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Joseph Pennell

Joseph Pennell was an American artist and author. Pennell was born in Philadelphia, first studied there, but like his friend James McNeill Whistler he made his home in London, taught at Slade School of Art, he won a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle, 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He taught at the Art Students League of New York. Pennell made etchings, his main distinction is as an original etcher and lithographer, notably as an illustrator. He wrote and illustrated an anti-Semitic travel book, The Jew at Home: Impressions of a Summer and Autumn Spent with Him, based on his travels in Europe, he produced many of them in collaboration with his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell. In 1886 he published Two Pilgrim's Progress, an illustrated book of his journey with Elizabeth from Florence to Rome, riding a heavy tricycle; the Pennells wrote a biography of Whistler in 1906, after some litigation with his executrix on the right to use his letters, the book was published in 1908. In 1912, Pennell traveled to Panama to create lithographs of the Panama Canal, still under construction.

Pennell visited San Francisco in March 1912, where he undertook a series of "municipal subjects". These were exhibited in December 1912 at "the prestigious gallery of Vickery, Atkins & Torrey", it is possible that Pennell's visit inspired San Francisco printmakers Robert Harshe and Pedro Lemos, along with sculptor Ralph Stackpole and painter Gottardo Piazzoni, to found the California Society of Etchers in 1912, now the California Society of Printmakers. Pennell designed the poster for the fourth Liberty Loans campaign of 1918, it showed the entrance to New York Harbor under aerial and naval bombardment, with the Statue of Liberty destroyed. In 1880 Joseph Pennell created Little Wakefield, an etching of the Little Wakefield estate; the building is a home located on what is now South Campus of La Salle University, is called St. Mutiens hall; this estate was occupied by his families for generations. The etching depicts. During World War I it was used as demonstration center for a local branch of the National League of Women's Service.

Little Wakefield was the location where Thomas R. Fisher ran the first knitting factory in America; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pennell, Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by Joseph Pennell at Project Gutenberg Works by Joseph Pennell at Faded Page Works by or about Joseph Pennell at Internet Archive The Winterthur Library Overview of an archival collection on Joseph Pennell. Joseph and Elizabeth R. Pennell's papers at the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin Joseph Pennell: an account by his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell, issued on the occasion of a memorial exhibition of his works, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Finding aid for the Pennell family papers from the University of Pennsylvania Libraries Texts on Wikisource: "Pennell, Joseph". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Pennell, Joseph". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Pennell, Joseph".

New International Encyclopedia. 1905

Abbey Fields

Abbey Fields is a 68-acre park, found in the centre of Kenilworth, England. The park was once farmland belonging to St Mary's Abbey, dissolved in the middle of the sixteenth century and is now ruined. St Nicholas Church, with origins from the twelfth century, remains in the park; the park is now maintained by Warwick District Council and has a leisure-centre complex which includes indoor and outdoor swimming pools, five tennis courts and a large play area for children. Other features of the park include a cafe, the town's war memorial, a museum charting the history of the abbey, located in the old barn; as well as these manmade attractions, there is to be found a natural lake and Finham Brook, a tributary of the River Sowe. The volunteer-run organisation Friends of Abbey Fields works with the district council to maintain the park; as the largest park in the town, it hosts a number of well-known events each year, such as the Lions Club show, the town carnival, bonfire night events and the Boxing Day charity duck race.

It is an orienteering venue used by the Midlands club Octavian Droobers


Kristinehamn is a locality and the seat of Kristinehamn Municipality, Värmland County, with 17,839 inhabitants in 2010. Kristinehamn is situated by the shores of lake Vänern where the small rivers Varnan and Löt drain into the lake, it is a railroad and road transportation center. Nearby towns include Karlskoga and Karlstad and are located in the middle of Oslo and Gothenburg with 250 km to each of them; the location has had a resident population for centuries, at least since the stone age. The town was built alongside the bridge over river Varnan, its name was Broo until 1642, "Bro" means "Bridge" in Swedish. Kristinehamn got a Royal Charter for the first time in 1582 but lost it in 1584, regained it in 1642, changed its name in honour of the monarch Queen Christina of Sweden, it thus qualifies as one of Sweden's historical cities. Its city arms were designated with a bojort, a Dutch ship in use in the 17th century. By the shores of lake Vänern stands this 15 meter high Pablo Picasso statue at 59.273279°N 14.051522°E / 59.273279.

The statue was designed by Picasso, but built and inaugurated without him visiting the construction site. Picasso never visited Kristinehamn, its 15 meters make it the tallest Picasso Sculpture in the world The oldest runestone in the county of Värmland, the Järsberg Runestone with origin back to 500 AC, is located about 1 km outside the town of Järsberg. The latest interpretation of the runes was made by Sven B. F. Jansson. Quotation: "My name is "Ljuv". My name is "Ravn". Me "Eril" am making the runes". A pearl from the same period of time has been found in the area. Kristinehamn Church was designed by professor Carl Georg Brunius and was first opened in 1858; the church has a museum in the sanctuary gallery, worth a visit because of its unique architecture. The following sports clubs are located in Kristinehamn: IFK Ölme Bo Christian Larsson, an artist who works with large-sized drawings and performance art

Muthupet Lagoon

Muthupet Lagoon is located at the southern end of the Cauvery river delta on the Bay of Bengal, covering an area of 6,803.01 ha of which only 4% is occupied by well-grown mangroves. The rivers Paminiyar, Kilaithankiyar and other tributaries of the river Cauvery flow through Muthupet and adjacent villages. At the tail end, they form a lagoon before meeting the sea; the northern and western borders of the lagoon are occupied by muddy silt ground, devoid of mangroves. The mangroves beyond Muthupet lagoon are discontinuously found along the shore and extended up to Point Calimere. Muthupet mangrove forest was under the control of Chatram Department from 1853 to 1912; the Government of the Presidency of Madras Gazette shows, from 1923 to 1936, half of the revenue obtained from selling mangrove products was paid to the revenue department and the remaining half was spent to maintain the “Chatrams”. The Government declared the Muthupet mangrove forest as revenue forest in February 1937 and accordingly the mangrove forest was handed over to the forest department of the Madras Presidency.

The forest is maintained by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department. The entire mangrove forest is divided into Palanjur reserve forest, Thamarankottai reserve forest, Maravakkadu reserve forest, Vadakadu reserve forest, Thuraikadu reserve forest and Muthupet reserve forest; the word ` lagoon' refers to the shallow brackish water body that lies close to the sea. Muthupet reserve forest covers river creeks and the mudflats. Muthupet Lagoon is a spectacular natural creation, 8 km from nearby Muthupet town and can be reachable only by boat; the lagoon is shallow with the average of 1m depth. The bottom of the lagoon is formed of silt clay substratum; the tidal fluctuations can be observed well with the exposure of oyster beds and roots during low tide. The tidal fluctuations are playing a major role in dispersing the mangrove seeds. Dense mangroves cover the lagoon shore; the islets are found on western side. The salinity is controlling zonation of Muthupet mangrove forest. Avicennia marina is the conqueror of the forest, found as a single dominant species.

Southern side separates the lagoon from adjacent sea that leaves a permanent mouth of lagoon with seasonally opened shallow waterways. The width of mudflat is increased from lagoon mouth to the eastern direction; the mudflat looks like a desert in summer, but the presence of dead gastropods under the surface soil layer and the erosion of soil at the centre of mudflat reveal the submergence of mudflat during flood. There is a difference between the lagoon shore and seashore of the same mudflat, in the aspect of distance of mangroves from fluctuating water level; the mangroves have grown close to water level in lagoon side but not in seashore. The reason may be the difference in the nature of fine clayey silt deposition that carried by the rivers; the salt marshes are found as under herb as well as lining the inner side of the forest. In the degraded central part of the mudflat, the soft fine silt is found only around the salt marshes. But, the remaining barren ground is hard which may due to the erosion of surface silt by wind or floodwater.

Thousands of decomposed rooted trunks that found on the southeastern side of Muthupet lagoon are indicating the past, indiscriminate exploitation.. The density of mangroves in eastern side of Muthupet lagoon is comparatively lower than other areas. Tamil Nadu forest department has excavated several canals across the mudflat; each main canal which enhances the water movement between sea and lagoon, has several sub canals on either side with a substantial number of mangrove seedlings. The western side is not straight; this part of the lagoon lies near to Koraiyar river mouth with small mangrove patches. Charles R. C. Sheppard. Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation, Volume 2. Pergamon. P. 167. ISBN 978-0-08-043207-6. Pronab K. Banerjee. Oceanography for Beginners. Allied Publishers. P. 465. ISBN 978-81-7764-653-5


Crucifixion was a method of capital punishment in which the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation. The crucifixion of Jesus is central to Christianity, the cross is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches. Ancient Greek has two verbs for crucify: ana-stauro, from stauros and apo-tumpanizo "crucify on a plank", together with anaskolopizo. In earlier pre-Roman Greek texts anastauro means "impale". New Testament Greek uses four verbs, three of them based upon stauros translated "cross"; the most common term is stauroo, "to crucify". Prospegnumi, "to fix or fasten to, crucify" occurs only once at the Acts of the Apostles 2:23; the English term cross derives from the Latin word crux. The Latin term crux classically referred to a tree or any construction of wood used to hang criminals as a form of execution; the term came to refer to a cross. The English term crucifix derives from the Latin crucifixus or cruci fixus, past participle passive of crucifigere or cruci figere, meaning "to crucify" or "to fasten to a cross".

Crucifixion was most performed to dissuade its witnesses from perpetrating similar crimes. Victims were sometimes left on display after death as a warning to any other potential criminals. Crucifixion was intended to provide a death, slow, gruesome and public, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied with location and time period; the Greek and Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to many different forms of painful execution, including being impaled on a stake, or affixed to a tree, upright pole, or to a combination of an upright and a crossbeam. Seneca the Younger wrote: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground. In some cases, the condemned was forced to carry the crossbeam to the place of execution. A whole cross would weigh well over 135 kg, but the crossbeam would not be as burdensome, weighing around 45 kg; the Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate, had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion.

Upright posts would be fixed permanently in that place, the crossbeam, with the condemned person already nailed to it, would be attached to the post. The person executed may have been attached to the cross by rope, though nails and other sharp materials are mentioned in a passage by the Judean historian Josephus, where he states that at the Siege of Jerusalem, "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest". Objects used in the crucifixion of criminals, such as nails, were sought as amulets with perceived medicinal qualities. While a crucifixion was an execution, it was a humiliation, by making the condemned as vulnerable as possible. Although artists have traditionally depicted the figure on a cross with a loin cloth or a covering of the genitals, the person being crucified was stripped naked. Writings by Seneca the Younger state some victims suffered a stick forced upwards through their groin. Despite its frequent use by the Romans, the horrors of crucifixion did not escape criticism by some eminent Roman orators.

Cicero, for example, described crucifixion as "a most cruel and disgusting punishment", suggested that "the mention of the cross should be far removed not only from a Roman citizen's body, but from his mind, his eyes, his ears". Elsewhere he says, "It is a crime to bind a Roman citizen. What shall I say of crucifying him? So guilty an action cannot by any possibility be adequately expressed by any name bad enough for it."Frequently, the legs of the person executed were broken or shattered with an iron club, an act called crurifragium, frequently applied without crucifixion to slaves. This act hastened the death of the person but was meant to deter those who observed the crucifixion from committing offenses; the gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus says that the Roman soldiers who crucified the many prisoners taken during the Siege of Jerusalem under Titus, diverted themselves by nailing them to the crosses in different ways; this was the simplest available construction for killing the condemned.

However, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T or just below the top, as in the fo

New York Yankees Museum

The New York Yankees Museum is a sports museum located at Yankee Stadium on the main level at Gate 6. It is sponsored and presented by Bank of America and is dedicated to baseball memorabilia for the New York Yankees, it is a key attraction at the stadium, which opened in 2009. When the Yankees developed the new stadium, the museum was in its plans. Bronx Borough President Adolfo Carrión, Jr. called for the museum to function as a "Cooperstown South". A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, there are plans to add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees; the Yankees Ball Finder, a touch-screen computer in the museum, allows the viewer to look for Yankees alphabetically to find the location of their ball on the "Ball Wall". The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra. Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.

The final pitcher's plate and home plate used at the old stadium was the first at the new stadium. For the 2011 season, the Yankees added a showcase of World Series rings. During the season they opened an exhibit to honor George Steinbrenner; the jersey Derek Jeter wore during the game. Monument Park New York Yankees award winners and league leaders Yogi Berra Museum and Learning Center