Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Ntozake Shange was an American playwright and poet. As a Black feminist, she addressed issues relating to race and Black power in much of her work, she is best known for her Obie Award-winning play, For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow Is Enuf. She penned novels including Sassafrass, Cypress & Indigo and Betsey Brown, about an African-American girl runaway from home. Among Shange's honors and awards were fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and Lila Wallace Reader's Digest Fund, a Pushcart Prize. In April 2016, Barnard College announced. Shange lived in New York. Shange was born Paulette Linda Williams in New Jersey, to an upper-middle-class family, her father, Paul T. Williams, was an Air Force surgeon, her mother, Eloise Williams, was an educator and a psychiatric social worker; when she was aged eight, Shange's family moved to the racially segregated city of St. Louis; as a result of the Brown v. Board of Education court decision, Shange was bused to a white school where she endured racism and racist attacks.
Shange's family encouraged her artistic education. Among the guests at their home were Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, Chuck Berry, W. E. B. Du Bois. From an early age, Shange took an interest in poetry. While growing up with her family in Trenton, Shange attended poetry readings with her younger sister Wanda; these poetry readings fostered an early interest for Shange in the South in particular, the loss it represented to young Black children who migrated to the North with their parents. In 1956, Shange's family moved to St. Louis, where Shange was sent several miles away from home to a non-segregated school that allowed her to receive "gifted" education. While attending this non-segregated school, Shange faced overt harassment; these experiences would go on to influence her work. When Shange was 13, she returned to Lawrence Township, Mercer County, New Jersey, where she graduated from Lawrence High School. In 1966 Shange enrolled at Barnard College at Columbia University in New York City. During her time at Barnard, Shange met would-be poet Thulani Davis.
The two poets would go on to collaborate on various works. Shange graduated cum laude in American Studies earned a master's degree in the same field from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. However, her college years were not all pleasant, she married during her first year in college. Depressed over her separation and with a strong sense of bitterness and alienation, she attempted suicide. In 1971, having come to terms with her depression and alienation, Shange changed her name. In Xhosa, Ntozake means "she who has her own things" and Shange means "he/she who walks/lives with lions". In 1975, Shange moved back to New York City, after earning her master's degree in American Studies in 1973 from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California, she is acknowledged as having been a founding poet of the Nuyorican Poets Café. In that year her first and most well-known play was produced — for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf. First produced Off-Broadway, the play soon moved on to Broadway at the Booth Theater and won several awards, including the Obie Award, Outer Critics Circle Award, the AUDELCO Award.
This play, her most famous work, was a 20-part choreopoem — a term Shange coined to describe her groundbreaking dramatic form, combining of poetry, dance and song — that chronicled the lives of women of color in the United States. The poem was made into the stage play, was published in book form in 1977. In 2010, the choreopoem was adapted into a film. Shange subsequently wrote other successful plays, including Spell No. 7, a 1979 choreopoem that explores the Black experience, an adaptation of Bertolt Brecht's Mother Courage and Her Children, which won an Obie Award. In 1978, Shange became an associate of the Women's Institute for Freedom of the Press. WIFP is an American nonprofit publishing organization; the organization works to increase communication between women and connect the public with forms of women-based media. Shange taught in the Creative Writing Program at the University of Houston from 1984 to 1986. While there she wrote the ekphrastic poetry collection Ridin the Moon in Texas: Word Paintings and served as thesis advisor for poet and playwright Annie Finch.
In 2003, Shange wrote and oversaw the production of Lavender Lizards and Lilac Landmines: Layla's Dream while serving as a visiting artist at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Shange's individual poems and short stories have appeared in numerous magazines and anthologies, including The Black Scholar, Yardbird, Ms. Essence Magazine, The Chicago Tribune, VIBE, Daughters of Africa, Third-World Women; the Black Arts Movement—also known as BAM—has been described as the "aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept." The Black Arts Movement is a subset of the Black Power Movement. Larry Neal described the Black Arts Movement as a "radical reordering of the western cultural aesthetic." Key concepts of BAM were focused on a "separate symbolism, mythology and iconology" as well as the African American’s desire for "self-determination and nationhood." BAM consisted of actors, choreographers, novelists, poets and artists. Though male artists such as Amiri Baraka h
The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart is a autobiographical play by Larry Kramer. It focuses on the rise of the HIV/AIDS crisis in New York City between 1981 and 1984, as seen through the eyes of writer/activist Ned Weeks, the gay founder of a prominent HIV advocacy group. Ned prefers loud public confrontations to the calmer, more private strategies favored by his associates and closeted lover Felix Turner, their differences of opinion lead to frequent arguments that threaten to undermine their mutual goal. After a successful 1985 Off-Broadway production at The Public Theater, the play was revived in Los Angeles and London and again Off-Broadway in 2004. A Broadway debut opened in April 2011. Craig Donner Mickey Marcus Ned Weeks Dr. Emma Brookner Bruce Niles Felix Turner Ben Weeks Tommy Boatwright Hiram Keebler During the early 1980s, Jewish-American writer and gay activist Ned Weeks struggles to pull together an organization focused on raising awareness about the fact that an unidentified disease is killing off an oddly specific group of people: gay men in New York City.
Dr. Emma Brookner, a physician and survivor of polio, as a consequence of which she is using a wheelchair, is the most experienced with this strange new outbreak and bemoans the lack of medical knowledge on the illness, encouraging the abstinence of gay men for their own safety, since it is unknown yet how the disease is spread. Ned, a patient and friend of Brookner, calls upon his lawyer brother, Ben, to help fund his crisis organization. For the first time in his life, Ned falls in love, beginning a relationship with New York Times writer Felix Turner; the increasing death toll raises the unknown illness, now believed to be caused by a virus, to the status of an epidemic, though the press remains silent on the issue. A sense of urgency guides Ned who realizes that Ben is more interested in buying a two-million-dollar house than in backing Ned's activism. Ned explosively breaks off ties to his brother until Ben can accept Ned and his homosexuality. Ned next looks to Mayor Ed Koch's administration for aid in financing research about the epidemic, killing off hundreds of gay men, including some of Ned's personal friends.
Ned's organization elects as its president Bruce Niles, described as the "good cop" of gay activism, in comparison to Ned. Tensions between the two are clear, though they must work together toward the promotion of their organization. Felix, reveals to Ned his belief that he is infected with the mysterious virus. Although he continues to try to strengthen interactions with the mayor, Ned ruins his chances when his relentless and fiery personality appalls a representative sent by the mayor. Dr. Brookner takes the role of activist herself, noting the epidemic's appearance in other countries around the world and among heterosexual couples. Although she asks for government funding for further research, she is denied. In the meantime, Ned's conflict with Bruce comes to a head, their organization's board of directors expels Ned from the group, believing his unstable vehemence to be a threat to the group's attempts at more calm-mannered diplomacy; as Felix's condition worsens, he visits Ben Weeks in order to make his will and with a hope of reconciling Ben with his brother.
Felix soon dies and Ned blames himself for Felix's death, lamenting that he did not fight hard enough to have his voice heard. The mortality rate from HIV/AIDS is shown to continue increasing. After most performances of the 2011 revival of The Normal Heart, Kramer passed out a dramaturgical flyer detailing some of the real stories behind the play's characters. Kramer wrote that the character "Bruce" was based on Paul Popham, the president of the GMHC from 1981 until 1985. Like "Ned," Kramer himself helped to found several AIDS-activism groups, including Gay Men's Health Crisis and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, indeed experienced personal conflict with his lawyer brother, Arthur, it has been suggested that the model for'Felix' was John Duka, a New York Times style reporter who died of AIDS-related complications in 1989. Produced by Joseph Papp and directed by Michael Lindsay-Hogg, the play opened Off-Broadway at The Public Theater on April 21, 1985, ran for 294 performances; the original cast included Brad Davis as Ned and D. W. Moffett as Felix, with David Allen Brooks as Bruce Niles and Concetta Tomei as Dr. Emma Brookner.
Joel Grey replaced Davis in the run. During the original 1985 production, the set was simple with a small amount of furniture and the set walls consisted of white-washed plywood. All along these walls and the theatre walls, there were facts, newspaper headlines and names that were involved in the HIV/AIDS Epidemic painted in black. For example, one of the passages written on the set read, “During the first nineteen months of the epidemic, The New York Times wrote about it a total of seven times” and another passage read, “During the three months of
The Public Theater
The Public Theater is a New York City arts organization founded as the Shakespeare Workshop in 1954 by Joseph Papp, with the intention of showcasing the works of up-and-coming playwrights and performers. It is led by Executive Director Patrick Willingham; the venue opened in 1967, mounting the world-premiere production of the musical Hair as its first show. The Public is headquartered at 425 Lafayette Street in the former Astor Library in Lower Manhattan; the building holds five theater spaces and Joe's Pub, a cabaret-style venue used for new work, musical performances, spoken-word artists and soloists. The Public operates the Delacorte Theater in Central Park, where it presents Shakespeare in the Park, one of New York City's most beloved summer traditions. New York natives and visitors alike have been enjoying free Shakespeare in Central Park since performances began in 1954; the Public is dedicated to embracing the complexities of contemporary society and nurturing both artists and audiences, as it continues Joseph Papp's legacy of creating a place of inclusion and a forum for ideas.
Notable productions in recent years include: The Merchant of Venice, featuring Al Pacino as Shylock. In addition to each season of full-scale theatrical productions, The Public produces a number of different series and programs each year. In 2008, The Public presented its inaugural Public LAB series, an annual series of new plays presented in collaboration with LAByrinth Theater Company. Public LAB lets New Yorkers see more of the work they love from The Public in scaled-down productions, allows The Public to support more artists, as well as gives audiences immediate access to new plays in development at affordable prices. With each Public LAB show, corresponding speaker series are presented as after-show talkbacks to discuss prominent themes and topics in the plays. A number of plays that have appeared in the Public LAB series have gone onto full-scale productions, including Tracey Scott Wilson’s The Good Negro, which ran at The Public in 2009, Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson, which had a sold-out, thrice-extended off-Broadway run at The Public in the spring of 2010 and transferred to Broadway that fall.
Public LAB was expanded in 2011 to include Public LAB SHAKESPEARE, a vital new platform for The Public's ongoing exploration of the Shakespeare canon that continues the growth of The Public's Shakespeare Initiative and expand the many ways The Public produces American interpretations of Shakespeare. The premiere production of Public LAB SHAKESPEARE was Timon of Athens in March 2011, featuring Richard Thomas in the title role. In 2013, The Public launched the Mobile Shakespeare Unit run by Director of Special Artistic Projects Stephanie Ybarra, which tours free Shakespeare to various locations throughout the five boroughs, including prisons, homeless shelters, community centers, before concluding its run at the Public Theater itself. Past venues include Rikers Island, Borden Avenue's Veteran's Shelter, The Fortune Society; the Public launched its inaugural Public Works production in 2013. Public Works combines diverse groups of people throughout the five boroughs of New York City to watch theatre, participate in theatrical workshops, perform in one full-scale Public Works production alongside professional actors at Shakespeare in the Park.
Past Public Works productions include The Tempest, The Winter's Tale, The Odyssey. The Public Forum, begun in 2010, is an exciting series of lectures and conversations that showcase leading voices in the arts and the media. Curated by Jeremy McCarter, a senior writer at Newsweek, Public Forum events explore issues raised by plays in The Public's season, as well as the political and cultural headlines of today's world. In keeping with the best traditions of The Public, the Forum hosts a wide diversity of views and brings the theater into contact with the society around it. Notable participants in the series include Stephen Sondheim, Tony Kushner, Arianna Huffington, Alec Baldwin and Anne Hathaway; the Public hosts the annual Under the Radar Festival, a festival tracking new theater from around the world. Over the last 12 years, The Public's Under the Radar Festival has presented over 194 companies from 40 countries, it has grown into a landmark of the New York City theater season and is a vital part of The Public's mission, providing a high-visibility platform to support artists from diverse backgrounds who are redefining the act of making theater.
Recognized as a premier launching pad for new and cutting-edge performance from the U. S. and abroad, UTR has presented works by such respected artists as Elevator Repair Service, Gob Squad, Belarus Free Theatre, Young Jean Lee. These artists provide a snapshot of theater today: richly distinct in terms of perspectives and social practice, pointing to the future of the art form; the Public serves as the home of the Emerging Writers Group, which seeks to target playwrights at the earliest stages in their careers. In so doing, The Public hopes to create an artistic home for a diverse and exceptionally talented group of up-and-coming playwrights. Through the Emerging Writers Group, The Public continues its rich legacy of supporting current and future generations of our country's most important writers via The Public Writers Initiative – a long-term initiative that provides key support and resources for writers at every stage of their careers; the Public Writers Initiative creates a fertile community and fosters a web of supportive artistic relationships acros
Lady Macbeth is a leading character in William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth. The wife of the play's tragic hero, Lady Macbeth goads her husband into committing regicide, after which she becomes queen of Scotland. However, she suffers pangs of guilt for her part in the crime, which drives her to sleepwalk, she dies off-stage in an apparent suicide. According to some genealogists, Lady Macbeth and King Duncan's wife were siblings or cousins, where Duncan's wife had a stronger claim to the throne than Lady Macbeth, it was this that incited her hatred of Duncan. The character's origins lie in the accounts of Kings Duff and Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles, a history of Britain familiar to Shakespeare. Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appears to be a composite of two separate and distinct personages in Holinshed's work: Donwald's nagging, murderous wife in the account of King Duff and Macbeth's ambitious wife Gruoch of Scotland in the account of King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is a powerful presence in the play, most notably in the first two acts.
Following the murder of King Duncan, her role in the plot diminishes. She becomes an uninvolved spectator to Macbeth's plotting and a nervous hostess at a banquet dominated by her husband's hallucinations, her sleepwalking scene in the fifth act is a turning point in the play, her line "Out, damned spot!" has become a phrase familiar to many speakers of the English language. The report of her death late in the fifth act provides the inspiration for Macbeth's "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" speech. Analysts see in the character of Lady Macbeth the conflict between femininity and masculinity as they are impressed in cultural norms. Lady Macbeth suppresses her instincts toward compassion and fragility — associated with femininity — in favour of ambition and the singleminded pursuit of power; this conflict colours the entire drama and sheds light on gender-based preconceptions from Shakespearean England to the present. The role has attracted countless notable actors over the centuries, including Sarah Siddons, Charlotte Melmoth, Helen Faucit, Ellen Terry, Jeanette Nolan, Vivien Leigh, Simone Signoret, Vivien Merchant, Glenda Jackson, Francesca Annis, Judith Anderson, Judi Dench, Renee O'Connor, Keeley Hawes, Alex Kingston and Marion Cotillard and Hannah Taylor-Gordon Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appeared to be a composite of two personages found in the account of King Duff and in the account of King Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles.
In the account of King Duff, one of his captains, suffers the deaths of his kinsmen at the orders of the king. Donwald considers regicide at "the setting on of his wife", who "showed him the means whereby he might soonest accomplish it." Donwald perseveres at the nagging of his wife. After plying the king's servants with food and drink and letting them fall asleep, the couple admit their confederates to the king's room, where they commit the regicide; the murder of Duff has its motivation in revenge rather than ambition. In Holinshed's account of King Duncan, the discussion of Lady Macbeth is confined to a single sentence: "The words of the three Weird Sisters greatly encouraged him hereunto. Not found in Holinshed are the invocation to the "spirits that tend on mortal thoughts," the sleepwalking scene, various details found in the drama concerning the death of Macbeth. Lady Macbeth makes her first appearance late in scene five of the first act, when she learns in a letter from her husband that three witches have prophesied his future as king.
When King Duncan becomes her overnight guest, Lady Macbeth seizes the opportunity to effect his murder. Aware her husband's temperament is "too full o' the milk of human kindness" for committing a regicide, she plots the details of the murder; the king retires after a night of feasting. Lady Macbeth lays daggers ready for the commission of the crime. Macbeth kills the sleeping king; when he brings the daggers from the king's room, Lady Macbeth orders him to return them to the scene of the crime. He refuses, she smears the drugged attendants with blood. The couple retire to wash their hands. Following the murder of King Duncan, Lady Macbeth's role in the plot diminishes; when Duncan's sons flee the land in fear for their own lives, Macbeth is appointed king. Without consulting his queen, Macbeth plots other murders in order to secure his throne, and, at a royal banquet, the queen is forced to dismiss her guests when Macbeth hallucinates. In her last appearance, she sleepwalks in profound torment, she dies off-stage, with suicide being suggested as its cause, when Malcolm declares that she died by "self and violent hands."
In the First Folio, the only source for the play, she is never referred to as Lady Macbeth, but variously as "Macbeth's wife", "Macbeth's lady", or just "lady". The sleepwalking scene is one of the more celebrated scenes from Macbeth, indeed, in all of Shakespeare, it has no counterpart in Holinshed's Chronicles, Shakespeare's source material for the play, but is the bard's invention. A. C. Bradley notes that, with the exception of the scene's few closing lines, the scene is in prose with Lady Macbeth being the only major character in Shakespearean tragedy to make a last appearance "denied the dignity of verse." According to Bradley
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
The Obie Awards or Off-Broadway Theater Awards are annual awards given by The Village Voice newspaper to theatre artists and groups in New York City. In September 2014, the awards were jointly presented and administered with the American Theatre Wing; as the Tony Awards cover Broadway productions, the Obie Awards cover Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway productions. The Obie Awards were initiated by Edwin Fancher, publisher of The Village Voice, who handled the financing and business side of the project, they were first given in 1956 under the direction of theater critic Jerry Tallmer. Only Off-Broadway productions were eligible; the first Obie Awards ceremony was held at Helen Gee's cafe. With the exception of the Lifetime Achievement and Best New American Play awards, there are no fixed categories at the Obie Awards, the winning actors and actresses are all in a single category titled "Performance." There are no announced nominations. Awards in the past have included performance, best production, special citations, sustained achievement.
Not every category is awarded every year. The Village Voice awards annual Obie grants to selected companies. There is a Ross Wetzsteon Grant, named after its former theater editor, in the amount of $2,000, for a theatre that nurtures innovative new plays; the first awards in 1955-1956 for plays and musicals were given to Absalom as Best New Play, Uncle Vanya, Best All-Around Production and The Threepenny Opera as Best Musical. Other awards for Off-Broadway theatre are the Lucille Lortel Awards, the Drama Desk Awards, the Drama League Award, the Outer Critics Circle Awards; as of September 2014, the Obie Awards are jointly presented by the American Theatre Wing and the Village Voice, with the Wing having "overall responsibility for running" the Awards. Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actress Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actor Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Ensemble Sustained Achievement Award Best New American Theatre Work Award Playwriting Award Design Award Special Citations Obie Grants The Ross Wetzsteon Award Obie Award ceremonies have been held at Webster Hall in Manhattan's East Village since the 2010-2011 season.
Winners from Infoplease.com "OBIE winners, 2011–2012", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2012–2013", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2013–2014", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2014–2015", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2015–2016", playbill.com OBIE winners, 2017 OBIE winners, 20182010s 2000s Obie Grants are awarded each year to select theatre companies. Previous recipients include: Ross Wetzsteon Award is a $2,000 grant awarded to a theatre that nurture innovative new plays. Previous recipients include: Official website