Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and premier of the Soviet Union. Despite governing the Soviet Union as part of a collective leadership, he consolidated power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire, Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth, he edited the party's newspaper and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies and protection rackets. Arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo.
Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. Under Stalin, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Through the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialisation, creating a centralised command economy; this led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the state. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe; the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as global superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through the post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the doctors' plot. After Stalin's death in 1953 he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced his predecessor and initiated the de-Stalinisation of Soviet society. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, famines which killed millions. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori part of the Russian Empire and home to a mix of Georgian, Armenian and Jewish communities, he was born on 18 December 1878, baptised on 29 December. His parents, Besarion Jughashvili and Ekaterine Geladze, were ethnically Georgian, Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language, he was their only child to survive past infancy, was nicknamed "Soso", a diminutive of "Ioseb". Besarion owned his own workshop. Besarion became an alcoholic, drunkenly beat his wife and son. Ekaterine and Stalin left the home by 1883, began a wandering life, moving through nine different rented rooms over the next decade.
In 1886, they moved into the house of Father Christopher Charkviani. Ekaterine worked as a house cleaner and launderer, was determined to send her son to school. In September 1888, Stalin enrolled at a place secured by Charkviani. Although he got into many fights, Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, singing as a choirboy. Stalin faced several severe health problems. In August 1894, Stalin enrolled in the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate. Here he joined 600 trainee priests. Stalin gained high grades, he continued writing poetry. Thematically, they dealt with topics like nature and patriotism. According to Stalin's biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore they became "minor Georgian classics", were included in various anthologies
Olga Borisovna Sorokina is a Belarusian model, an owner and Creative Director of the defunct French fashion house IRFĒ. The company and the owners are under investigation in France and Russian Federation for fraud, with multiple arrest warrants issued by the Interpol. Olga Sorokina was born on January 1985 in Vitebsk. Father - Boris Sorokin, mother - Tatyana Sorokina. Younger sister - Tatyana Sorokina. Citizenship – Russian. At 17 years old, she was enrolled in a NEXT model agency. In 2005, Fashion TV named her model of the year, thereby winning the golden ticket to the world of fashion, she was working as a model in Moscow, New York, before the birth of her son Vadim in 2007. After reading the book of the fashion historian Alexander Vassilyev "Beauty in Exile" about Russian fashion houses that existed many years ago, Olga discovered the history of IRFĒ Fashion House. After an inspiring meeting with Xenia Sheremeteva-Sphiris, the granddaughter of the legendary founders of the IRFĒ fashion house, Felix Yussoupov and Irina Romanova at their family house in Paris, Olga decided to try herself "on the other side of the runway" as the creative director.
In July 2008, during Paris Couture Week, after an 80-year break period, a presentation was held at the Palais Tokyo about the revival of the legendary French fashion house IRFĒ, founded in 1924 in Paris by Prince Felix Yussoupov and the niece of Emperor Nicholas II, Princess Irina Romanova. In 2009, the design studio and the Maison IRFĒ showroom were established by Olga in Paris on rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, 4. IRFĒ's collections are sold in more than 50 stores in 20 countries around the world. In March 2010, the first Maison IRFĒ corner opened in Moscow in Barvikha, DLT and a store on the island of Capri. In October 2013, due to the 400th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, Olga presented the first runway show of the Maison IRFĒ collection during Paris Fashion week. Olga Sorokina Official Site Olga Sorokina on Facebook Olga Sorokina in Instagram
The Conanicut Battery is a colonial and 20th century military battery in Jamestown, Rhode Island, west of Beaver Tail Road. The site offers a commanding view of the West Passage of Narragansett Bay. During the American Revolutionary War, local militia constructed an earthen battery on the site; the British occupied Jamestown that year and took over the site, occupying the space until August 1778 when the French fleet arrived. Its principal surviving feature is an earthworks measuring about 150 feet 75 feet wide; the site is marked by a plaque placed by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1931. During the early 20th century, the U. S. military built large underground defensive batteries in the area, notably Fort Getty and Fort Burnside. The 22-acre site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, it is now operated as Conanicut Battery National Historic Park. The Friends of Conanicut Battery and the Jamestown Historical Society are active in preserving the fort. National Register of Historic Places listings in Newport County, Rhode Island Conanicut Battery information Spring 2012 Conanicut Battery information Spring 2017 Conanicut Battery at Jamestown Historical Society Conanicut Battery at American Forts Network Conanicut Battery at FortWiki.com