The Cour Carrée is one of the main courtyards of the Louvre Palace in Paris. It was built as the medieval Louvre castle was progressively demolished in favour of a Renaissance palace. Source of the whole paragraph: From 1190 to 1215, Philip-Augustus built the wall that bears his name around Paris to protect the capital from the English. To reinforce this enclosure on the western side, he built the Louvre castle, an important fortress with four high walls protected by a moat, a dungeon. At the time of King Charles V of France, with its population increasing, Paris spread beyond the walls of Philip-Augustus; the king built a new enclosure which encompassed these new quarters, the Louvre castle is now inside this new enclosure. Therefore, the castle loses much of its military interest; the king transformed the castle to make it more comfortable with the installation of numerous windows, the addition of chimneys and turrets, gardens. After his return from a two-year captivity in Italy and Spain because of the defeat of Pavia, King Francis I of France wanted to transform the old castle of the Louvre into a Renaissance style palace like those he experienced during his captivity.
In 1528, he ordered the destruction of the "Grosse Tour". This was done in four months and the area was occupied with his moat, serving the main part of the court of the castle. In 1546, the King asked architect Pierre Lescot and sculptor Jean Goujon to further undertake the castle's transformation. After Francis I's death, his son Henri II continued his work, he oversaw the destruction of the west wall to be rebuilt as a Renaissance palace of the same length from December 1546 to March 1549. This area is the current Lescot Wing, it hosted the "hall of the guards", today "salle des caryatides", a room for parties and serves as a ballroom. Many historical events occurred in this room, such as the marriage of King Henri IV, an episode of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, the funeral wake of Henry IV, Molière's first performance for King Louis XIV on October 16, 1658. Henry II destroyed and rebuilt the southern wall to pave the way for the creation of the king's pavilion. At this stage, the building is heterogeneous since two sides are Renaissance-style palaces and the other two remain those of the medieval castle with walls and towers.
Queen Catherine de' Medici favoured the construction of her Tuileries Palace while Henry IV wanted his "gallery along the river", to say the link between the Louvre and the Tuileries. His plan was to quadruple the size of the courtyard of the Louvre castle with the extension of the buildings built, it was Louis XIII. The Lescot Wing was built for a court with the size of the one of the castle, it was not easy to integrate it into a courtyard. The idea of the new architect Jacques Lemercier is to duplicate this wing to the north: it will be the present Lemercier Wing, and to install a pavilion between the two: the Pavillon de l'Horloge, today known as Pavillon Sully. Louis XIV had the east wall renovated by architect Louis Le Vau; the last two walls to be demolished were razed and the ditches filled. Their foundations remained intact; this is what made it possible to rediscover them in the nineteenth century and to update their base during the works of the Grand Louvre: it is the current collection of the Medieval Louvre.
Louis XIV built the north wing. Three of the sides of the square yard are in place, it remains to build the east wing, important because it faces the city whose houses and buildings are close. It must be the new main entrance to the Louvre. After a contest launched by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the king decides the construction of the Perrault's Colonnade on the east side outside by Claude Perrault and Louis le Vau; the work drags on because it is necessary to buy the land and the houses before the future colonnade to clear the view. Moreover, the king privileges the Palace of Versailles from 1674. Louis XIV decided to double the width of the south wing; this is why today we have two series of rooms: on the side of the courtyard side, the rooms of the Charles X museum. But this work of the south wing will not be completed until a century later. After the departure of the royal court for Versailles, the unfinished buildings hosted artists. Heterogeneous constructions transpired in the courtyard. After the abandonment and degradation of the Revolution, Louis XVIII restored the Louvre and placed his monogram on the three exterior facades of the cour Carrée, with his monogram whereas he only restored them.
The transformation steps: The buildings form a square of about 160 meters on each side. They are articulated on eight Wings that punctuate eight Pavilions from northwest to west the pavillon de Beauvais.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Claude Perrault's Colonnade is the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre in Paris. It has been celebrated as the foremost masterpiece of French Architectural Classicism since its construction between 1667 and 1670. Cast in a restrained classicizing baroque manner, it interprets rules laid down by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius, whose works Perrault had translated into French. Architect Louis Le Vau and artist Charles Le Brun contributed to the realization of Perrault's work. Little that could be called Baroque can be identified in Perrault’s cool classicism that looks back to the 16th century; the façade, divided into five parts, is a typical solution of French classicism. The simple character of the ground floor basement sets off the paired Corinthian columns, modeled according to Vitruvius, against a shadowed void, with pavilions at the ends; this idea of coupled columns on a high podium goes back as far as Bramante. Those rhythmical columns form a shadowed colonnade with a central pedimented triumphal arch entrance raised on a high, rather defensive base.
Crowned by an uncompromising Italian balustrade along its distinctly non-French flat roof, the whole ensemble represents a ground-breaking departure in French architecture. Perrault won the competition held by Louis XIV for a design for the eastern façade of the Louvre Palace, beating out Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who had traveled from Italy expressly for the purpose; this work consumed Perrault from 1665 to 1680, established his reputation: the designed colonnade overlooking the Place du Louvre — for which buildings including the Hôtel du Petit-Bourbon were demolished to provide the necessary urban space — became celebrated. In 1964, the French Minister of Culture, André Malraux, ordered the digging out of the dry moat in front of Perrault’s Colonnade. A characteristic feature of French classical architecture, it is shown in nearly every project and early drawing of the east facade, its reexcavation revealed the original soubassement, or podium; the moat may have been filled in around 1674 to facilitate construction and not restored due to lack of funds to build the contrescarpe after Louis XIV's attention shifted to the Palace of Versailles.
However, in 1981 Germain Bazin argued that the reconstruction of the moat was misguided, since for aesthetic reasons Louis XIV had never wanted it. For centuries, Perrault’s Colonnade has provided a model for many grand edifices in Europe and America: The central part of the East and West Fronts of the United States Capitol in Washington, DC The Raczyński Library in Poznań The Metropolitan Museum in New York City The original Pennsylvania Station in New York City War Memorial Opera House, San Francisco, California, USA Quai du Louvre Bazin, Germain. "L'erreur du fossé du Louvre". Le Monde, 20 August 1981, p. 2. Berger, Robert W.. The Palace of the Sun: The Louvre of Louis XIV. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271008479. Whiteley, Mary. "Les soubassements de l'aile orientale du Louvre". Revue de l'art, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 30–43
'Ain Ghazal Statues
A number of monumental lime plaster and reed statues dated to the Pre-pottery Neolithic B period have been discovered in Jordan, at the site of Ayn Ghazal. A total of 15 statues and 15 busts were discovered in 1983 and 1985 in two underground caches, created about 200 years apart. Dating to between the mid-7th millennium BC and the mid-8th millennium BC, the statues are among the earliest large-scale representations of the human form, are regarded to be one of the most remarkable specimens of prehistoric art from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period. Although it is held that they represented the ancestors of those in the village, its purpose remains uncertain, they are part of the collection of the Jordan Museum in Amman. One statue is in the Louvre Museum in Paris. One of the figures with two heads in on show in the Louvre Abu Dhabi. Two statues are in The British Museum, London,UK; the figures are of full statues and busts. Some of the busts are two-headed. Great effort was put into modelling the heads, with bitumen-outlined irises.
The statues represent men and children. The statues were formed by modelling moist plaster from limestone on a reed core using plants that grew along the banks of the Zarqa River; the reed decayed over the millennia. Lime plaster is formed by heating limestone to temperatures between 900 degrees celsius. Plaster becomes a water-resistant material when it hardens. Heads and legs were formed from separate bundles of reeds which were assembled and covered in plaster; the irises were outlined with bitumen and the heads were covered with some sort of wig. They are comparatively tall, but not human-sized, the tallest statues having a height of close to 1 m, they are disproportionately flat, about 10 cm in thickness. They were designed to stand up anchored to the floor in enclosed areas and intended to be seen only from the front; the way the statues were made would not have permitted them to last long. And since they were buried in pristine condition it is possible that they were never on display for any extended period of time, but rather produced for the purpose of intentional burial.
The site of Ayn Ghazal was discovered in 1974 by developers who were building a highway connecting Amman to the city of Zarqa. Excavation began in 1982; the site was inhabited during ca. 7250–5000 BC. In its prime era, during the first half of the 7th millennium BC, the settlement extended over 10–15 hectares and was inhabited by ca. 3000 people. The statues were discovered in 1983. While examining a cross section of earth in a path carved out by a bulldozer, archaeologists came across the edge of a large pit 2.5 meters under the surface containing plaster statues. Excavation led by Gary O. Rollefson took place in 1984/5, with a second set of excavation under the direction of Rollefson and Zeidan Kafafi during 1993–1996. A total of 15 statues and 15 busts were found in two caches, which were separated by nearly 200 years; because they were deposited in pits dug into the floors of abandoned houses, they are remarkably well-preserved. Remains of similar statues found at Jericho and Nahal Hemar have survived only in fragmentary state.
The pit where the statues were found was dug around, the contents were placed in a wooden box filled with polyurethane foam for protection during shipping. The statues are made of plaster, fragile after being buried for so long; the first set of statues discovered at the site was sent to the Royal Archaeological Institute in Great Britain, while the second set, found a few years were sent to the Smithsonian Institution in New York for restoration work. The statues can be seen in the Jordan Museum. Part of the find was on loan in the British Museum in 2013. One specimen was still being restored in Britain as of 2012. Amman Citadel Akkermans, Peter M. M. G. and Glenn M. Schwartz, The archaeology of Syria: from complex hunter-gatherers to early urban societies, Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, pp. 83ff. Grissom, C. A. "Neolithic statues from'Ain Ghazal: construction and form", American Journal of Archaeology 104, 25-45. Rollefson, G. O. "Ritual and ceremony at Neolithic'Ain Ghazal".
Paleorient 9, 29-38. Rollefson, G. O. "Early Neolithic statuary from'Ain Ghazal", Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 116, 185-192. Rollefson, G. O. "Neolithic'Ain Ghazal - Ritual and ceremony II", Paleorient 12, 45-51
Light of the World
Light of the World is a phrase Jesus used to describe himself and his disciples in the New Testament. The phrase is recorded again in the Gospel of Matthew, it is related to the parables of Salt and Light and Lamp under a bushel. In John 8:12 Jesus applies the title to himself while debating with the Jews and states: I am the light of the world. Whoever will have the light of life. Jesus again claims to be Light of the World in John 9:5, during the miracle of healing the blind at birth, saying: When I am in the world, I am the Light of the World; this episode leads into John 9:39 where Jesus metaphorically explains that he came to this world, so that the blind may see. In the Christological context, the use of the title Light of the World is similar to the Bread of Life title in John 6:35 where Jesus states: “I am the bread of life: he who comes to me shall not hunger.” These assertions build on the Christological theme of John 5:26 where Jesus claims to possess life just as the Father does and provide it to those who follow him.
The term “Life of the World” is applied in the same sense by Jesus to himself in John 6:51. Jesus used that term to refer to his disciples in Matthew 5:14: You are the light of the world. A city on a hill cannot be hidden. Neither do people put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, it gives light to everyone in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before men, that they may see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven; this application of "light compared with darkness" appears in 1 John 1:5 which applies it to God and states: "God is light, in him is no darkness at all". Examples of Dualistic concepts in the Gospel of John: Light & DarknessLight and darkness in John’s gospel is an antithesis that has symbolic meaning and is essential to understanding the author of John; the fourth gospel expresses certain ideas using the antithesis more than any other writings in the New Testament. The Johannine community may have borrowed the symbolic use of the antithesis Light-Darkness from Essene literature, “which considered History as a permanent conflict between Good and Evil, using Light as a symbol of Truth and Righteousness and Darkness as that of Falsehood and Evil”The following are antithetical quotes from John: Known & UnknownJohn 12:35You are going to have the light just a little while longer.
Walk while you have the light, before darkness over takes you. Whoever walks in the dark does not know where they are going. John 17:3 Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, Jesus Christ, whom you have sent. Jesus Christ & MosesJohn 3:14Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the wilderness, so the Son of Man must be lifted up. John 4:6-8Jacob’s well was there, Jesus, tired as he was from the journey, sat down by the well, it was about noon. When a Samaritan woman came to draw water, Jesus said to her, “Will you give me a drink?”John 20:31But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, that by believing you may have life in his nameHeavenly & EarthlyJohn 1:14The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth. John 4:6-8Jacob’s well was there, Jesus, tired as he was from the journey, sat down by the well, it was about noon. When a Samaritan woman came to draw water, Jesus said to her, “Will you give me a drink?”John 20:31But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, that by believing you may have life in his nameJohn 3:13No one has gone into heaven except the one who came from heaven – the Son of Man.
John 3:15That everyone who believes may have eternal life in himAbove & Not AboveJohn 1:14The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth. John 3:13No one has gone into heaven except the one who came from heaven – the Son of Man. Spirit & FleshJohn 1:14 The Word made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth. John 3:08 The wind blows. You hear its sound. So it is with everyone born of the Spirit. John 4:24God is spirit, his worshippers must worship in the Spirit and in truth. Sight & BlindnessJohn 1:14 The Word made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, fill of grace and truth. John 12:35You are going to have the light just a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, before darkness over takes you. Whoever walks in the dark does not know where they are going.
Insiders & WorldJohn 1:14 The Word made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the:Father, full of grace and truth. John 3:19Light has come into the world, but people loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. John 9:5While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. John 10:30I and the Father are one. Day & NightJohn 9:4 As long as it is day, we must do the works of him. Night is coming. "In John's writings, walking in darkness does not mean committing acts of sin but rather, rejecting God's message of eternal life through Christ" Those who define darkness as sin define light as good and righteous. However, in the Gospel of John light is never defined as righteous. Light is defined as life, "In Him was life; those have faith th
Pavillon de Flore
The Pavillon de Flore, part of the Palais du Louvre in Paris, stands at the southwest end of the Louvre, near the Pont Royal. It was constructed in 1607–1610, during the reign of Henry IV, as the corner pavilion between the Tuileries Palace to the north and the Louvre's Grande Galerie to the east; the pavilion was redesigned and rebuilt by Hector Lefuel in 1864–1868 in a decorated Napoleon III style. The most famous sculpture on the exterior of the Louvre, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux's The Triumph of Flora, was added below the central pediment of the south facade at this time; the Tuileries Palace was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871, a north facade, similar to the south facade, was added to the pavilion by Lefuel in 1874–1879. The Pavillon de Flore is part of the Musée du Louvre; the Pavillon de Flore is connected to the Louvre. It is directly adjacent to the Pont Royal on the Quai François Mitterrand, between the Passerelle Léopold-Sédar Senghor and the Pont du Carrousel, its geographic coordinates are 48°51′40″N 2°19′50″E.
The Pavillon de Flore was part of a larger plan, devised during the reign of King Henry IV, to connect the Palais du Louvre and Palais des Tuileries via two long wings at their north and south ends. First, the Petite Galerie, running south from the Palais du Louvre to the River Seine, was connected to the Grande Galerie; the latter was constructed east to west along the Seine until it reached the Tuileries, where it was terminated with the Pavillon de Flore, at the time, known as the Gros Pavillon de la Rivière. The cornerstone of the pavilion was laid in 1607, its design has traditionally been assigned to Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau, thought to have designed the adjacent western section of the Grande Galerie. The Palais des Tuileries was extended south from the Pavillon Bullant to the Pavillon de Flore via the Petite Galerie des Tuileries. Work on the Grand Design was abandoned following the assassination of Henry IV in 1610. However, by this time, the building of the Grande Galerie, the Petite Galerie des Tuileries, the Gros Pavillon de la Rivière had been completed.
King Louis XIV danced in Isaac de Benserade's Ballet royal de Flore in February 1669 at the Tuileries in the Salle des Ballets located on the first floor of the pavilion. It has been suggested that this is when the name Pavillon de Flore came into use, although the earliest known written mention is in 1726. Pavillon de Flore is the name used today. From 1789 until 1792, when the French royal court resided in the Tuileries, the apartment of the ground floor of the Pavillon de Flore housed the office of the princesse de Lamballe, being side by side with the apartment of queen Marie Antoinette in the ground floor of the main building of the Tuileries, while the first floor of the Pavillon housed the apartment of Madame Elisabeth. During the French Revolution, the Pavillon de Flore was renamed Pavillon de l'Égalité. Under its new name, it became the meeting point for several of the Committees of the period. Many other committees of the Revolutionary Government occupied the Palais des Tuileries during the time of the National Convention.
Notable occupiers included the Monetary Committee, the Account and Liquidation Examination Committee. However, the most famous was the Committee of Public Safety; the Committee of Public Safety was the principal and most renowned body of the Revolutionary Government, forming the de facto executive branch of France during the Reign of Terror. Run by the Jacobins under Robespierre, the group of twelve centralized denunciations and executions; the committee was responsible for the deaths of thousands by guillotine. The executive body was installed in the apartments of Marie-Antoinette, situated on the first floor, but gradually overtook the offices of Louis XVI; the governing body met twice a day and the executions themselves were carried out across the gardens. During the structure's use by the Committee of Public Safety, it was described as follows: The Committee of Public Safety sat in the Pavillon de Flore, at the opposite end of the Tuileries on the river bank… Any one who had business with this awful body had to grope his way along gloomy corridors, that were dimly lighted by a single lamp at either end.
The room in which the Committee sat round a table of green cloth was incongruously gay with the clocks, the bronzes, the mirrors, the tapestries, of the ruined country. Pope Pius VII stayed in the building. While residing there, the Pope received various "bodies of the State, the clergy, the religious corporations." Additionally, Emperor Napoléon's procession began at the Pavillon de Flore. The pavilion underwent significant structural alteration during the reign of Napoléon III, who in 1861 authorized its complete demolition and reconstruction under the supervision of architect Hector Lefuel. Performed between 1864 and 1868, Lefuel's reconstruction added significant detail and sculpture to the work, thus noted as an example of Napoleon III style architecture. Furthermore, Napoléon II
Pavillon de l’Horloge
The Pavillon de l’Horloge known as the Pavillon Sully, is a prominent pavilion located in the center of the west wing of the Cour Carrée of the Palais du Louvre in Paris. The two names Pavillon de l'Horloge and Pavillon Sully are now reserved for the central pavilion's eastern and western faces, respectively; the pavilion was built just north of the older Lescot Wing between 1624 and about 1645. The famous structure, with its square-domed roof, was designed by architect Jacques Lemercier; the name comes from a clock incorporated into its elevation. The structure become known as the Pavillon Sully early in the 19th century, its western facade was remodeled by Hector Lefuel in the 1850s during the Second Empire. Bautier, Geneviève Bresc; the Louvre: An Architectural History. New York: The Vendome Press. ISBN 9780865659636. Blunt, Anthony. "Two Unpublished Drawings by Lemercier for the Pavillon de l'Horloge", The Burlington Magazine, vol. 102, no. 691, pp. 446–448. JSTOR 873224 Blunt, Anthony. Art and architecture in France, 1500-1700.
New Haven Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07748-3. Gady, Alexandre. Jacques Lemercier, architecte et ingénieur du Roi. Paris: Maison des sciences de l'homme. ISBN 9782735110421. Media related to Pavillon de l'Horloge at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Pavillon Sully at Wikimedia Commons Structurae.de page on the Palais du Louvre's building history