Minor League Baseball
Minor League Baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development and a way to prepare for the major leagues. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses. Most are members of the umbrella organization known as Minor League Baseball, which operates under the Commissioner of Baseball within the scope of organized baseball. Several leagues, known as independent baseball leagues, do not have any official links to Major League Baseball. Except for the Mexican League, teams in the organized minor leagues are independently owned and operated but are directly affiliated with one major league team through a standardized Player Development Contract; these leagues go by the nicknames the "farm system", "farm club", or "farm team" because of a joke passed around by major league players in the 1930s when St. Louis Cardinals general manager Branch Rickey formalized the system, teams in small towns were "growing players down on the farm like corn".
Major League Baseball and Minor League Baseball teams may enter into a PDC for a two- or four-year term. At the expiration of a PDC term, teams may renew their affiliation, or sign new PDCs with different clubs, though many relationships are renewed and endure for extended time periods. For example, the Omaha Storm Chasers have been the Triple-A affiliate of the Kansas City Royals since the Royals joined the American League in 1969, but the Columbus Clippers changed affiliations, after being associated with the New York Yankees from 1979, to the Washington Nationals in 2007, have been affiliated with the Cleveland Indians since 2009. A few minor league teams are directly owned by their major league parent club, such as the Springfield Cardinals, owned by the St. Louis Cardinals, all of the Atlanta Braves' affiliates except the Florida Fire Frogs. Minor League teams that are owned directly by the major league club do not have PDCs with the parent club and are not part of the reaffiliation shuffles that occur each year.
Today, there are 14 MLB-affiliated minor leagues with a total of 160 revenue-generating teams, located in large and small cities and suburbs across the United States and Canada, there are three MLB-affiliated rookie leagues with a total of 80 teams, located in Arizona and the Dominican Republic, though these teams do not generate revenue. The Mexican League, with 16 teams, is independent but tied with MLB. Several more independent leagues operate in the United States and Canada; the earliest professional baseball league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players of 1871 to 1875, comprised all professional teams. This system proved unworkable, however, as there was no way to ensure competitive balance, financially unsound clubs failed in midseason; this problem was solved in 1876 with the formation of the National League, with a limited membership which excluded less competitive and financially weaker teams. Professional clubs outside the NL responded by forming regional associations of their own.
There was a series of ad hoc groupings, such as the New England Association of 1877 and the Eastern Championship Association of 1881. These were loose groups of independent clubs which agreed to play a series of games over the course of one season for a championship pennant; the first true minor league is traditionally considered to be the Northwestern League of 1883 to 1884. Unlike the earlier minor associations, it was conceived as a permanent organization, it along with the NL and the American Association, was a party to the National Agreement of 1883. Included in this was the agreement to respect the reserve lists of clubs in each league. Teams in the NL and the AA could only reserve players, paid at least $1000. Northwest League teams could reserve players paid $750, implicitly establishing the division into major and minor leagues. Over the next two decades, more minor leagues signed various versions of the National Agreement; the minor leagues joined together to negotiate jointly. In the late 1890s, the Western League run by Ban Johnson decided to challenge the NL's position.
In 1900, he changed the name of the league to the American League and vowed to make deals to sign contracts with players who were dissatisfied with the pay and terms of their deals with the NL. This led to a nasty turf war that heated up in 1901 enough to concern Patrick T. Powers, president of the Eastern League, many other minor league owners about the conflict affecting their organizations. Representatives of the different minor leagues met at the Leland Hotel in Chicago on September 5, 1901. In response to the NL–AL battle, they agreed to form the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, called the NAPBL, or NA for short; the purpose of the NAPBL at the time was to maintain the independence of the leagues involved. Several continued to work independently. Powers was made the first president of the NAPBL, whose offices were established in Auburn, New York. In 1903, the conflict between the AL and NL ended in the National Agreement of 1903; the NAPBL became involved in the stages of the negotiations to develop rules for the acquisition of players from their leagues by the NL and the AL.
The 1903 agreement ensured that teams would be compensated for the players that they had taken the time and effort to scout and develop, no NA team was required to sell their players, although most did because the cash was an important source of revenue for most teams. The NA leagues were still fiercely
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball
The Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball team represents Texas Tech University in NCAA Division I college baseball. The team plays at Dan Law Field at Rip Griffin Park, their head coach is Tim Tadlock and he is in his 5th season with the Red Raiders. Along with the football and men's basketball teams, the Texas Tech baseball team was founded during the university's initial academic year, in 1925–26; the team's first series was against the West Texas A&M Buffaloes in 1926, an 18–9 victory in the first game and 14–9 loss in the second. The third game in the team's history—this one against Daniel Baker College—ended in a 3–3 tie after 11 innings. E. Y. Freeland was the first coach of the Red Raiders, though the team was known as the Matadors at the time, he remained in the position for three years. Higginbotham coached for only two years. From 1930 to 1953, Texas Tech did not field an intercollegiate baseball team; when the program returned in 1954, Beattie Feathers became the head coach of the Red Raiders and remained until 1960.
He was followed by Berl Huffman, Kal Segrist, Gary Ashby. Texas Tech experienced little success. During this 26 season period, the Red Raiders had only seven winning seasons. Larry Hays took over the Red Raiders baseball team in 1987. Under Hays, Texas Tech endured only two losing seasons, his first and last, enjoyed their greatest success in baseball. Hays took Texas Tech from having a losing tradition to being a national contender; when Hays started with the Red Raiders, the team's overall record stood at 550–576–5. By the time he left, he was the fourth-winningest coach in college baseball history and improved the team's record to 1,365–1,054–8; the Red Raiders reached eight straight NCAA tournaments from 1995–2002 and again in 2004, three of which were held at Dan Law Field at Rip Griffin Park. They won the 1995 Southwest Conference championship, the inaugural Big 12 Conference championship in 1997; the Hays lead Red Raiders won the SWC Tournament in 1995, the Big 12 Tournament in 1998. On June 2, 2008, Larry Hays announced his retirement, paving the way for assistant coach Dan Spencer to take over.
Spencer, a former Texas Tech player, won back-to-back national championships as an assistant head coach for the Oregon State Beavers. In Spencer's four seasons as head coach, he led the Red Raiders to only one winning season. Prior to Spencer's fourth, final, season as head coach, Tim Tadlock was hired as associate head coach for the Red Raiders under Dan Spencer; the following season saw Tadlock replace Spencer as the ninth head coach of the Red Raiders following Spencer's firing. Tadlock was a starting shortstop for the Red Raiders during the 1991 seasons. Tadlock led the Grayson College Vikings to back-to-back NJCAA Division I World Series championships in the team's five appearances over his 9 seasons as head coach. Tadlock's first season saw the team finish 26–30, 8th of 9 in Big 12 play. Prior to the 2014 season, the Red Raiders were selected to finish in 8th place in the Big 12 Conference in the preseason polls. In only his second season, the Red Raiders won their first NCAA Tournament Regional Championship, defeating the Columbia Lions and host team Miami Hurricanes to advance to the program's first Super Regional appearance.
The team would host College of Charleston in the Lubbock Super Regional before shutting them out twice in two 1–0 games, earning the programs first berth in the College World Series on the back of a 0.65 post season earned run average produced by assistant coach Ray Hayward's pitching staff. The Red Raiders have since gone on to win back-to-back Big 12 regular season conference championships and again host both Regional and Super Regional rounds of the NCAA Tournament in Lubbock. Source: Unanimous All-American Steven Gingery National Pitcher of the Year Award Steven Gingery Big 12 Conference Coach of the Year Larry Hays Tim Tadlock Big 12 Conference Player of the Year Joe Dillon Eric Gutierrez Hunter Hargrove Big 12 Conference Pitcher of the Year Steven Gingery Big 12 Conference Freshman of the Year Josh Jung Gabe Holt Big 12 Conference Tournament MOP Josh Bard Skip Bertman Award Tim Tadlock Southwest Conference Coach of the Year Larry Hays Southwest Conference Tournament MVP Jason Tolman NCAA Division I Regional Tournament MOP Dylan Dusek Hayden Howard Zach Rheams At least 25 former Texas Tech Red Raiders went on to play Major League Baseball.
Seven Red Raiders were taken in the 2008 MLB draft and three were drafted in 2009. Doug Ault Josh Bard Dallas Braden Mark Brandenburg Stubby Clapp Joe Dillon Travis Driskill Donald Harris Chuck Harrison Mike Humphreys Keith Ginter Jeff Karstens Brandon Kolb Trey Lunsford Matt Miller Ryan Nye Chris Sampson Travis Smith Zach Stewart Steve Watkins AJ Ramos Chad Bettis Nathan Karns Josh Tomlin Roger Kieschnick List of NCAA Division I baseball programs Brooks Wallace Award List of college baseball awards Official website
Power hitter is a term used in baseball for a skilled player that has a higher than average ability in terms of his batting, featuring a combination of dexterity and personal strength that leads to a high number of home-runs as well as doubles and triples. In terms of detailed analysis, looking at a player's ability as a power hitter involves using statistics such as someone's'slugging percentage'.'Isolated Power', a measure showing the number of extra bases earned per time at bat that's calculated by subtracting someone's batting average from his slugging percentage, is another statistic used. The concept is analogous to that of a power pitcher, a player who relies on the velocity of his pitches and a high record of strikeout associated with them. Barry Bonds, who set the record for the most home runs in a season than any other player in Major League Baseball history, is cited as a power hitter, his career was bogged down by issues regarding performance enhancing drugs. However, he managed a total of 762 home runs while earning a comparatively high ISO compared to his rivals, with the publication Business Insider labeling him #3 in a list of the greatest power hitters of all time.
Other baseball figures so cited include the famous hitters Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Ted Williams. Popular newspaper writer Victor O. Jones wrote about Williams in particular, "Ted is lucky to come along in a baseball age that worships on the shrine of power, unadulterated power." List of Major League Baseball career home run leaders List of Major League Baseball career slugging percentage leaders Power pitcher
Double-A is the second highest level of play in Minor League Baseball in the United States after Triple-A. There are thirty Double-A teams in three leagues at this classification: Eastern League, Southern League, the Texas League; the modern Double-A classification was created in 1946 with the renaming of Class A1, which contained the Texas League and the Southern Association. After the Southern Association disbanded in 1961, the Eastern League and the original South Atlantic "Sally" League were bumped up to Double-A in the 1963 minor league reorganization; the SAL changed its name to the Southern League in 1964. The Double-A classification hosts developing players that have been part of professional baseball for only a couple of years; these players can get to the Double-A level by earning a promotion from any of the Single-A or Rookie leagues. Players advance directly to the majors from this level, as the level of competition is higher; because they are still advancing in their careers, the average talent level of Double-A may be higher than in Triple-A, which has minor and major league veterans who have been in the minor league system for a longer period of time and may have stagnated.
A small handful of players might be placed in Double-A to start veterans from foreign leagues or top prospects out of college. The step up to the Double-A level can be one of the hardest promotions for such players because it is the level at which pitchers need to have a good off-speed pitch in their repertoire. In addition, it is the level where fastball-only hitters need to learn how to hit off-speed pitches, or their hopes of advancing to the majors will diminish. Major League teams sometimes send players to play at the Double-A level to rehabilitate from injuries; because players are not moving back and forth from the Major Leagues at this level, the rosters tend to be more stable. Fans of Double-A teams have a longer amount of time to get acquainted with the players, which helps create a better relationship between the team and its fans. Unlike the major league and the Triple-A level, all three Double-A leagues have their season divided into two parts, after the Eastern League announced that it would move to that system starting in 2019.
One team may clinch a spot in the playoffs by winning the division in first half of the season. The teams' records are cleared and another team will clinch a playoff slot during the second half. Wild cards are used to fill out the remaining teams. Four teams qualify for the league playoffs; this system is used at the Class A level as well. As a part of professional baseball's pace-of-play initiatives implemented in 2015, 20-second pitch clocks entered use at Double-A stadiums in 2015. In 2018, the time was shortened to 15 seconds. Other significant changes implemented in 2018 include beginning extra innings with a runner on second base and limiting teams to eight mound visits during a nine-inning game. Beginning in 2019, the number of mound visits is reduced to seven, pitchers are required to face a minimum of three consecutive batters until the side is retired or the pitcher becomes injured and is unable to continue playing. Eastern League official website Southern League official website Texas League official website
Petco Park is a baseball park located in the downtown area of San Diego, United States, home to the San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball. The park opened in 2004, replacing Qualcomm Stadium, which the Padres shared with the San Diego Chargers of the National Football League. Petco Park is named after the San Diego-based pet supplies retailer Petco, which paid for the naming rights until 2026. In addition to baseball, the park is used as venue for concerts, soccer and rugby sevens; the ballpark is between 10th avenues, south of J Street. The southern side of the stadium is bounded by San Diego Trolley light rail tracks along the north side of Harbor Drive; the portion of K Street between Seventh and 10th now is closed to automobiles and serves as a pedestrian promenade along the back of the left and center field outfield seating. Two of the stadium's outfield entrance areas are located at K Street's intersections with Seventh and 10th avenues; the main entrance, behind home plate, is at the south end of Park Boulevard and faces the San Diego Trolley station 12th & Imperial Transit Center.
The ballpark is located 1 mile away from Santa Fe Depot station, served by Amtrak and Coaster. The ballpark was constructed by San Diego Ballpark Builders, a partnership with Clark Construction, ROEL Construction and Douglas E. Barnhart, Inc; the construction cost of more than $450 million was funded by the Center City Development Corporation and the San Diego Redevelopment Agency. The stadium was intended to be part of a comprehensive plan to revitalize San Diego's aging downtown the East Village area; the stadium is across Harbor Drive from the San Diego Convention Center, its main entrance behind home plate is two blocks from the downtown terminal of the San Diego Trolley light rail system. When the field was finished, the first home plate was placed by young San Diego native Marlon Cook, selected through the Boys & Girls Club of Memorial Park for his exceptional community involvement; the ballpark was scheduled to open for the 2002 season. Part of this was a court decision, which nullified an passed ballot proposition, required the proposition be put to voters a second time.
Construction encountered a further delay regarding the Western Metal Supply Co. building, a historic landmark. After negotiations with the preservation community, the builders agreed to rehabilitate the building in accordance with The Secretary of the Interior's Standards, the building was renovated and included in the stadium design in an example of adaptive reuse; the resulting delays required the Padres to play the 2002 and 2003 seasons at Jack Murphy/Qualcomm Stadium. The first baseball game played at Petco Park, March 11, 2004, was part of a four-team NCAA invitational tournament hosted by San Diego State University; the San Diego State Aztecs baseball team, of which retired Padres player Tony Gwynn was the head coach, defeated Houston. It was the largest attended game in college baseball history. Lance Zawadzki recorded the first hit. On April 8, 2004, there was lighthearted pushing and shoving before the gates opened about 4 p.m. as numerous Padres faithful tried to be the first to enter Petco Park.
Brent Walker, 17, had a distinction all to himself. "I'm proud to be the first fan to come in", said Walker, wearing a San Francisco Giants jersey. The San Diego Padres played their first regular season game and defeated the San Francisco Giants 4-3 in 10 innings. On April 15, 2004 Mark Loretta hit the first Padre home run off of Hideo Nomo of the Los Angeles Dodgers, it was caught by a bartender at the Kansas City Barbecue. The stadium's first playoff game came October 8, 2005; the St. Louis Cardinals beat the Padres, 7-4, to finish off the three-game sweep of the 2005 NLDS. On March 18 and 20, 2006, the ballpark hosted the semifinals and finals of the first World Baseball Classic, it hosted second-round games of the 2009 World Baseball Classic. On April 4, 2006, Petco Park had its first rainout, postponing a Padres evening game against the San Francisco Giants. On August 4, 2007, Barry Bonds hit. On April 17, 2008, the Padres and Rockies played in a 22-inning game, the longest game in Petco Park history.
The Rockies won the game, 2-1. It was the longest MLB game in nearly 15 years. On July 2, 2009, MLB experienced the first game delayed/halted by a swarm of bees at Petco Park in a game between the Padres and the Houston Astros. A small swarm of honeybees took up residence around a chair in left field, causing the game to be delayed by 52 minutes. A beekeeper was called in and the swarm was exterminated; the Astros went on to win that game, 7-2. On June 14, 2010, during a Toronto Blue Jays vs. San Diego Padres game, there was a magnitude-5.7 earthquake, centered about 85 miles east of San Diego. Play stopped momentarily in the eighth inning; the Blue Jays went on to win 6-3. Rain delays led to the suspension of the Padres' game with the Los Angeles Dodgers on April 8, 2011; the first delay caused the game to start 28 minutes late. Play was stopped for more than 90 minutes in the second inning and again in the sixth inning for more than hour; the score was tied at 2-2 in the top of the ninth inning when play was suspended at 1:40 a.m. PDT April 9.
After a fourth rain delay, the game was finished April 9, with the Dodgers winning in 11 innings, 4-2. On April 30, 2012
All-Star Futures Game
The All-Star Futures Game is an annual baseball exhibition game hosted by Major League Baseball. Started in 1999, a team of Minor League Baseball prospects from the United States and a team of prospects from other countries in the world compete against each other, it is played as part of the festivities of the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. The Futures Game was conceived by Jimmie Lee Solomon, an Executive Vice President of Baseball Operations for Major League Baseball, looking for an event to showcase the minor leagues and round out the All-Star week festivities. Early versions of the game created marginal interest in the baseball community, but the event has drawn significance each successive year. Rosters are selected by a joint committee consisting of Major League Baseball, MLB.com, Baseball America magazine. All 30 MLB organizations are represented, with no more than two players from any organization, 25 players per team, divided into U. S. and World teams based on place of birth. Any player selected to the All-Star Futures Game but promoted to the majors prior to the game is replaced.
Players born in Puerto Rico are part of the World team despite being U. S. citizens by birth, because that territory has its own national baseball federation and national team. The game is played by the same rules listed in the Official Baseball Rules published by Major League Baseball. One exception is that games last 9 innings, with up to 2 extra innings available to settle a tie after playing all regulation innings. Two major changes took place in the 2008 game: For the first time, the United States team was drawn from the pool of players selected by USA Baseball for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the game lasted nine innings in regulation, rather than seven. Note: For the award winners, see the "MVP" column in the "Results" section; each year, an award is presented to the game's most valuable player. In 2003, the name was changed from Futures Game Most Valuable Player Award to the Larry Doby Award. Five of the award winners to date have gone on to become MLB All-Stars: Alfonso Soriano, José Reyes, Grady Sizemore, Aaron Hill, Billy Butler.
All-Star Futures Game all-time roster Official website