Ohio State University
The Ohio State University referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, the university was known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then-Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "The Ohio State University", it has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States. Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State operates regional campuses in Lima, Marion and Wooster; the university has an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. Athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals.
The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. The Ohio State men's ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. OSU is one of only 14 universities; the proposal of a manufacturing and agriculture university in central Ohio was met in the 1870s with hostility from the state's agricultural interests and competition for resources from Ohio University, chartered by the Northwest Ordinance, Miami University. Championed by the Republican stalwart Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, The Ohio State University was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university under the Morrill Act of 1862 as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the school was within a farming community on the northern edge of Columbus. While some interests in the state had hoped the new university would focus on matriculating students of various agricultural and mechanical disciplines, Hayes manipulated both the university's location and its initial board of trustees towards a more comprehensive end.
The university opened its doors to 24 students on September 17, 1873. In 1878, the first class of six men graduated; the first woman graduated the following year. In 1878, in light of its expanded focus, the Ohio legislature changed the name to "The Ohio State University", with "The" as part of its official name. Ohio State began accepting graduate students in the 1880s, in 1891, the school saw the founding of its law school, Moritz College of Law, it would acquire colleges of medicine, optometry, veterinary medicine and journalism in subsequent years. In 1916, Ohio State was elected into membership in the Association of American Universities. Michael V. Drake, former chancellor of the University of California, became the 15th president of The Ohio State University on June 30, 2014. Ohio State's 1,764-acre main campus is about 2.5 miles north of the city's downtown. The historical center of campus is a quad of about 11 acres. Four buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Hale Hall, Hayes Hall, Ohio Stadium, Orton Hall.
Unlike earlier public universities such as Ohio University and Miami University, whose campuses have a consistent architectural style, the Ohio State campus is a mix of traditional and post-modern styles. The William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library, anchoring the Oval's western end, is Ohio State library's main branch and largest repository; the Thompson Library was designed in 1913 by the Boston firm of Allen and Collens in the Italianate Renaissance Revival style, its placement on the Oval was suggested by the Olmsted Brothers who had designed New York City's Central Park. In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million renovation to maintain the building's classical Italian Renaissance architecture. Ohio State operates the North America's 18th-largest university research library with a combined collection of over 5.8 million volumes. Additionally, the libraries receive about 35,000 serial titles, its recent acquisitions were 16th among university research libraries in North America. Along with 21 libraries on its Columbus campus, the university has eight branches at off-campus research facilities and regional campuses, a book storage depository near campus.
In all, the Ohio State library system encompasses specialty collections. Some more significant collections include The Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, which has the archives of Admiral Richard E. Byrd and other polar research materials. Anchoring the traditional campus gateway at the eastern end of the Oval is the 1989 Wexner Center for the Arts. Designed by architects Peter Eisenman of New York and Richard Trott of Columbus, the center was funded in large part by Ohio State alumnus Leslie Wexner's gift of $25 million in the 1980s; the center was founded to encompass all aspects of visual and performing art
Yao Jen-to is the Vice Chairperson and Secretary-General of Straits Exchange Foundation since 21 June 2018. Yao obtained his bachelor's degree in sociology from National Taiwan University and doctoral degree from University of Essex in the United Kingdom. Yao had been working as a security adviser to President Tsai Ing-wen when, on 10 August 2016, he was appointed Deputy Secretary-General of the Presidential Office. On 20 June 2018 he resigned from the presidential office position and took the role of Vice Chairperson and Secretary-General of Straits Exchange Foundation the following day as confirmed by SEF spokesperson. In 2013 during a public forum, Yao as a member of Democratic Progressive Party made a statement that Taiwan independence movement has lost its popularity among the public in Taiwan and urged the Party to facilitate democratization in China by promoting Taiwan’s experiences in furthering democracy and human rights
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Taiwan)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a cabinet level policy-making body, governed under the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China. The fundamental purpose of the ministry is to promote and conduct bilateral foreign affairs with other nations, it is in charge of interactions between the Republic of China and foreign countries except the People's Republic of China, which falls under the jurisdiction of the Mainland Affairs Council. The current Foreign Minister is Joseph Wu. MOFA is composed of the following departmental structures: Secretariat Department of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Department of West Asian and African Affairs Department of European Affairs Department of North American Affairs Department of Latin American and Caribbean Affairs Department of Treaty and Legal Affairs Department of International Organizations Department of International Cooperation and Economic Affairs Department of International Information Services Department of Policy Planning Department of Protocol Department of General Affairs Department of Personnel Department of Civil Service Ethics Department of Accounting Department of Archives, Information Management and Telecommunications Public Diplomacy Coordination Council Department of NGO International Affairs The Office of Parliamentarian Affairs Bureau of Consular Affairs Institute of Diplomacy and International Affairs Taiwan–Japan Relations Association Coordination Council for North American Affairs Central Taiwan Office Southern Taiwan Office Eastern Taiwan Office Southwestern Taiwan Office According to statistics published by the Directorate-General of Budget and Statistics for Fiscal Year 2011, the budget for MOFA is equivalent to approx.
10.37% of the budget for the Ministry of National Defense. The MND budget for 2011 has been announced to be US$9.2 billion. Hence, an estimated MOFA budget figure for Fiscal Year 2011 is US$954 million; the Republic of China has diplomatic relations with 17 countries. Palau Tuvalu Marshall Islands Solomon Islands Kiribati Nauru Guatemala Paraguay Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Belize Haiti Nicaragua Honduras Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Swaziland Holy See For countries with which the Republic of China does not have formal diplomatic relations, representation is referred to as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office, Taipei Economic and Cultural Representatives Office or Taipei Representative Offices, which serve the same function as embassy or consulate. Embassy of the Republic of Nauru Embassy of Saint Christopher and Nevis Embassy of Belize Embassy of the Republic of Palau Embassy of the Republic of the Marshall Islands Embassy of the Republic of Honduras Embassy of the Soloman Islands Embassy of the Republic of Paraguay Embassy of the Kingdom of Eswatini Embassy of Vatican City The MOFA building is accessible by NTU Hospital Station of the Taipei Metro on the Red Line.
List of foreign ministers of the Republic of China Foreign relations of the Republic of China Official website of Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Chen Shui-bian is a retired Taiwanese politician and lawyer who served as President of the Republic of China from 2000 to 2008. Chen is the first president from the Democratic Progressive Party which ended the Kuomintang's 55 years of continuous rule in Taiwan, he is colloquially referred to as A-Bian. A lawyer, Chen entered politics in 1980 during the Kaohsiung Incident as a member of the Tangwai movement and was elected to the Taipei City Council in 1981, he was jailed in 1985 for libel as the editor of the weekly pro-democracy magazine Neo-Formosa, following publication of an article critical of Elmer Fung, a college philosophy professor, elected a Kuomintang legislator. After being released, Chen helped found the Democratic Progressive Party in 1986 and was elected a member of the Legislative Yuan in 1989, Mayor of Taipei in 1994. Chen won the 2000 presidential election on March 18 with 39% of the vote as a result of a split of factions within the Kuomintang, when James Soong ran for the presidency as an independent against the party nominee Lien Chan, becoming the first non-member of the Kuomintang to hold the office of president.
Although Chen received high approval ratings during the first few weeks of his term, his popularity dropped due to alleged corruption within his administration and the inability to pass legislation against the opposition KMT, who controlled the Legislative Yuan. In 2004, he won reelection by a narrow margin after surviving a shooting while campaigning the day before the election. Opponents suspected him of staging the incident for political purposes. However, the case was closed in 2005 with all evidence pointing to a single deceased suspect, Chen Yi-hsiung. In 2009, Chen and his wife Wu Shu-chen were convicted on two bribery charges. Chen was sentenced to 19 years in Taipei Prison, reduced from a life sentence on appeal, but was granted medical parole on January 5, 2015. Since Chen is de facto released but he is not allowed to give any public speaking because of having "medical treatments". Chen's supporters have insisted that his trial was an unfair and politically motivated retribution by the Kuomintang for his years in power.
Chen was born to an impoverished tenant farming family of Zhao'an Minnanese ethnicity in Guantian Township of Tainan County on the second day of the ninth lunar month in 1950 but was not formally issued a birth certificate until February 18, 1951 because of doubts that he would survive. Chen was educated in Mandarin Chinese, which had replaced Japanese as the national language following the end of the Japanese administration of Taiwan. Academically bright from a young age he graduated from the prestigious National Tainan First Senior High School with honors. In June 1969, he was admitted to National Taiwan University. A Business Administration major, he switched to Law in his first year and became editor of the school's law review, he passed the bar exams before the completion of his junior year with the highest score becoming Taiwan's youngest lawyer. He graduated in 1974 with an LL. B. in Commercial Law. In 1975, he married the daughter of a physician; the couple have a daughter, Chen Hsing-yu, a dentist.
From 1976 to 1989, Chen was a partner in Formosa International Marine and Commercial Law, specializing in maritime insurance. He held the firm's portfolio for Evergreen Marine Corporation. Chen became involved in politics in 1980 when he defended the participants of the Kaohsiung Incident in a military court. While his client Huang Hsin-chieh, the leading opposition dissident, seven co-defendants, including his future Vice President Annette Lu, were found guilty, Chen came to be known for his forceful and colorful arguments, he has stated that it was during this period that he realized the unfairness of the political system in Taiwan and became politically active as a member of the Tangwai movement. Chen won a seat in the Taipei City Council as a Tangwai candidate in 1981 and served until 1985. In 1984, he founded the pro-opposition Civil Servant Public Policy Research Association, which published a magazine called Neo-Formosa. On January 12, 1985, Chen was sentenced to a year in prison for libel as a result of his editorship of Neo-Formosa, following the publication of an article critical of Elmer Fung, a college philosophy professor.
While appealing the sentence, he returned to Tainan to run for county magistrate in November 1985. Three days after losing the election, his wife, Wu Shu-chen was hit twice by a hand tractor driven by Chang Jong-tsai as Chen and Wu were thanking their supporters, she was left paralyzed from the waist down. His supporters believed this was part of a government campaign to intimidate him, although another theory says it was a simple traffic accident. Chen lost his appeal in May 1986 and began serving eight months in the Tucheng Penitentiary along with Huang Tien-fu and Lee I-yang, two other defendants in the case. While he was in prison, his wife was elected to the Legislative Yuan. Upon his release, Chen practiced law. In 1989, Chen was elected to the Legislative Yuan and served as the executive director of the Democratic Progressive Party caucus. With the support of some KMT colleagues, Chen was elected convener of the National Defense Committee, he was instrumental in laying out and moderating many of the DPP's positions on Taiwan independence, including the four ifs.
He resigned in two years to become mayor. Chen was elected as the m
Ma Ying-jeou is a Taiwanese politician who served as President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2016. His previous political roles include Justice Mayor of Taipei, he was the Chairman of the Kuomintang between 2005–2007 and 2009–2014. Ma first won the presidency by 58.45% of the popular vote in the presidential election of 2008, was re-elected in 2012 with 51.6% of the vote. He was sworn into office as president on 20 May 2008, sworn in as the Chairman of the Kuomintang on 17 October 2009. Ma's term as president saw a significant increase of economic improvement in Taiwan and warm social connection with Mainland China, he became the first ROC Head of State to meet with a Communist Party General Secretary when he met Xi Jinping in Singapore in November 2015. Ma and his parents originate from Hunan Province in the Republic of China, but their ancestral home was in Fufeng, Shaanxi Province, his ancestors had migrated from Shaanxi to Jiangxi and finally to Hunan. He is a descendant of the Three Kingdoms era general Ma Chao, from Fufeng, Shaanxi.
Researchers had purportedly visited the old residence of Ma's father, Ma Ho-ling, in Kaiyun Town, Hengshan County, where they discovered a genealogy book stating that Ma descended from Ma Chao. His mother was Chin Hou-hsiu. Ma was raised Catholic, he was born in Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon, Hong Kong on 13 July 1950. His parents were in Hong Kong on the way from Hunan Province of Communist China to Nationalist-held Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War. In a family of five children, Ma was the only son. Ma earned his LL. B. degree from National Taiwan University in 1972. He served his compulsory military duty in the ROC Marine Corps and Navy from 1972 to 1974, obtaining the rank of lieutenant commander, he pursued advanced studies in the United States, first earning an LL. M. degree from New York University Law School in 1976 and an S. J. D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1981. An edited version of his thesis on the Senkaku Islands dispute was published in 1984. After receiving his master's, Ma worked as an associate for a Wall Street law firm in New York City and as a legal consultant for a major bank in Massachusetts in the US before completing his doctorate.
In 1981, Ma started working for President Chiang Ching-kuo. Ma is married to Christine Chow, the couple has two daughters. Lesley was born in 1981 in New York City, she completed her undergraduate studies in life sciences at Harvard University and her graduate studies at New York University. Ma's younger daughter is Ma Si-Rui, born in Taiwan and completed her masters at London School of Economics and is pursuing her doctorate at Nanyang Technological University. Ma and his wife sponsor children of low-income families in El Salvador through World Vision. On an official trip to Central America in June 2009, Mrs. Ma was able to meet with one of her sponsored children, an 11-year-old boy in San Salvador. Ma is the uncle of Gene Yu, an American, former US Army Special Forces captain and the author of the Yellow Green Beret: Stories of an Asian-American Stumbling Around U. S. Army Special Forces series of books. Yu was instrumental in negotiating and working to free Taiwanese citizen Chang An-wei from Abu Sayyaf militants with Filipino special forces and private security contractors in 2013.
On 11 December 2008, Democratic Progressive Party legislator Chai Trong-rong called a press conference and produced a document that alleges Ma's birthplace to be contrary to what is reported. On this document, the birth certificate for one of Ma's daughters, Ma fills out "Shengchin" as his own birthplace, contradictory to his reported birthplace of "Hong Kong". Chai noted that First Lady Christine Chow's birthplace was listed as "Nanking, China", though she is listed as being born in Hong Kong. Chai claimed that since Ma was born after 1949 and in Shenzhen, he is a citizen of the People's Republic of China. Presidential Spokesperson Wang Yu-chi responded to Chai's charges by reaffirming that all information from the President's Office regarding the President's birth is accurate. Wang informed that Ma, on his 11 December visit to Hong Kong, was able to obtain records of his birth at Kowloon's Kwong-Wah Hospital and Ma keeps the original of his birth certificate issued by the Registrar General of Hong Kong, thereby confirming once again his birth in the former British colony instead of mainland China.
Copies of Ma's birth certificate have been shown to the public. Wang dispelled rumors that Ma had received affirmative action in his applications to Jianguo High School and the National Taiwan University with an "overseas Chinese" status. Ma Ying-jeou started working for President Chiang Ching-kuo as Deputy Director of the First Bureau of the Presidential Office and the President's English interpreter. Ma was promoted to the chair of the Research and Evaluation Commission under the Executive Yuan at the age of 38, becoming the youngest cabinet member in the ROC government. Ma was deputy secretary-general of the KMT from 1984 to 1988 serving for a period as deputy of the Mainland Affairs Council, a cabinet-level body in charge of cross-strait relations. President Lee Teng-hui appointed him ROC Justice Minister in 1993. Ma was relieved of his post in 1996, his supporters claim that firing was caused by his efforts at fighting corruption among politicians and the police. He remained a supporter of the Kuomintang, rather than supporting the New Party fo
Kao Hua-chu is a retired Republic of China Army general and the incumbent Secretary-General of the National Security Council of the Republic of China. He was the Minister of National Defense that appointed to the post by Premier-designate Wu Den-yih on 9 September 2009. On 29 July 2013, Kao resigned from his post due to the death scandal of Corporal Hung Chung-chiu of the Republic of China Army during his conscription on 4 July 2013. In 1974, Kao was involved in a helicopter crash in Taoyuan County with his colleagues, including Yu Hao-chang, the then-Commanding General of Army Command Headquarters; the accident involved. It killed than 20 people and injuring Kao, yet he still managed to carry Yu on his back while looking for help. A month after Typhoon Morakot brought the worst flooding and mudslides to Taiwan in 50 years, Kao was appointed as the leading deputy executive officer of the Morakot Post-Disaster Reconstruction Council of the Executive Yuan. Amidst the ongoing 2013 North Korean crisis, in mid April 2013 Kao said that the ROC Armed Forces is capable of intercepting missiles from North Korea and it doesn't pose any threat to Taiwan because the chance for Taiwan to be accidentally hit by the missiles is low.
He further added that long-range radar installation in Hsinchu County could always detect any incoming missiles fired by North Korea before. Kao said that once ROC two outlying islands Dadan Island and Erdan Island have been demilitarized and are open to public within three years, he hoped that the Coast Guard Administration and other law enforcement agencies can take over the security for both islands; those two islands are off to public due to its close proximity to PRC area, the coast of Xiamen. After the shooting incident of Taiwanese fisherman by Philippine government vessel on 9 May 2013 at the disputed water in South China Sea, on May 11, 2013, Kao held a meeting with ROC President Ma Ying-jeou and ROC Minister of Foreign Affairs David Lin at the Presidential Office Building in Taipei in which the ROC government gave 72 hours for the Philippine government to give formal apology and bring those responsible for the shooting to justice, if not Taiwan will freeze Philippine worker applications, recall ROC representative to the Philippines back to Taiwan and ask the Philippine representative in Taiwan back to the Philippines.
After the two incident involving two of ROC Air Force fighter aircraft in mid of May 2013 within five days apart involving an F-16 and Mirage 2000-5, Kao apologized to the public but asking their support for the moral of the pilots involved in the incident. He assured the public that all remaining aircraft in duty are all in good condition, that the two crashes didn't compromise Taiwan's air defense; the ROC Presidential Office stated that the intention of President Ma for this meeting is to consolidate peace and maintain the status quo. President Ma will be joined by Presidential Office Secretary-General Tseng Yung-chuan and Deputy Secretary-General Hsiao Hsu-tsen, National Security Council Secretary-General Kao Hua-chu and advisor Chiu Kun-Shuan, MAC Minister Andrew Hsia and Deputy Minister Wu Mei-hung. Republic of China Armed Forces Veterans Affairs Commission