Danny Lyons was, along with Danny Driscoll, the leader of the Whyos street gang during the 1870s and 1880s. A prominent member of the Whyos Gang, a New York City street gang, Lyons led the gang with co-leader Danny Driscoll at their height during the late nineteenth century. Lyons, hired for crimes ranging from assault to murder supported three prostitutes, Lizzie the Dove, Bunty Kate, Gentle Maggie; when the three women were unable to earn enough money Lyons hired Kitty McGown away from rival pimp Joseph Quinn. Joseph Quinn soon began looking for Lyons and on July 5, 1887, Lyons killed Quinn during a gunfight between them. Lyons was captured several months and, while it seemed to be self-defense on the part of Lyons, he was executed by hanging on August 21, 1888. However, it has been suspected local authorities used the incident as an excuse to execute the well known criminal. While Kitty McGown and Bunty Kate found another pimp, Lizzie the Dove and Gentle Maggie went into mourning; the two got into an argument while toasting Lyons at a Bowery tavern and Gentle Maggie stabbed Lizzie the Dove in the throat, killing her.
As Lizzie the Dove lay dying she was said to have told Gentle Maggie that she would "meet you in hell and there scratch your eyes out". Danny Lyons was executed in The Tombs Prison in New York City on August 21, 1888. List of individuals executed in Carl. Encyclopedia of American Crime, New York. Facts on File Inc. 1982
The Whyos or Whyos Gang, a collection of the various post-Civil War street gangs of New York City, was the city's dominant street gang during the mid-late 19th century. The gang controlled most of Manhattan from the late 1860s until the early 1890s, when the Monk Eastman Gang defeated the last of the Whyos; the name came from the gang's cry, which sounded like a bird or owl calling, "Why-oh!" Consisting of criminals ranging from pickpockets to murderers, the Whyos were formed from what remained of the old Five Points street gangs following the New York City Police Department campaigns against gang activity from 1866–1868. Forming from members of the Chichesters, the gang soon began absorbing other former rivals and soon dominated New York's Fourth Ward, an Irish slum notorious for its crime, by the early 1870s; the Whyos had several leaders, but longest reigning were Danny Lyons, his girlfriend and Danny Driscoll. The members were predominantly Irish but, unlike the previous Irish gangs, victimized anyone, not just white Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
Driscoll and Lyons decreed that in order to be a real Whyo, the person must have killed at least once. They were so powerful that most of the other gangs at the time had to ask their permission to operate; the headquarters shifted many times throughout the years: "Dry Dollar" Sullivan's Chrystie Street saloon, a churchyard at Prince and Mott Streets, its original headquarters the notorious Bowery dive known as The Morgue. The tavern was the scene of at least 100 violent murders in its early years, as hour-long gunfights between drunken gang members would occur. During the 1870s, the gang would include some of the most notorious gangsters of the era, including Red Rocks Farrell, Clops Connolly, "Big" Josh Hines, Hoggy Walsh, Piker Ryan, Dorsey Doyle, Bull Hurley, Fig McGerald, Googy Corcoran. Many of the gangsters were among the first to use present day methods that would be adopted by rival gangs, organized crime organizations in the early twentieth century. One notable example is Josh Hines seen wearing a pair of pistols, who would arrive at illegal gambling dens and faro games demanding a percentage of the night's profits from the owners.
While being questioned by a police detective regarding the extortion activities when several owners complained, Hines was said to have replied, "Those guys must be nuts! Don't I always leave'em somethin'? All I want is me fair share." Another prominent member, "Dandy" Johnny Dolan, is noted for inventing several unique gang weapons including a set of shoes in which pieces of an ax blade were embedded and a copper eye gouger, first used in a robbery in the summer of 1875. As he attempted to rob a local jewelry store, the owner James H. Noe attempted to stop Dolan and was beaten with an iron crowbar. Dolan proceeded to use the eye gouger on Noe, taking the eyes with him. Showing them off to friends, the eyes were found in Dolan's possession while being interrogated by Police Detective Joseph M. Dorsey, he was convicted of murder, hanged at Tombs Prison on April 21, 1876. The Whyos, at their peak by the late 1870s and early 1880s, were led by Mike McGloin who began moving the gang into extortion and murder for hire.
McGloin implemented one requirement for prospective members to commit at least one murder stating in 1883: "A guy ain't tough until he has knocked his man out!" Aside from committing many crimes, the Whyos offered specific criminal services for a price. The following list was found on Piker Ryan when he was arrested by the NYPD in 1884. Punching $1 Both eyes blacked $3 Nose and jaw broke $7 Jacked out $15 Ear chewed off $15 Leg or arm broke $19 Shot in the leg $20 Stab $22.00 "Doing the big job" $100 and upIn 1884, McGloin was arrested for the murder of saloon owner Louis Hanier and hanged at Tombs Prison on March 8 of that year. Danny Driscoll and Danny Lyons jointly led the gang by 1887. In 1888 Driscoll was hanged on January 23 for a murder, Lyons was hanged for another murder on August 21. With the deaths of Driscoll and Lyons, the gang never regained its former status as its members were imprisoned or killed; as Monk Eastman and the Five Points Gang came to prominence in the mid-1890s, many gangs began working with Tammany Hall providing considerable political protection.
However, the Whyos continued their violent activities ending in their last great battle between fellow Whyos as members Denver Hop and English Charley began fighting over shares of a recent robbery. As they began shooting at each other, a major gunfight involving at least 20 other members began. No one was injured however, as all had been intoxicated, as the press reported the Morgue's owner had felt the gangs had been silly to think they would hit anything after drinking his liquor; the last of the Whyos were broken up by the Monk Eastman Gang, who maintained control over Manhattan for the next decade. The Whyos were featured, in Elizabeth Gaffney's 2005 novel Metropolis. A story featuring the Whyos Gang was published in the comic book Real Clue Crime Stories in July 1947. A contemporary version of the Whyos appear in issues #16 and #23 of Marvel's Moon Knight volume 2. Whyos and Monk Eastman in PC-game "EMPYRE Lords of the Sea Gates". Asbury, Herbert; the Gangs of New York. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927.
ISBN 1-56025-275-8 K
Catch wrestling is a classical hybrid grappling style and combat sport developed in Britain circa 1870 by J. G Chambers, it was popularized by wrestlers of travelling funfairs who developed their own submission holds, or "hooks", into their wrestling to increase their effectiveness against their opponents. Catch wrestling derives from a number of different styles, the English styles of Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling and Devon wrestling, Lancashire wrestling, Irish collar-and-elbow wrestling; the training of some modern submission wrestlers, professional wrestlers and mixed martial artists is founded in catch wrestling. In 1871, John Graham Chambers, of aquatic and pedestrian celebrity, sometime editor of Land and Water, endeavored to introduce and promote a new system of wrestling at Little Bridge Grounds, West Brompton, which he denominated, "The Catch-as-catch-can Style." The new idea met with little support at the time, a few years afterward Chambers was induced to adopt the objectionable fashion of allowing the competitors to wrestle on all-fours on the ground.
This new departure was the forerunner of the total abolition of the sport at that athletic, within a short period the wrestling, as an item in the program. Various promoters of the exercise, notably J. Wannop, of New Cross, attempted to bring the new system prominently before the public, with the view of amalgamating the three English styles viz. the Cumberland and Westmorland and Devon, Lancashire. The sudden development of the Cumberland and Westmorland Amateur Wrestling Society, brought the new style prominently to the front, special prizes were given for competition in that class at the society's first annual midsummer gathering at the Paddington Recreation Ground, attended by Lord Mayor Whitehead and sheriffs in state. Wrestling on the "catch-as-catch-can" principle was new to many spectators, but it was approved of as a great step in advance of the loose-hold system, which includes struggling on the ground and sundry objectionable tactics, such as catching hold of the legs, twisting arms, dislocating fingers, other items of attack and defense peculiar to Lancashire wrestling.
When catch wrestling reached the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century it became popular with the wrestlers of the carnivals. The carnival's wrestlers challenged the locals as part of the carnival's "athletic show" and the locals had their chance to win a cash reward if they could defeat the carnival's strongman by a pin or a submission; the carnival's wrestlers began preparing for the worst kind of unarmed assault and aiming to end the wrestling match with any tough local and decisively via submission. A hook was a technical submission; as carnival wrestlers travelled, they met with a variety of people and using techniques from various other folk wrestling disciplines Irish Collar & Elbow, many of which were accessible due to a huge influx of immigrants in the United States during this era. Catch wrestling contests became immensely popular in Europe involving the likes of the Indian national wrestling champion Great Gama, Imam Baksh Pahalwan, Bulgarian world heavyweight champion Dan Kolov, Swiss champion John Lemm, Americans Frank Gotch, Tom Jenkins, Ralph Parcaut, Ad Santel, Ed Lewis, Lou Thesz and Benjamin Roller, Mitsuyo Maeda from Japan, Georg Hackenschmidt from Russia.
The British term "catch as catch can" is understood to mean "catch anywhere you can". As this implies, the rules of catch wrestling were more open than the earlier Folk styles it was based on and its French Greco-Roman counterpart which did not allow holds below the waist. Catch wrestlers can win a match by either submission or pin, most matches are contested as the best two of three falls, but not always, the chokehold was barred. Just as today "tapping out" signifies a concession as does shouting out "Uncle!", back in the heyday of catch wrestling rolling to one's back could signify defeat. Frank Gotch won many matches by forcing his opponent to roll over onto their back with the threat of his toe-hold; some matches however didn't include pins as a way to win but they were used for control and to get submissions However, in traditional catch wrestling, hooks are used rather than submissions. Hooks are a form of submission where the submission may be executed so fast that the loser has no time to tap out, hooks were derived from the Rough & Tumble mindset.
Therefore, another name for a catch wrestler is a "hooker." A "hook" can be defined as an undefined move that stretches, spreads or compresses any joint or limb. Catch wrestling techniques may include, but are not limited to: the arm bar, Japanese arm bar, straight arm bar, bar hammerlock, wrist lock, top wrist lock, double wrist lock, head scissors, body scissors, chest lock, abdominal lock, abdominal stretch, leg lock, knee bar, ankle lock, heel hook, toe hold, half Nelson, full Nelson and infinitely many others. Many of such novel techniques came from cross cultural exchanges with Jujutsu proponents. All moves have their own variations and different predicaments they can be pulled off in; the rules of catch wrestling would change from venue to venue. Matches contested with side-bets at the coal mines or logging camps favoured submission wins where there was no doubt as to who the winner was. Meanwhile, professionally booked matches and amateur contests favoured pins that catered to the broader and more gentle paying fan-base.
The impact of catch wrestling on modern-day amateur wrestling is well established. In the film Catch: The Hold
Second Avenue (Manhattan)
Second Avenue is located on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan extending from Houston Street at its south end to the Harlem River Drive at 128th Street at its north end. A one-way street, vehicular traffic on Second Avenue runs southbound only, except for a one-block segment of the avenue in Harlem. South of Houston Street, the roadway continues as Chrystie Street south to Canal Street. A bicycle lane in the left hand portion from 55th to 34th Street closes a gap in the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway; the bike lane extends from 125th Street all the way down to Houston Street. Second Avenue passes through a number of Manhattan neighborhoods including the Lower East Side, the East Village, Stuyvesant Square, Kips Bay, Tudor City, Turtle Bay, East Midtown, Lenox Hill and Spanish Harlem. Downtown Second Avenue in the Lower East Side was the home to many Yiddish theatre productions during the early part of the 20th century, Second Avenue came to be known as the "Yiddish Theater District", "Yiddish Broadway", or the "Jewish Rialto".
Although the theaters are gone, many traces of Jewish immigrant culture remain, such as kosher delicatessens and bakeries, the famous Second Avenue Deli. The Second Avenue Elevated train line ran above Second Avenue the full length of the avenue north of 23rd Street, stood from 1880 until service was ended on June 13, 1942. South of Second Avenue, it ran on First Avenue and Allen and Division Street; the elevated trains were noisy and dirty. This depressed land values along Second Avenue during the late early 20th centuries; because of the presence of the El, most buildings constructed during this era were working class tenements. The line was torn down in 1942 because it was deteriorated and obsolete, the cost of World War II made upkeep impossible. Second Avenue maintains its modest architectural character today, despite running through a number of high income areas. Second Avenue has carried one-way traffic since June 4, 1951, before which it carried traffic in both the northbound and southbound directions.
On March 26, 2015, a gas explosion and resulting fire in the East Village destroyed three buildings at 119, 121 and 123 Second Avenue, between East 7th Street and St. Marks Place. At least twenty-two people were injured, four critically, two people were listed as missing. Two men were found dead in the debris of the explosion and were confirmed to be the ones listed as missing. There had been an illegal tap installed into the gas line feeding 121 Second Avenue. In the days before the explosion, work was ongoing in the building for the installation of a new 4-inch gas line to service the apartments in 121, some of the tenants had smelled gas an hour before the explosion. Eleven other buildings were evacuated as a result of the explosion, Con Ed turned off the gas to the area. Several days some residents were allowed to return to some of the vacated buildings; the M15 local serves the entirety of Second Avenue. The M15 Select Bus Service, the Select Bus Service equivalent of the local M15 bus, provides bus rapid transit service along Second Avenue southbound.
Additionally, the M34A Select Bus Service runs along Second Avenue between East 34th Street and East 23rd Street en route to Waterside Plaza. The Q train serves Second Avenue from 96th Street to 72nd Street before turning onto 63rd Street with a stop at Lexington Avenue, which has an exit at Third Avenue. A Second Avenue Subway line has been planned since 1919, with provisions to construct it as early as 1929. Two short sections of the line have been completed over the years, serving other subway services, others sitting vacant underground. Portions have been leased from time to time by New York Telephone to house equipment serving the company's principal north-south communication lines which run under the Avenue. Isolated 1970s-era segments of the line, built without any infrastructure, exist between Pell and Canal Streets, between 99th–105th and 110th–120th Streets. Construction on Phase 1, which will extend from 125th Street to the Financial District via the T service, began on April 12, 2007.
Phase 1 connects the BMT 63rd Street Line with the new line north to stations at 72nd, 86th, 96th Streets, serving the Q train. Phase 1 opened on January 1, 2017. Phase 2, which would extend the line to East Harlem at 125th Street and Lexington Avenue, is expected to be completed between 2027 and 2029; when the whole Second Avenue subway line is completed, it is projected to serve about 560,000 daily riders. There are bike lanes along the avenue south of 125th Street. New York Songlines: Second Avenue, a virtual walking tour
Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, New York. It is located about 30 miles north of New York City on the east bank of the Hudson River. Sing Sing contains about 1,700 prisoners."Sing Sing" was derived from the "Sinck Sinck" Indian tribe from whom the land was purchased in 1685. In 1970, the name was changed to the "Ossining Correctional Facility," but it reverted to its original name in 1985. There are plans to convert the original 1825 cell block into a time-specific museum; the prison property is bisected by the Metro-North Railroad's four-track Hudson Line. Sing Sing was the fifth prison built by New York state; the first prison, Newgate Prison, was built in 1797 in Greenwich Village and a second one in 1816 called Auburn Prison. In 1824, the New York Legislature gave Elam Lynds, warden of Auburn Prison and a former Army captain, the task of constructing a new, more modern prison.
Lynds spent months researching possible locations for the prison, considering Staten Island, The Bronx, Silver Mine Farm, an area in the town of Mount Pleasant, located on the banks of the Hudson River. By May, Lynds had decided to build a prison on Mount Pleasant, near a small village in Westchester County named Sing Sing, whose name came from the Native American words "Sinck Sinck" which translates to "stone upon stone." The legislature appropriated $20,100 to purchase the 130-acre site, the project received the official stamp of approval. Lynds hand-selected 100 inmates from the Auburn prison for transfer and had them transported by barge via the Erie Canal and down the Hudson River to freighters. On their arrival on May 14, the site was "without a place to receive them or a wall to enclose them"; when it was opened in 1826, Sing Sing was considered a model prison, because it turned a profit for the state, by October 1828 it was completed. Lynds employed the Auburn system, it was the Prison Chaplain John Luckey around 1843, who held the Principal Keeper of Sing Sing, Elam Lynds, accountable to New York Governor William H. Seward and to President of the Board of Inspectors, John Edmonds, to have Lynds removed.
Chaplain Luckey proceeded to create a great religious library. His purpose was to teach correct moral principles, his religious library was challenged in 1844 when John Edmonds placed Eliza Farnham in charge of the women's ward at Sing Sing. 1844 was the year the New York Prison Association was inaugurated to monitor state prison administration. The NY Prison Association was made up of reformists interested in the rehabilitation and humane treatment of prisoners. Eliza Farnham was able to obtain the job on the recommendation of these reformists. Eliza Farnham overturned the silent practice in prison and introduced social engagement to shift concern more toward the future instead of dwelling on the criminal past, she included novels by Charles Dickens in Chaplain Luckey's religious library, novels the chaplain did not approve. This was the first documented expansion of the prison library to include emotional lessons from secular literature. Thomas Mott Osborne's tenure as warden of Sing Sing prison was dramatic.
Osborne arrived in 1914 with a reputation as a radical prison reformer. His report of a week-long incognito stay inside New York's Auburn Prison indicted traditional prison administration in merciless detail. Prisoners who had bribed officers and intimidated other inmates lost their privileges under Osborne's regime. One of them conspired with powerful political allies to destroy Osborne's reputation succeeding in getting him indicted for a variety of crimes and maladministration. After Osborne triumphed in court, his return to Sing Sing was a cause for wild celebration by the inmates. Another notable warden was Lewis Lawes, he was offered the position of warden in 1919, accepted in January 1920, remained for 20 years as Sing Sing's warden. While warden, Lawes brought about reforms and turned what was described as an "old hellhole" into a modern prison with sports teams, educational programs, new methods of discipline and more. Several new buildings were constructed during the years Lawes was warden.
Lawes died six years later. In 1943, the old cellblock was closed and the metal bars and doors were donated to the war effort. In 1989, the institution was accredited for the first time by the American Correctional Association, which established a set of national standards by which it judged every correctional facility. Today, Sing Sing houses more than 2,000 inmates, with about 1,000 people working there and 5,000 visitors per month; the original 1825 cellblock is no longer used and in 2002 plans were announced to turn this into a museum. In April 2011 there were talks of closing the prison in favor of real estate. In total, 614 men and women—including four inmates under federal death sentences—were executed by electric chair in the death row house with "Old Sparky," at Sing Sing until the abolition of the death penalty in 1972. High-profile executions include Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953, for espionage for the Soviet Union on nuclear weapon research. Puff on August 12, 1954, for murder of an FBI agent.
The last person executed in New York state was Eddie Lee Mays, for murder, on August 15, 1963. In 1972, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was unconstitutional if application was inconsistent and arbitrary; this led to a
Bellevue Hospital, founded on March 31, 1736, is the oldest public hospital in the United States. Located on First Avenue in the Kips Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, Bellevue Hospital is home to FDNY EMS Station 08 NYC EMS Station 13, it handles nearly 460,000 non-ER outpatient clinic visits, nearly 106,000 emergency visits and some 30,000 inpatients each year. More than 80 percent of Bellevue's patients come from the city's medically underserved populations; the hospital occupies a 25-story patient care facility with an ICU, digital radiology communication and an outpatient facility. The hospital has an attending physician staff of 1,200 and an in-house staff of about 5,500. Bellevue was renamed NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue in November 2015 as a reflection of its parent organization's rebranding. In 2014 Bellevue was ranked 40th overall in the New York metro area and 29th in New York City by U. S. News and World Report. Bellevue traces its origins to the city's first permanent almshouse, a two-story brick building completed in 1736 on the city common, now City Hall Park.
In 1798, the city purchased Belle Vue farm, a property near the East River several miles north of the settled city, used to quarantine the sick during a series of yellow fever outbreaks. When the grid system of streets was established in 1811, the survey had to take the hospital into account, the placement of First Avenue on the grid is due to the location of Bellevue; the hospital was formally named Bellevue Hospital in 1824. By 1787 Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons had assigned faculty and medical students to Bellevue. Columbia faculty and students would remain at Bellevue for the next 181 years, until the restructuring of the academic affiliations of Bellevue Hospital in 1968. New York University faculty began to conduct clinical instruction at the hospital in 1819. In 1849, an amphitheater for clinical teaching and surgery opened. In 1861, the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, the first medical college in New York with connections to a hospital, was founded. By 1873, the nation's first nursing school based on Florence Nightingale's principles opened at Bellevue, followed by the nation's first children's clinic in 1874 and the nation's first emergency pavilion in 1876.
For this reason the name Bellevue is sometimes used as a metonym for psychiatric hospitals. Bellevue initiated a residency training program in 1883; the Carnegie Laboratory, the nation's first pathology and bacteriology laboratory, was founded there a year followed by the nation's first men's nursing school in 1888. By 1892, Bellevue established a dedicated unit for alcoholics. In 1902, the administrative Bellevue and Allied Hospitals organization were formed by the city, under president John W. Brannan. B&AH included Gouverneur Hospital, Harlem Hospital, Fordham Hospital. B&AH opened doors to black physicians. In the midst of a tuberculosis epidemic a year the Bellevue Chest Service was founded. Bellevue opened the nation's first ambulatory cardiac clinic in 1911, followed by the Western Hemisphere's first ward for metabolic disorders in 1917. New York City's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner began on the second floor in 1918. German spy and saboteur Fritz Joubert Duquesne escaped the hospital prison ward in 1919 after having feigned paralysis for nearly two years.
PS 106, the first public school for the disturbed children located in a public hospital, opened at Bellevue in 1935. In 1939, David Margolis began work on nine Work Projects Administration murals in entrance rotunda titled Materials of Relaxation, which were completed in 1941. Bellevue became the site of the world's first hospital catastrophe unit the same year. In 1960. New York City's Office of the chief Medical Examiner moved out of the second floor and into its new building at 520 First Avenue, but still maintained close relations with Bellevue. In 1962, Bellevue established the first intensive care unit in a municipal hospital, in 1964, Bellevue was designated as the stand-by hospital for treatment of visiting presidents, foreign dignitaries, injured members of the City's uniformed services, United Nations diplomats. Bellevue joined the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation as one of 11 acute care hospitals in 1970. In 1981, Bellevue was certified as an official heart station for cardiac emergencies.
In 1990, it established an accredited residency training program in Emergency Medicine. The building that served as the hospital's psychiatric facility started to be used as a homeless intake center and a men's homeless shelter in 1998; the publication of the Bellevue Literary Review, the first literary magazine to arise from a medical center, commenced in 2001. In April 2010, plans to redevelop the former psychiatric hospital building as a hotel and conference center connected to NYU Langone Medical Center fell through; the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 required evacuation of all patients due to power failure and flooding in the basement generators. Multiple firsts were performed at Bellevue in its early years. In 1799, it opened t
New York Athletic Club
The New York Athletic Club is a private social club and athletic club in New York City. Founded in 1868, the club has 8,600 members and two facilities: the City House located at 180 Central Park South in Manhattan and Travers Island in Westchester County. Membership in the club is by invitation only; the club offers many sports, including rowing, boxing, fencing, basketball, rugby union, tennis, squash, snooker and water polo. The City House, located at 180 Central Park South, is a large, cavernous building built in the early twentieth century which offers panoramic views of Central Park. Designed by Charles W. Clinton, the 24-floor facility includes two restaurants, a cocktail lounge, ballroom, billiard room, meeting rooms, rooftop solarium, eight floors of guest rooms for members and club guests; the athletic training floors include a swimming pool, basketball courts, boxing rings, a fencing and wrestling room, judo floor, squash courts. Named for Wall Street businessman William R. Travers who arranged for its purchase in 1886, Travers Island is the NYAC's summer facility on Long Island Sound.
It consists of the main house, other buildings and facilities that sit on 30 acres of landscaped grounds. Centered around the Main House, the Olympic-sized salt water pool, accompanying cabanas, Travers Island extends the range of NYAC sports to include tennis, yachting, outdoor swimming and diving, a children's day camp, soccer and lacrosse. Travers Island is located in Westchester County, New York, straddles the border of New Rochelle and Pelham Manor, between Neptune Island, Glen Island, Hunter Island. In 1866, William Buckingham Curtis, Harry Buermeyer, John C. Babcock opened a gymnasium on the corner of 6th Avenue and 14th Street in their New York City apartment, after discussing the rapid rise of organized athletics in England. Interest in their gym grew, the three men decided to found the New York Athletic Club on September 8, 1868; the club was modeled after the London Athletic Club. Their goal was to sponsor athletic competitions in the New York area, to keep official records for different sports.
The NYAC was established on September 8, 1868. Its Constitution and Bylaws were adopted in December 1868. In the beginning there was no initiation fee. In 1879, at which time it had 170 members, it published rules in various amateur sports, including fencing and Greco-Roman wrestling; the NYAC can be considered the foundation for amateur athletics in the United States. It was the first organization to compile and apply a code of rules for the government of athletic meetings, the first to offer prizes for open amateur games, the first to hold an amateur championship. NYAC members have won 119 Olympic gold medals, 53 silver medals, 59 bronze medals. Presently, the NYAC has top-ranked competitors in wrestling, rowing, water polo and track and field, among other sports. Forty NYAC members competed for three countries at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, winning 16 medals; the NYAC's Mercury Cup series is the premier regional fencing event in North America. The series includes a number of épée and sabre tournaments, ending each season with the "Epeepalooza" and "Sabrage" events.
Competitors earn points based on final placements at each tournament, with the champion being the highest-ranked fencer at the conclusion of the season. Mercury Cup champions Individual event champions In November 2003, the club was the site of a four-game chess match between Garry Kasparov and the computer program X3D Fritz. In June 2004, the club played host to the final play-offs of the United States National Snooker Championship, in May 2017 it played host to the entire event; the NYAC fields 22 different teams for the following sports: The New York Athletic Club was once an all-male club. A New York City law was passed in 1984 requiring "the admission of women to large, private clubs that play an important role in business and professional life." In June 1988, this was unanimously upheld by the United States Supreme Court. After continuing to challenge the statute on the grounds that the club was not business oriented, the NYAC voluntarily admitted women members in 1989. There were claims, over the years, that the club discriminated against blacks and Jews.
In 1936, Olympian Marty Glickman was turned away in the lobby by the NYAC's Athletic Director when he sought to join his fellow runner and work out at the club. Glickman believed. In the mid-1950s, New York City Councilman Earl D. Brown, a Manhattan Democrat, refused to attend an outing at a NYAC facility, to protest the fact that the club: "discriminates against Negroes and Jews on its track team"; the Race Relations Reporter reported that a spokesman for the NYAC, Mr. Alfred Foster, "admitted that the club has no Jewish or Negro athletes on its teams". However, they reported the club secretary saying the club did have some Jewish members. In February 1962, New York City Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. quit the NYAC due to allegations that it barred blacks and Jews. Woody Allen had a joke about a Jewish couple, dressed as a moose and was shot and stuffed and mounted at the NYAC, with his punch line being "And the joke is on them, because it is restricted."In May 1964, the club was picketed by demonstrators from the Congress for Racial Equality who shouted slogans calling for integration of Negroes and Jews.
In the late 1960s, members of The Olympic Project for Human Rights organized black athletes to boycott events held at the NYAC on the grounds that the club excluded Blacks and Jews from membership. Olympian Byron Dyce, with the NYU track team and most Black a