A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Liberty is a town in Center Township, Union County, United States. The population was 2,133 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Union County. The Liberty post office has been in operation since 1824; the Liberty Courthouse Square Historic District, Liberty Residential Historic District, Union County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the 2010 census, Liberty has a total area of all of it land; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,133 people, 832 households, 558 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,480.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 930 housing units at an average density of 1,081.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.8% White, 0.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 832 households of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.9% were non-families.
28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the town was 34.7 years. 28.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,061 people, 858 households, 548 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,366.6 people per square mile. There were 916 housing units at an average density of 1,051.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.30% White, 0.39% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.44% of the population. There were 858 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families.
32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.94. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,296, the median income for a family was $35,817. Males had a median income of $31,038 versus $20,430 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,440. About 8.2% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.5% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. The town has the Union County Public Library. Walter F. Bossert, Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan during the 1920s Ambrose Burnside, Union general in the Civil War Chad Collyer, professional wrestler and mentalist Jay Hall Connaway, realist painter known for painting landscapes of Maine Samuel Duvall, competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics Bob Jenkins, former NASCAR and IndyCar announcer In Episode 2 of Series 2 of BBC's Sherlock, "The Hounds of Baskerville", a CIA research project called H.
O. U. N. D. is discovered by Sherlock and John to have taken place in Liberty, during the 1980s. H. O. U. N. D. was devoted to developing an anti-personnel chemical weapon which produced fear and confusion in the target. The weapon caused the participants to go insane leading to a multiple homicide; this is implied to have resulted in the project being shut down
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 genera including such well-known and economically important plants such as ajwain, anise, caraway, celery, coriander, dill, hemlock, cow parsley, parsley and sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct; the family Apiaceae includes a significant number of phototoxic species and a smaller number of poisonous species. Some species in the family Apiaceae are cytotoxic. Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as Bupleurum fruticosum, their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. The leaves may be sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are sheathing and the leaves may be perfoliate.
The leaf blade is dissected, ternate or pinnatifid, but simple and entire in some genera, e.g. Bupleurum, their leaves emit a marked smell when crushed, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some species. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence, the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, that may be simple or more compound umbelliform cymes; the flowers are perfect and actinomorphic, but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in carrot and coriander, with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward. Some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or dioecious, with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx is highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, pink or purple; the flowers are nearly pentamerous, with five petals and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is variation in the functionality of the stamens within a single inflorescence.
Some flowers are functionally staminate. Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant is common; the gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. Stylopodia support two styles and secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, gnats, beetles and bees; the fruit is a schizocarp consisting of two fused carpels that separate at maturity into two mericarps, each containing a single seed. The fruits of many species are dispersed by wind but others such as those of Daucus spp. are covered in bristles, which may be hooked in sanicle Sanicula europaea and thus catch in the fur of animals. The seeds have an oily endosperm and contain essential oils, containing aromatic compounds that are responsible for the flavour of commercially important umbelliferous seed such as anise and coriander; the shape and details of the ornamentation of the ripe fruits are important for identification to species level. Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.
The name is derived from the type genus Apium, used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant. The alternative name for the family, derives from the inflorescence being in the form of a compound umbel; the family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison's 1672 Plantarum umbelliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published; the family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III system. It is related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited based on fruit morphology, the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses; the subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic. According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014, 434 genera are in the family Apiaceae.
The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, uses the family Apiaceae for food and host plants for oviposition. The 22-spot ladybird is commonly found eating mildew on these shrubs. Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. Parsnip and Hamburg parsley produce tap roots that are large enough to be useful as food. Many species produce essential oils in their leaves or fruits and as a result are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley, coriander and dill; the seeds may be used in cuisine, as with coriander, fennel and caraway. Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil, celery, sea holly, galbanum, anise, and
Mary Emily Eaton
Mary Emily Eaton was an English botanical artist best known for illustrating Britton & Rose's The Cactaceae, published between 1919 and 1923. Mary Emily Eaton was born on 27 November 1873 in Gloucestershire, she attended private schools in London and received formal tuition in art at the Taunton School of Art attending classes at the Royal College of Art in South Kensington, the Chelsea Polytechnic. She worked for a time as a painter of Worcester porcelain, before going to Jamaica in 1909 to visit her siblings. During her two-years stay, she began painting detailed studies of moths. In June 1911 Eaton left for New York City, where she would remain until January 1932, employed by The New York Botanical Garden. Among other duties, she was the principal illustrator for the Botanical Garden's journal Addisonia, painting over three-quarters of the 800 plates, she was the principal illustrator for Britton & Rose's monumental work The Cactaceae, her illustrations appeared in the National Geographic Magazine.
Contemporary authorities rated her work highly, one source calling her "the greatest of living wildflower painters" and another stating that one could not appreciate her talent from the sometimes mediocre reproductions of her work in Addisonia and other publications. She was awarded the silver-gilt Grenfell Medal of the Royal Horticultural Society twice, first in 1922 and again in 1950. In 1932, due to the Great Depression, Eaton lost her position at the Botanic Garden, after which she struggled to find enough work in America. In 1947, she returned to England, where she died on 4 August 1961 in Somerset. Many of her paintings are at the British Museum of Natural History; the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation has a number of her works. Six hundred of her watercolours are part of the permanent collections of the National Geographic Society, The New York Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Cacti - Nathaniel Lord Britton, Joseph Nelson Rose New York Botanic Garden broadcast 6.19 - 14.10 min 12 March 2019
Nathaniel Lord Britton
Nathaniel Lord Britton was an American botanist and taxonomist who co-founded the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx, New York. Britton was born in New Dorp in Staten Island, New York to Jasper Alexander Hamilton Britton and Harriet Lord Turner, his parents wanted him to study religion. He was a graduate of the Columbia University School of Mines and afterwards taught geology and botany at Columbia University, he was a member his entire life. He married Elizabeth Gertrude Knight, a bryologist, on August 27, 1885, they had met when she were lifelong collaborators in botanical research. During their honeymoon in 1888, they visited Kew Gardens, which led to his wife proposing a botanical garden for New York at a Torrey Club meeting. Together, they campaigned to bring about the NYBG. Britton left Columbia in 1895 to become the first director of the New York Botanical Garden, a position he held until 1929, he was on the first Board of Managers for the institution, along with Andrew Carnegie, J. Pierpont Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt II.
He engendered substantial financial support for the botanical garden by naming plants after wealthy contributors. Much of his field work was done in the Caribbean, where he visited when the winter weather in New York City became too severe, his contributions to the study of Caribbean flora are undisputed. He wrote Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and the British Possessions with Addison Brown, The Cactaceae with Joseph Nelson Rose. Britton is remembered as one of the signatories of the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature that proposed such radical changes to the rules governing nomenclature that a compromise was not reached until nearly 30 years later, he died at his home after suffering a stroke 9 weeks earlier. The house he lived and worked in, the Britton Cottage, is preserved at Historic Richmond Town on Staten Island. Britton, Nathaniel. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian.
Volume I, Ophioglossaceae to Aizoaceae. Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 612. Britton, Nathaniel. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume III, Apocynacea to Compositae. Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 643 pages. Retrieved 2008-06-24. Britton, Nathaniel. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume II, Amaranthaceae to Loganiaceae. Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 2052 pages. Retrieved 2008-05-10. Britton, Nathaniel Lord. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume III Gentianaceae to Compositae -- Gentian to Thistle.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 2008-06-17. Britton, Nathaniel; the Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. Carnegie Institution for Science. P. 263 pages. Retrieved 2008-05-10. A preliminary catalogue of the flora of New Jersey Et al. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian 3 volumes. With Addison Brown. Contributions to the botany of the Yukon Territory Et al. Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada The sedges of Jamaica Studies in West Indian plants Rhipsalis in the West Indies An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British possessions With Addison Brown; the vegetation of Mona Island Flora of Bermuda The flora of the American Virgin Islands Descriptions of Cuban plants new to science The Bahama flora With Charles Frederick Millspaugh. Neoabbottia, a new cactus genus from Hispaniola The Cactaceae online Works by or about Nathaniel Lord Britton at Internet Archive New York Botanical Garden bio of Britton National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir