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Joseph von Fraunhofer

Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer was a Bavarian physicist and optical lens manufacturer. He made optical glass and achromatic telescope objective lenses, invented the spectroscope, developed diffraction grating. In 1814, he discovered and studied the dark absorption lines in the spectrum of the sun now known as Fraunhofer lines; the German research organization Fraunhofer Society is named after him and is Europe's biggest Society for the Advancement of Applied Research. Joseph Fraunhofer was the 11th child, born in Straubing, in the Electorate of Bavaria, to Franz Xaver Fraunhofer and Maria Anna Frohlich, he was orphaned at the age of 11 and started working as an apprentice to a harsh glassmaker named Philipp Anton Weichelsberger. In 1801, the workshop in which he was working collapsed, he was buried in the rubble; the rescue operation was led by Prince-Elector Maximilian Joseph. The prince entered Fraunhofer's life, providing him with books and forcing his employer to allow the young Fraunhofer time to study.

Joseph Utzschneider was at the site of the disaster, would become a benefactor to Fraunhofer. With the money given to him by the prince upon his rescue and the support he received from Utzschneider, Fraunhofer was able to continue his education alongside his practical training. In 1806, Utzschneider and Georg von Reichenbach brought Fraunhofer into their Institute at Benediktbeuern, a secularised Benedictine monastery devoted to glassmaking. There he discovered how to make fine optical glass and invented precise methods for measuring optical dispersion, it was at the Institute that Fraunhofer met Pierre Louis Guinand, a Swiss glass technician, who instructed Fraunhofer in glassmaking at Utzschneider's behest. By 1809, the mechanical part of the Optical Institute was chiefly under Fraunhofer's direction, Fraunhofer became one of the members of the firm that same year. In 1814, Guinand left the firm. Guinand would become a partner with Fraunhofer in the firm, the name was changed to Utzschneider-und-Fraunhofer.

During 1818, Fraunhofer became the director of the Optical Institute. Due to the fine optical instruments developed by Fraunhofer, Bavaria overtook England as the center of the optics industry; the likes of Michael Faraday were unable to produce glass that could rival Fraunhofer. His illustrious career earned him an honorary doctorate from the University of Erlangen in 1822. In 1824, Fraunhofer was appointed a Knight of the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown by King Maximilian I, through which he was raised into personal nobility; the same year, he was made an honorary citizen of Munich. Like many glassmakers of his era, he was poisoned by heavy metal vapors, resulting in his premature death. Fraunhofer died in 1826 at the age of 39, his most valuable glassmaking recipes are thought to have gone to the grave with him. One of the most difficult operations of practical optics during the time period of Fraunhofer's life was polishing the spherical surfaces of large object glasses. Fraunhofer invented the machine which rendered the surface more than conventional grinding.

He invented other grinding and polishing machines and introduced many improvements into the manufacture of the different kinds of glass used for optical instruments, which he always found to have flaws and irregularities of various sorts. In 1811, he constructed a new kind of furnace, during his second melting session when he melted a large quantity of glass, he found that he could produce flint glass, when taken from the bottom of a vessel containing 224 pounds of glass, had the same refractive power as glass taken from the surface, he found that English crown glass and German table glass both contained defects which tended to cause irregular refraction. In the thicker and larger glasses, there would be more of such defects, so that in larger telescopes this kind of glass would not be fit for objective lenses. Fraunhofer accordingly made his own crown glass, it was thought that the accurate determination of power for a given medium to refract rays of light and separate the different colors which they contain was impeded by the absence of precise boundaries between the colors of the spectrum, making it difficult to measure the angle of refraction.

To address this limitation, Fraunhofer performed a series of experiments for the purpose of producing homogeneous light artificially, unable to effect his object in a direct way, he did so by means of lamps and prisms. By 1814, Fraunhofer had invented the modern spectroscope. In the course of his experiments, he discovered a bright fixed line which appears in the orange color of the spectrum when it is produced by the light of fire; this line enabled him afterward to determine the absolute power of refraction in different substances. Experiments to ascertain whether the solar spectrum contained the same bright line in orange as the line produced by the orange of fire light led him to the discovery of 574 dark fixed lines in the solar spectrum. Today, millions of such fixed absorption lines are now known. Continuing to investigate, Fraunhofer detected dark lines appearing in the spectra of several bright stars, but in different arrangements, he ruled out the possibility that the lines were produced as the light passes through the Earth’s atmosphere.

If that were the case they would not appear in different arrangements. He concluded that the lines originate in the nature of the stars and sun and carry information about the source of light, regardless of how far away that source is, he found that the spectra of Sirius and other first-magnitude stars differed from the sun and from each other, thus founding stellar spectroscopy. The


Callestick is a hamlet in Cornwall, England, UK. It is 5 miles north-west from about 1 mile south of Perranzabuloe. Little Callestick lies near Chyverton House; the manor of Callestick was recorded in the Domesday Book when it was held by Robert, Count of Mortain from Bodmin Monastery. There was 1 hide of land for 4 ploughs. There were 10 acres of woodland, 2 cattle and 30 sheep; the value of the manor was 3 shillings though it had been worth £1 sterling. Callestick lies 350 feet above sea level. About 250 yards to the north-west of the settlement is an English Heritage scheduled monument, it is the remains of a small round enclosure of a type that dates back to sometime between the latter part of the Iron Age and post-Roman Britain. The round at Callestock Veor appears to be of a circular hut and is in a reasonable condition compared to other examples of these sites, it was the dwelling of a pre-historic farmer and other examples of such sites nearby have dated back to the Bronze Age with the earliest such examples at around 1,700BC.

Just to the north of the A30 road and at around 0.7 miles south-west of Callestick is a bowl barrow, a scheduled ancient monument. A bowl barrow is a funerary monument, built sometime in the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age; the bowl barrow at Callestick Vean is a low mound 0.5 yards high and with a diameter of around 22 yards. This bowl barrow is unusual in that it is on low-lying ground. A little further to the west, a further pair of bowl barrows lie close together and are listed monument. About 0.5 miles to the south-east of Callestick is the West Weal Chiverton mine. It was a lead mine producing over 45,000 tons of high grade lead and over one million ounces of silver between 1859 and 1886


Una and UNA may refer to: 160 Una, the asteroid "Una", an asteroid named after the Faerie Queene character Una River, numerous rivers Una, Himachal Pradesh, a town in India Una District Una Himachal railway station Una, Gujarat, a town in India Una Una, California, an unincorporated community in the United States Una, Mississippi, an unincorporated community in the United States Una, Bahia, a town in Brazil Uña, a municipality in Castile-La Mancha, Spain Una National Park, Bosnia Úna, an Irish given name Oona, an Irish given name Oonagh, an Irish given name Ùna, a Scots-Gaelic given nameSaint Hunna a French saint Una Abell-Brinker, American actress Una Stella Abrahamson, English-born Canadian artist and writer Una Baines, British keyboard player and member of The Fall Una Budd, Irish cricketer Una Carter, New Zealand cookbook writer and demonstration chef Una Damon, South Korean-American actress Una Hale, Australian operatic soprano Una Hanbury, American sculptor Una Harkin, Irish footballer Una Healy, Irish singer and member of The Saturdays Una B.

Herrick, American educator Una Hunt, American writer Una Jagose and Queen's Counsel from New Zealand Una Merkel, American stage, film and television actress Una Morris, Jamaican sprinter Una O'Connor, Irish actress Úna O'Connor, former Irish camogie player Una Pope-Hennessy, British writer and historian Una Ross, 25th Baroness de Ros of Helmsley Una Stubbs, English actress and former dancer Una, a character in The Faerie Queene Una, one codename of the DC Comics superheroine Luornu Durgo Una, a character in Stardust by Neil Gaiman Una, the name of Number One Una, a genus of butterflies Una virus, an arbovirus distributed in South America Una, a novel by Momo Kapor The Una, a woman's rights magazine founded by Caroline Healey Dall and Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis UNA, eletronica band "Una" a song by Sponge Cola Una-class submarine, a class of Yugoslav midget submarines Ukrainian People's Army, the military of a short-lived Ukrainian Republic called the Ukrainian National Army Ukrainian National Army, a formation in the Wehrmacht United for a New Alternative, the political alliance in Argentina United Nationalist Alliance, a political alliance in the Philippines United Negros Alliance, a local political party in Negros Occidental, Philippines National University of Asunción, Paraguay's oldest and biggest university University of North Alabama University of the Netherlands Antilles, now the University of Curaçao VV UNA, a Dutch football club from Veldhoven UNA Hotels & Resorts, Italian hotel chain United Nations Association United Nurses Association Ukrainian National Association Union of North America Unique name assumption Una, a 2016 British film Una language Una -, a purported SI prefix All pages with titles containing una Una-Una, Indonesia.

2007–08 Tulsa Revolution season

The 2007–08 Tulsa Revolution season was the first season of the Tulsa Revolution professional indoor soccer club. The Revolution, a short-season expansion team in the final year of the American Indoor Soccer League, played their home games at SoccerCity Tulsa in Tulsa, Oklahoma, they amassed only a 2–5 record but drew well at the box office, falling dormant only after the league folded in late 2008. The team was led by owner Adam Mellor, head coach Kerry Shubert, assistant coach Tama Aondofar; the Revolution played 7 games of an abbreviated 8-game schedule, winning 2 and losing 5. These left the team ineligible for post-season play; the first goal in Revolution history was scored by Michael Poneys. The Revolution made; the Revolution's initial 22-man roster included players from Bolivia, Laos, Nigeria and across the Tulsa area. The prime goalkeeper was indoor veteran Sonny Dalesandro. Dalesandro persevered through a broken toe during the team's third game, a 7-6 win against Massachusetts, but missed the remainder of the season.

Other initial players included Dave Leung from Jamaica plus Christopher Justice and Garba Lawal, both natives of Nigeria with international match play experience. Lawal was part of the gold medal-winning Nigerian team at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. In mid-January, the team released defender Tou Yer Yang and signed forwards Dominique Nayaga and Todd Goddard During the January 26th game against the Massachusetts Twisters, Kerry Shubert drew a red card penalty and a one-game disciplinary suspension. Late in the season, the team signed forward Todd Goddard, a native of Tulsa and a former member of the University of Tulsa's men's soccer team. Win Tie Loss No Game For his work with youth soccer, head coach Kerry Shubert was named 2008 "Competitive Girl's Coach of the Year" by the Oklahoma Soccer Association. Shubert had been the OSA's 2007 Coach of the Year; the new team struggled on the field. However, the team drew well, nearly 700 fans per game, prepared to move to the Expo Square Pavilion for a 2008–09 season, not to be.

The Cincinnati Excite opted to sit out the 2008–09 season, the Rockford Rampage moved to the new National Indoor Soccer League, the Massachusetts Twisters were put up for sale followed Rockford to the NISL. With only the Revolution and the Northern Illinois Rebels remaining, the league folded in September 2008; the Revolution would lie dormant until winning an expansion franchise to join the Professional Arena Soccer League for its 2013–14 season. Tulsa Revolution official website Tulsa Revolution at American Indoor Soccer League

German Township, Marshall County, Indiana

German Township is one of ten townships in Marshall County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,902 and it contained 3,433 housing units. German Township was organized in 1838, named for the fact the township was settled chiefly by Germans. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 62.1 square miles, of which 61.48 square miles is land and 0.62 square miles is water. Bremen US 6 SR 106 SR 331 Bremen Public SchoolsGerman Township residents may obtain a free library card from the Bremen Public Library in Bremen. Indiana's 2nd congressional district State House District 23 State Senate District 9 "German Township, Marshall County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-29. United States Census Bureau 2008 TIGER/Line Shapefiles IndianaMap Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana page for German Township

Jonna Lee (singer)

Jonna Emily Lee is a Swedish singer, record producer and visual director. Lee is the creator and artist of audiovisual online project iamamiwhoami who since 2009 have released their audiovisual series online, gathering a huge online following. Since her first solo album, she has collaborated with music producer and artist Claes Björklund, a member of iamamiwhoami. In 2017, Lee started using the moniker ionnalee for her new solo project. In February 2018 she released her debut solo album, Everyone Afraid to Be Forgotten. With the album she created her own world tour co funded by her fans via Kickstarter; the tour sold out their venues all over the world during 2018. Ionnalee remixed Moby's "The Ceremony of Innocence", released in December 2018, in February, her sophomore solo album Remember the Future was announced with the release date 31 May 2019. Lee toured with Norwegian duo Röyksopp from 2015 to 2017, she is a visual director for all her projects. She is the founder of the independent label To whom it may concern.

Born in Linköping, Lee grew up in the small village of Fågelsta with her mother and siblings. No one in her family had any musical background but Lee had an interest in music as a young child, ran away from home to London in her teens due to trying conditions at home. In 2002, Lee moved to Stockholm, she started recording her own records that were released through her website until she was signed by the Swedish indie label, Razzia Records, in the spring 2007. She released two solo albums and one EP through Razzia Records between 2007 and 2009, but left the label in 2010 and started the independent label "To whom it may concern." To release the audiovisual projects of iamamiwhoami. Lee released her first solo album 10 Pieces, 10 Bruises on Swedish label Razzia Records on 10 October 2007; the first single was "Dried Out Eyes," followed by "And Your Love," a duet with Ed Harcourt, who produced three tracks on the album. Lee produced the rest of the record with her collaborator, Claes Björklund, a member of Travis in London.

Supergrass drummer Danny Goffey plays drums on the record. Some songs were recorded in Goffey's house in England. In September 2008, she released a five-track EP titled This War, her second studio album This Is Jonna Lee, produced by Claes Björklund and Lee herself, was released in February 2009. In October 2009, she released a version of the industrial electro band Nitzer Ebb's song "Violent Playground"; the band celebrated it by uploading Lee's version on their website along with an interview with her. Between December 2009 and December 2016, Lee has released music and films under the pseudonym iamamiwhoami together with producer Claes Björklund and their visual collaborators. Lee worked as a presenter for the live program P3 SESSION Sveriges Radio P3 between 2009 and 2011. In March 2010, there was considerable speculation that Lee was the artist featured in the viral marketing videos on YouTube uploaded by the mysterious iamamiwhoami, although her management claimed to be unaware of her involvement.

According to and MTV Brasil, the music video for iamamiwhoami's track, "o" was directed by Viktor Kumlin, who's the director of Lee's music video, "Something So Quiet". This proved to be wrong. Lee came to be unofficially identified as iamamiwhoami, when she released the music video titled "t" on her channel, she appears identifiable in the forthcoming music videos released and has performed live at the 2011 Way Out West Festival in Gothenburg, Sweden. The project has garnered award nominations and has won a Grammis Award in 2010 for being'Innovator of the Year'. Iamamiwhoami's debut album kin was released in June 2012 under the label. Via Co-Operative Music, Lee was credited as the artist, co-producer and visual producer of iamamiwhoami confirming that she is iamamiwhoami. Lee did an interview with The Guardian in August 2012, confirmed that she was in the "process of developing iamamiwhoami" commenting that she was still the "same person", but "found other sides of ". On 24 February 2017, To whom it may concern.

Alongside Comme des Garçons and Dover Street Market, announced the release of a new single by Lee, "Samaritan", that it was to be released under the new artistic alias of ionnalee. Following the announcement, an Instagram account for the project was launched. One week it was announced that To whom it may concern. Would be releasing the single on 10 March; the iamamiwhoami YouTube channel uploaded a teaser for the accompanying music video for "Samaritan". The official music video was released on 10 March on the same channel. On 2 June 2017, the second single "Not Human" with its accompanying music video followed. A third single, "Simmer Down", was released on 6 October 2017. A fourth single, "Gone", was released on 24 November 2017, followed by an announcement of ionnalee's third studio album, Everyone Afraid to Be Forgotten; the album was released on 16 February 2018 on her label. On the same day, she revealed an album visual feature film directed by Lee herself alongside director of cinematography and head producer John Strandh to accompany the album.

On 2 February 2018, ionnalee launched a campaign on Kickstarter to fund a world tour for Everyone Afraid to Be Forgotten. The pledges included things from universal tickets to the city of choice of the pledger, ionnalee merchandise, props from iamamiwhoami and ionnalee visual projects, to a unique, life-sized, handmade bust, crafted by ionnalee herself; the campaign reached 100% funding within five days, gathering the amount of 375,000 SEK. On, more stretch goals were a