegal basement controversy. In the wake of the scandals which damaged Tang's popularity, the election was won by Leung Chun-ying, who received 689 electoral votes in the Election Committee with the help of the central government's Liaison Office. According to Article 44 of the Basic Law, the Chief Executive must be a Chinese citizen, a permanent resident of the HKSAR with no right of abode in any foreign country; the individual must be at least 40 years old, has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of no less than 20 years. Article 47 further requires that the Chief Executive be a person of integrity, dedicated to his or her duties; the 1,200-member Election Committee in, elected in the 2011 Election Committee Subsector Elections, which commenced its term of office on 1 February 2012, is composed of 1,044 members elected from 35 subsectors, 60 members nominated by the religious subsector and 96 ex-officio members, who are members of the Legislative Council or Hong Kong deputies to the National People's Congress.
The election committee has no legitimacy in the eyes of the general public, according to Christine Loh. Nominations for the 2012 election opened on 14 February, closed on 29 February; each candidacy for Chief Executive must be supported by at least 150 nominations from members of the Election Committee. The election proper takes place by secret ballot, with each EC member having one vote, on 25 March 2012; the successful candidate shall have secured valid votes from more than half the total stipulated number of members, namely 601 votes. If the first round of voting fails to give rise to an outright winner, a second round of voting shall be held the same day after eliminating the lowest-scoring candidate. If a second round still fails to produce an outright winner, the election will be re-run. For this, nominations will reopen, balloting will take place six weeks – in this case on 6 May. Under current laws, candidate are not required to disclose their political affiliations. Other minor candidates included Kan Kit-hung, Yu Wing-yin, consultant of the Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute, Wu Sai-chuen, a former DAB member and Roger Chan Yuet-tung.
None of them was nominated. Rita Fan Hsu Lai-tai, member of the National People's Congress Standing Committee Jasper Tsang Yok-sing, President of the Legislative Council The non-official convenor of the Executive Council Leung Chun-ying announced his plan to run on 9 September and resigned from his post in the government in mid September 2011. Chief Secretary for Administration Henry Tang, considered the first choice of Beijing, resigned from government in late September 2011. Rita Fan and Regina Ip said they were considering running for the post, but dropped out on 15 December. Fan lost a lot of public respect by taking six months to consider her candidacy. After much prevarication-induced speculation, Fan announced that she would not participate because her age and health would become concerns into the CE term. Civic Party legislator Alan Leong who contested the 2007 Chief Executive election expressed an interest in standing again but announced that the Civic Party would not join the election.
Albert Ho, the chairman of the Democratic Party decided to run for the post on 4 October 2011. Frederick Fung, former chairman of the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood expressed his interest in running for the post, announced his decision to participate in the election on 8 December 2011. After winning over 150 seats in the Election Committee subsector elections, the pan-democrats conducted the "Pan-dem Chief Executive Primary Election" to decide on a unified candidate for the pan-democrat camp on 8 January 2012; the organising committee consisted of 7 members, representing the Democratic Party, the Civic Party, the ADPL, the Neo Democrats, the Professional Commons, the Power for Democracy and the Hong Kong Democratic Development Network respectively. The 4 co-organising political parties agreed to nominate the winner of the primary election. However, some pan-democratic parties, including the League of Social Democrats, the People Power and the Lab
Christie's is a British auction house. It was founded in 1766 by James Christie, its main premises are on King Street, St James's, in London and in the Rockefeller Center in New York City. The company is owned by the holding company of François-Henri Pinault. Sales in 2015 totalled £4.8 billion. In 2017 the Salvator Mundi was sold for $450.3 million at Christie's, which at that time was the highest price paid for a single painting at an auction. The official company literature states that founder James Christie conducted the first sale in London, England, on 5 December 1766, the earliest auction catalogue the company retains is from December 1766. However, other sources note that James Christie rented auction rooms from 1762, newspaper advertisements for Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been traced. Christie's was a public company, listed on the London Stock Exchange, from 1973 to 1999. In 1974, Jo Floyd was appointed chairman of Christie's, he served as chairman of Christie's International plc from 1976 to 1988, until handing over to Lord Carrington, was a non-executive director until 1992.
Christie's International Inc. held its first sale in the United States in 1977. Christie's growth was steady since 1989, when it had 42 % of the auction market. In 1990, the company reversed a long-standing policy and guaranteed a minimum price for a collection of artworks in its May auctions. In 1996, sales exceeded those of Sotheby's for the first time since 1954. However, profits did not grow at the same pace. In 1993, Christie's paid $12.7 million for the London gallery Spink & Son, which specialised in Oriental art and British paintings. The company bought Leger Gallery for $3.3 million in 1996, merged it with Spink to become Spink-Leger. Spink-Leger closed in 2002. To make itself competitive with Sotheby's in the property market, Christie's bought Great Estates in 1995 the largest network of independent estate agents in North America, changing its name to Christie's Great Estates Inc. In December 1997, under the chairmanship of Lord Hindlip, Christie's put itself on the auction block, but after two months of negotiations with the consortium-led investment firm SBC Warburg Dillon Read it did not attract a bid high enough to accept.
In May 1998, François Pinault's holding company, Groupe Artémis S. A. first bought 29.1 percent of the company for $243.2 million, subsequently purchased the rest of it in a deal that valued the entire company at $1.2 billion. The company has since not been reporting profits, its policy, in line with UK accounting standards, is to convert non-UK results using an average exchange rate weighted daily by sales throughout the year. In 2002, Christie's France held its first auction in Paris. Like Sotheby's, Christie's became involved in high-profile private transactions. In 2006, Christie's offered a reported $21 million guarantee to the Donald Judd Foundation and displayed the artist's works for five weeks in an exhibition that won an AICA award for "Best Installation in an Alternative Space". In 2007 it brokered a $68 million deal that transferred Thomas Eakins's The Gross Clinic from the Jefferson Medical College at the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia to joint ownership by the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
In the same year, the Haunch of Venison gallery became a subsidiary of the company. On 28 December 2008, The Sunday Times reported that Pinault's debts left him "considering" the sale of Christie's and that a number of "private equity groups" were thought to be interested in its acquisition. In January 2009, the company employed 2,100 people worldwide, though an unspecified number of staff and consultants were soon to be cut due to a worldwide downturn in the art market. With sales for premier Impressionist and contemporary artworks tallying only US$248.8 million in comparison to US$739 million just a year before, a second round of job cuts began after May 2009. Guy Bennett resigned just before to the beginning of the summer 2009 sales season. Although the economic downturn has encouraged some collectors to sell art, others are unwilling to sell in a market which may yield only bargain prices. On 1 January 2017, Guillaume Cerutti was appointed chief executive officer. Patricia Barbizet was appointed chief executive officer of Christie's in 2014, the first female CEO of the company.
She replaced Steven Murphy, hired in 2010 to develop their online presence and launch in new markets, such as China. In 2012, Impressionist works, which dominated the market during the 1980s boom, were replaced by contemporary art as Christie's top category. Asian art was the third most-lucrative area. With income from classic auctioneering falling, treaty sales made £413.4 million in the first half of 2012, an increase of 53% on the same period last year. The company has promoted curated events, centred on a theme rather than an art classification or time period; as part of a companywide review in 2017, Christie's announced the layoffs of 250 employees, or 12 percent of the total work force, based in Britain and Europe. From 2008 until 2013, Christie's charged 25 percent for the first $50,000. From 2013, it charged 25 percent for the first $75,000. Christie's main London salesroom is on
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 242 to 335 passengers in typical three-class seating configurations, it is the first airliner with an airframe constructed of composite materials. The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel-efficient than the Boeing 767, which it was intended to replace; the 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include electrical flight systems, raked wingtips, noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles. The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005; the first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 2007 at Boeing's Everett factory. Development and production of the 787 has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers worldwide. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, at the Boeing South Carolina factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Planned to enter service in May 2008, the project experienced multiple delays.
The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, flight testing was completed in mid-2011. Boeing has spent $32 billion on the 787 program. Final US Federal Aviation Administration and European Aviation Safety Agency type certification was received in August 2011, the first 787-8 was delivered in September 2011, it entered commercial service on October 2011 with launch customer All Nippon Airways. The stretched 787-9 variant, 20 feet longer and can fly 450 nautical miles farther than the -8, first flew in September 2013. Deliveries of the 787-9 began in July 2014; as of January 2019, the 787 had orders for 1,421 aircraft from 72 identified customers. The aircraft has suffered from several in-service problems related to its lithium-ion batteries, including fires on board during commercial service; these systems were reviewed by both the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau. The FAA issued a directive in January 2013 that grounded all 787s in the US, other civil aviation authorities followed suit.
After Boeing completed tests on a revised battery design, the FAA approved the revised design and lifted the grounding in April 2013. During the late 1990s, Boeing considered replacement aircraft programs as sales of the 767 and 747-400 slowed. Two new aircraft were proposed, the 747X, which would have lengthened the 747-400 and improved efficiency, the Sonic Cruiser, which would have achieved 15% higher speeds while burning fuel at the same rate as the 767. Market interest for the 747X was tepid; the global airline market was disrupted by the September 11, 2001, attacks and increased petroleum prices, making airlines more interested in efficiency than speed. The worst-affected airlines, those in the United States, had been considered the most customers of the Sonic Cruiser. On January 29, 2003 Boeing announced an alternative product, the 7E7, using Sonic Cruiser technology in a more conventional configuration; the emphasis on a smaller midsize twinjet rather than a large 747-size aircraft represented a shift from hub-and-spoke theory toward the point-to-point theory, in response to analysis of focus groups.
Randy Baseler, Boeing Commercial Airplanes VP Marketing stated that airport congestion comes from a large numbers of regional jets and small single-aisles, flying to destinations where a 550-seat A380 would be too large. The replacement for the Sonic Cruiser project was named "7E7". Technology from the Sonic Cruiser and 7E7 was to be used as part of Boeing's project to replace its entire airliner product line, an endeavor called the Yellowstone Project. Early concept images of the 7E7 included rakish cockpit windows, a dropped nose and a distinctive "shark-fin" tail; the "E" was said to stand for various things, such as "efficiency" or "environmentally friendly". In July 2003, a public naming competition was held for the 7E7, for which out of 500,000 votes cast online the winning title was Dreamliner. Other names included eLiner, Global Cruiser, Stratoclimber. On April 26, 2004, Japanese airline All Nippon Airways became the launch customer for the 787, announcing a firm order for 50 aircraft with deliveries to begin in late 2008.
The ANA order was specified as 30 787-3, 290–330 seat, one-class domestic aircraft, 20 787-8, long-haul, 210–250 seat, two-class aircraft for regional international routes such as Tokyo Narita–Beijing, could perform routes to cities not served, such as Denver and New Delhi. The 787-3 and 787-8 were to be the initial variants, with the 787-9 entering service in 2010; the 787 was designed to be the first production airliner with the fuselage comprising one-piece composite barrel sections instead of the multiple aluminum sheets and some 50,000 fasteners used on existing aircraft. Boeing selected two new engines to power the 787, the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 and General Electric GEnx. Boeing stated the 787 would be 20 percent more fuel-efficient than the 767
University of Waterloo
The University of Waterloo is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Canada. The main campus is on 404 hectares of land adjacent to Waterloo Park; the university offers academic programs administered by ten faculty-based schools. The university operates three satellite campuses and four affiliated university colleges. Waterloo is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the University of Waterloo is most famous for its cooperative education programs, which allow the students to integrate their education with applicable work experiences. The university operates the largest post-secondary co-operative education program in the world, with over 20, 000 undergraduate students in over 140 co-operative education programs; the institution was established on 1 July 1957 as the Waterloo College Associate Faculties, a semi-autonomous entity of Waterloo College an affiliate of the University of Western Ontario. This entity formally separated from Waterloo College and was incorporated as a university with the passage of the University of Waterloo Act by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1959.
It was established to fill the need to train engineers and technicians for Canada's growing postwar economy. It grew over the next decade, adding a faculty of arts in 1960, the College of Optometry of Ontario, which moved from Toronto in 1967; the university is co-educational, as of 2016 had 30,600 undergraduate and 5,300 postgraduate students. Alumni and former students of the university can be found in over 140 countries. Waterloo's varsity teams, known as the Waterloo Warriors, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the U Sports; the University of Waterloo traces its origins to Waterloo College, the academic outgrowth of Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, affiliated with the University of Western Ontario since 1925. When Gerald Hagey assumed the presidency of Waterloo College in 1953, he made it his priority to procure the funds necessary to expand the institution. While the main source of income for higher education in Ontario at the time was the provincial government, the Ontario government made it clear that it would not contribute to denominational colleges and universities.
Hagey soon became aware of the steps undertaken by McMaster University to make itself eligible for some provincial funding by establishing Hamilton College as a separate, non-denominational college affiliated with the university. Following that method, Waterloo College established the Waterloo College Associate Faculties on 4 April 1956, as a non-denominational board affiliated with the college; the academic structure of the Associated Faculties was focused on co-operative education in the applied sciences—largely built around the proposals of Ira Needles. Needles proposed a different approach towards education, including both studies in the classroom and training in industry that would become the basis of the university's cooperative education program. While the plan was opposed by the Engineering Institute of Canada and other Canadian universities, notably the University of Western Ontario, the Associated Faculties admitted its first students in July 1957. On 25 January 1958, the Associated Faculties announced the purchase of over 74 hectares of land west of Waterloo College.
By the end of the same year, the Associated Faculties opened its first building on the site, the Chemical Engineering Building. In 1959, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed an act which formally split the Associated Faculties from Waterloo College, re-established it as the University of Waterloo; the governance was modelled on the University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to act as the institution's chief executive officer and act as a liaison between the two groups; the legislative act was the result of a great deal of negotiation between Waterloo College, Waterloo College Associated Faculties, St. Jerome's College, another denominational college in the City of Waterloo. While the agreements sought to safeguard the existence of the two denominational colleges, they aimed at federating them with the newly established University of Waterloo.
Due to disagreements with Waterloo College, the College was not formally federated with the new university. The dispute centred on a controversially worded section of the University of Waterloo Act, 1959, in which the College interpreted certain sections as a guarantee that it would become the Faculty of Art for the new university; this was something. As a result of the controversy, Waterloo College's entire Department of Mathematics broke away from the College to join the newly established University of Waterloo joined by professors from the Economic, Modern Languages, Russian departments. Despite this controversy, until 1960 Hagey hoped that a last-minute compromise between Waterloo College and the university could be achieved. However, the university created its own Faculty of Arts in 1960, it established the first Faculty of Mathematics in North America on 1 January 1967. In 1967, the world's first department of kinesiology was created; the present legislative act which defines how the university should be governed, the University of Waterloo Act, 1972 was passed on 10 May 1972.
A coat of arms ha
Tahiti (. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti; the island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants, making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France; the capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800 AD, they represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese people, those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, the inhabitants became French citizens.
French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language is spoken. Tahiti is the largest island in French Polynesia lying close to Mo'orea island, it is located 4,400 kilometres south of Hawaii, 7,900 km from Chile, 5,700 km from Australia. The island is 45 km across at its widest point and covers an area of 1,045 km2; the highest peak is Mont Orohena. Mount Roonui, or Mount Ronui, in the southeast rises to 1,332 m; the island consists of two round portions centred on volcanic mountains and connected by a short isthmus named after the small town of Taravao, situated there. The northwestern portion is known as Tahiti Nui, while the much smaller southeastern portion is known as Tahiti Iti or Tai'arapū. Tahiti Nui is populated along the coast around the capital, Papeete; the interior of Tahiti Nui is entirely uninhabited. Tahiti Iti has remained isolated, as its southeastern half is accessible only to those travelling by boat or on foot; the rest of the island is encircled by a main road which cuts between the sea.
A scenic and winding interior road climbs past dairy citrus groves with panoramic views. Tahiti's landscape features lush rainforests and many rivers and waterfalls, including the Papenoo River on the north side, the Fautaua Falls near Papeete; the Society archipelago is a hotspot volcanic chain consisting of atolls. The chain is oriented along parallel to the movement of the Pacific Plate. Due to the plate movement over the Society hotspot, the age of the islands decreases from 5 Ma at Maupiti to 0 Ma at Mehetia, where Mehetia is the inferred current location of the hotspot as evidenced by recent seismic activity. Maupiti, the oldest island in the chain, is a eroded shield volcano with at least 12 thin aa flows, which accumulated rapidly between 4.79 and 4.05 Ma. Bora Bora is another eroded shield volcano consisting of basaltic lavas accumulated between 3.83 and 3.1 Ma. The lavas are intersected by post-shield dikes. Tahaa consists of shield-stage basalt with an age of 3.39 Ma, followed by additional eruptions 1.2 Ma later.
Raiatea consists of shield-stage basalt followed by post-shield trachytic lava flows, all occurring from 2.75 to 2.29 Ma. Huahine consists of two coalesced basalt shield volcanoes, Huahine Nui and Huahine Iti, with several flows followed by post-shield trachyphonolitic lava domes from 3.08 to 2.06 Ma. Moorea consists of at least 16 flows of shield-stage basalt and post-shield lavas from 2.15 to 1.36 Ma. Tahiti consists of two basalt shield volcanoes, Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, with an age range of 1.67 to 0.25 Ma. November to April is the wet season, the wettest month of, January with 13.2 in of rain in Papeetē. August is the driest with 1.9 inches. The average temperature ranges with little seasonal variation; the lowest and highest temperatures recorded in Papeete are 34 °C, respectively. The first Tahitians arrived from Western Polynesia sometime around 500 AD, after a long migration from South East Asia or Indonesia, via the Fijian and Tongan Archipelagos; this hypothesis of an emigration from Southeast Asia is supported by a range of linguistic and archaeological evidence.
For example, the languages of Fiji and Polynesia all belong to the same Oceanic sub-group, Fijian-Polynesian, which itself forms part of the great family of the Austronesian Languages. This emigration, across several hundred kilometres of ocean, was made possible by using outrigger canoes that were up to twenty or thirty meters long and could transport families as well as domestic animals. In 1769, for instance, James Cook mentions a great traditional ship in Tahiti, 33 m long, could be propelled by sail or paddles. In 2010, an expedition on a simple outrigger canoe with a sail retraced the route back from Tahiti to Asia. Before the arrival of the Europeans the island was divided into different chiefdoms precise territories dominated by a single clan; these chiefdoms were linked to each other by allegiances based on the blood ties of their leaders and on their power in war. The most important clan on the island was the Teva, whose territory extended from the
Yvonne Lui Lai-Kwan is a Hong Kong-based philanthropist. Lui was born in Hong Kong, her father owned a plastic factory. She received a PhD degrees from King's College at University of London. Lui is Honorary President of Hong Kong Federation of Women, a non-profit organisation of over 100,000 members that subsidises local organisations for women. In 2008, she was named Executive Vice-President of the Executive Committee of Youth Movement; the body encouraged grass root support of the Olympic Games, participation in sporting events. She is a trustee of Peking University and the Beijing University of International Business and Economics. In 2007, Lui established an aid project that built local medical and sanitation clinics for remote communities in Hebei Province. In 2013, Lui was appointed as a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference for Beijing, a position she still holds