Richard Allen Epstein is an American legal scholar known for his writings on subjects such as torts, property rights and economics, classical liberalism, libertarianism. Epstein is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Law and director of the Classical Liberal Institute at New York University, the Peter and Kirsten Bedford Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, the James Parker Hall Distinguished Service Professor of Law emeritus and a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago. Epstein's writings have extensively influenced American legal thought. In 2000, a study published in The Journal of Legal Studies identified Epstein as the 12th-most cited legal scholar of the 20th century. In 2008, he was chosen in a poll taken by Legal Affairs as one of the most influential legal thinkers of modern times. A study of legal publications between 2009 and 2013 found Epstein to be the 3rd-most cited American legal scholar during that period, behind only Cass Sunstein and Erwin Chemerinsky, he has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1985.
Richard A. Epstein was born on April 1943, in Brooklyn, New York, his grandparents were Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to the United States from Russia and Austria in the early 20th century. Epstein's father, Bernard Epstein, was a radiologist, his mother, Catherine Epstein, managed his father's medical office, he has two sisters. He attended elementary school at P. S. 161, a school, now one of the Success Academy Charter Schools. Epstein and his family lived in Brooklyn until 1954, when his father began working at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center and their family moved to Great Neck, Long Island. Epstein attended Columbia University as an undergraduate student in the early 1960s, he had wide-ranging academic interests and did not wish to select a traditional single major, obtained special permission from the university to pursue a self-selected program of study across the three areas of sociology and mathematics. He graduated with a B. A. summa cum laude in 1964. Epstein's undergraduate performance earned him a Kellett Fellowship, an award at Columbia that pays for two of each year's top graduates to spend two years in England studying at either Cambridge University or Oxford University.
Epstein chose to attend Oxford, where he was a member of Oriel College and earned a first-class honours B. A. in jurisprudence in 1966. He returned to the United States to attend the Yale Law School at Yale University, graduating with an LL. B. cum laude in 1968. After graduating from law school, Epstein was hired as an assistant professor of law at the University of Southern California, he taught at USC for four years before moving to the University of Chicago in 1972. Epstein taught at Chicago for 38 years holding the title of James Parker Hall Distinguished Service Professor of Law. Epstein formally retired from Chicago in 2010, but came out of retirement to join the faculty of New York University as its inaugural Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Law, he remains a professor emeritus and senior lecturer at Chicago, teaching courses there on an occasional basis. In 2013, New York University's School of Law established a new academic research center, the Classical Liberal Institute, named Epstein as its inaugural director.
Since 2001, Epstein has served as the Peter and Kirsten Bedford Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, a prominent American public policy think tank located at Stanford University. Epstein has received a number of awards. In 1983, Epstein was made a senior fellow at the Center for Clinical Medical Ethics at the University of Chicago Medical School, in 1985 was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he was editor of the Journal of Legal Studies from 1981 to 1991, was editor of the Journal of Law and Economics from 1991 to 2001. In 2003, Epstein received an honorary LL. D. degree from the University of Ghent, in 2018 received an honorary doctorate in law from the University of Siegen.. In 2005 the College of William & Mary awarded him the Brigham-Kanner Property Rights Prize for his contributions to the field of property rights,In 2011, he was awarded a Bradley Prize by the Bradley Foundation. Epstein became famous in the American legal community in 1985 with Harvard University Press' publication of his book Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain.
In Takings, Epstein argued that the "takings clause" of the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution—which reads, "...nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation", is traditionally viewed as a limit on the governmental power of eminent domain—gives constitutional protection to citizens' economic rights, so requires the government to be regarded the same as any other private entity in a property dispute. The argument was controversial and sparked a great deal of debate on the interpretation of the "takings clause" after its publication. In 1991, during Clarence Thomas' Supreme Court Justice confirmation hearings, Senator Joe Biden, "in a dramatic movement," held the book up and "repeatedly interrogated" Thomas regarding his position on the book's thesis; the book served as a focal point in the argument about the government's ability to control private property. The book has influenced how some courts view property rights and has been cited by the U. S. Supreme Court four times, including the 1992 case South Carolina Coastal Council.
Epstein is an advocate of minimal legal regulation. In his book Simple Rules for a Complex World, Epstein consolidated much of his previous work and argues that simple rules work best because complexities create excessive
Indiana's 8th congressional district
Indiana's 8th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Indiana. Based in southwest and west central Indiana, the district is anchored in Evansville and includes Jasper, Terre Haute and Washington. Referred to as "The Bloody Eighth" at the local levels, it was a notorious swing district. However, due to a political realignment similar to contemporary realignment happening in the Deep South and Appalachia, it has in recent elections become a safe Republican district; as of 2013. 13 Crawford County exists in both the 9th Congressional Districts. Within Crawford County, two whole townships. Evansville - 117,429 Terre Haute - 60,785 Vincennes - 18,423 Jasper - 15,038 Washington - 11,509 Greencastle - 10,326 Princeton - 8,644 Brazil - 7,912 Tell City - 7,272 Mt. Vernon - 6,687 Boonville - 6,246 Linton - 5,413 Clinton - 4,893 North Terre Haute - 4,305 Sullivan - 4,249 Newburgh - 3,325 Fort Branch - 2,771 Bicknell - 2,892 Based in Evansville, the 8th Congressional District was widened when Indiana lost a seat after the 2000 U.
S. Census to include much of 7th Congressional Districts. At that time, Bloomington was moved into the 9th Congressional District, while the 8th Congressional District was extended northward to include much of the former 7th Congressional District in west-central Indiana, including Terre Haute; as a result of this expansion, the district is the largest in area in Indiana with all or part of 18 counties. The district has been nicknamed "The Bloody Eighth" because of a series of hard-fought campaigns and political reversals. Unlike most other districts in the state, which give their representatives long tenures in Washington, the 8th Congressional District has a reputation for ousting its incumbents. Voters in the district ousted six incumbents from 1966 to 1982; the election in 1984 was so close that the House of Representatives itself determined which of two candidates to sit, accepting the recommendation of a Democratically controlled House task force sent to Indiana to count the ballots, with the winner holding a margin of four votes out of 233,000 cast.
Although Southern Indiana is ancestrally Democratic, the Democrats in this area are nowhere near as liberal as their counterparts in the rest of the state. The district has a strong tint of social conservatism. In 2000, a New York Times reporter said of the district: "With a populist streak and a conservative bent, this district does not cotton to country club Republicans or to social-engineering liberals," and said, "More than 95 percent white and about 41 percent rural, the region shares much of the flavor of the Bible Belt."The district was represented by Brad Ellsworth, a moderate Democrat. As a result of Ellsworth's landslide defeat of 12-year incumbent John Hostettler, it was the first district picked up by the Democrats on Election Night 2006. Ellsworth ran unsuccessfully for U. S. Senate in 2010 and was succeeded by Republican Larry Bucshon in the same election cycle. In 2013, the district shifted away from Northern Indiana and more towards Evansville, losing Fountain and Warren Counties, gaining Dubois and Spencer Counties, a portion of Crawford County, uniting southwestern Indiana under one district.
As of January 2019, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Indiana's 8th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was H. Joel Deckard on September 6, 2016; the most serving representative to die was Frank McCloskey on November 2, 2003. Note: There has been another change since the "most recent" image, reflected on the'Indiana districts' page. Indiana's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressman Larry Bucshon Official House Site39°N 87°W
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O
Cass Robert Sunstein FBA is an American legal scholar in the fields of constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, law and behavioral economics, the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2012. For 27 years, Sunstein taught at the University of Chicago Law School. Sunstein is the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard Law School. Studies of legal publications between 2009 and 2013 found Sunstein to be the most cited American legal scholar by a wide margin, followed by Erwin Chemerinsky and Richard A. Epstein. Sunstein was born on September 21, 1954 in Waban, Massachusetts to Marian, a teacher, Cass Richard Sunstein, a builder, both Jewish, he graduated in 1972 from Middlesex School and in 1975 with a B. A. from Harvard College, where he was a member of the varsity squash team and the Harvard Lampoon. In 1978, Sunstein received a J. D. magna cum laude from Harvard Law School, where he was executive editor of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review and part of a winning team of the Ames Moot Court Competition.
He served as a law clerk first for Justice Benjamin Kaplan of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and for Justice Thurgood Marshall of the United States Supreme Court. Sunstein joined the Office of Legal Counsel in the Justice Department as an attorney-advisor and took a job as an assistant professor of law at the University of Chicago Law School, where he became an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science. In 1985, Sunstein was made a full professor of both political law; the university honored him in 1993 with its "distinguished service" accolade, permanently changing his title to Karl N. Llewellyn Distinguished Service Professor of Jurisprudence in the Law School and Department of Political Science. Sunstein was the Samuel Rubin Visiting Professor of Law at Columbia Law School in the fall of 1986 and a visiting professor at Harvard Law School in the spring 1987, winter 2005, spring 2007 terms, he teaches courses in constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, as well as the required first-year course "Elements of the Law", an introduction to legal reasoning, legal theory, the interdisciplinary study of law, including law and economics.
In the fall of 2008, he joined the faculty of Harvard Law School and began serving as the director of its Program on Risk Regulation: The Program on Risk Regulation will focus on how law and policy deal with the central hazards of the 21st century. Anticipated areas of study include terrorism, climate change, occupational safety, infectious diseases, natural disasters, other low-probability, high-consequence events. Sunstein plans to rely on significant student involvement in the work of this new program. On January 7, 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that Sunstein would be named to head the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs; that news generated controversy among environmentalists. Sunstein's confirmation was long blocked because of controversy over allegations about his political and academic views. On September 9, 2009, the Senate voted for cloture on Sunstein's nomination as Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget.
The motion passed in a 63–35 vote. The Senate confirmed Sunstein on September 2009 in a 57 -- 40 vote. In his research on risk regulation, Sunstein is known for developing, together with Timur Kuran, the concept of availability cascades, wherein popular discussion of an idea is self-feeding and causes individuals to over weigh its importance. Sunstein's books include After the Rights Revolution, The Partial Constitution and the Problem of Free Speech, Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict, Free Markets and Social Justice, One Case at a Time and Reason, Why Societies Need Dissent, Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle, Radicals in Robes: Why Extreme Right-Wing Courts Are Wrong for America, Are Judges Political? An Empirical Analysis of the Federal Judiciary, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge, and, co-authored with Richard Thaler, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health and Happiness. Sunstein's 2006 book, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge, explores methods for aggregating information.
Sunstein's 2004 book, The Second Bill of Rights: FDR's Unfinished Revolution and Why We Need It More than Ever, advocates the Second Bill of Rights proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Among these rights are a right to an education, a right to a home, a right to health care, a right to protection against monopolies, his 2001 book, Republic.com, argued that the Internet may weaken democracy because it allows citizens to isolate themselves within groups that share their own views and experiences, thus cut themselves off from any information that might challenge their beliefs, a phenomenon known as cyberbalkanization. He recanted many of the views expressed in the book before his confirmation as administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in order to receive Senate confirmation. Asked by Rudy Takala if Sunstein's views nonetheless persisted in the Obama administration, U. S. Federal Communica
University of Nebraska Press
The University of Nebraska Press known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books. The press is under the auspices of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, the main campus of the University of Nebraska system. UNP publishes non-fiction books and academic journals, in both print and electronic editions; the press has strong publishing programs in Native American studies, Western American history, sports and national affairs, military history. The press has been active in reprinting classic books from various genres, including science fiction and fantasy. Since its inception, UNP has published more than 4,000 books and 30 journals, adding another 150 new titles each year, making it the 12th largest university press in the United States. Since 2010, two of UNP's books have received the Bancroft Prize, the highest honor bestowed on history books in the U. S. UNP began in November 1941 at the prompting of University of Nebraska Chancellor Chauncey Borcher, who hired Emily Schossberger as UNP's first editor.
UNP became 7th in the Midwest. During Schossberger's 17-year tenure UNP published 97 books focused on regional titles and the works of Louise Pound, Karl Shapiro, George W. Norris. Following Schossberger's departure, Bruce Nicoll became UNP's first official director and Virginia Faulkner became editor-in-chief. Nicoll led the UNP for 27 years and expanded its focus to publish books of more diverse backgrounds, not monographs for and by scholars; that led to the launch of UNP's first imprint in 1961, Bison Books, specializing in paperback books which would be sold in non-traditional places such as truck stops, drug stores, gas stations. In 1966 the press expanded by creating distribution partnerships overseas. In 1975, Dave Gilbert became UNP director and reoriented Bison Books toward a more western focus. Gilbert hired designer Richard Eckersley and his wife Dika to bring all book design in house. Gilbert left UNP for a post at Cornell University and was succeeded by editor-in-chief Bill Reiger, UNP's third full-time director.
Reiger expanded UNP's focus beyond the American West. UNP into foreign translations and literature France and Scandinavia, with three translation authors receiving Nobel Prizes. By 1991, UNP had 2,000 books in print, was adding 100 new books a year, had annual sales of $4.5 million. In 1995, Dan Ross took over as UNP's fourth director, expanding Bison Books to focus on sports books baseball, resulting in UNP's regarded publishing program in sports; that same year UNP's annual sales topped $6 million, a 600 percent increase from 1980. By the early 2000s, Gary Dunham took over as director and in 2009 UNP sold its longtime warehouse in the Haymarket. With Donna Shear as editor-in-chief, Bison Books was redefined to represent books of the west and UNP in general switched to a print-on-demand model of publishing, coordinating simultaneous release of e-books with the print editions. Shear tripled journal production to 30 publications and in September 2011 the press entered into a collaborative publishing arrangement with the Jewish Publication Society, one of the oldest Jewish publishers in the United States.
In April 2013, the press acquired Potomac Books, a publisher specializing in military and diplomatic topics. With the new additions, UNP surpassed $7 million in sales in 2015, moved up in status with the American Association of University Presses, become the 12th largest university press in the country. Since 2010, two of the press' books have received the Bancroft Prize, the highest honor bestowed on history books in the U. S. Under its Nebraska imprint, UNP publishes both scholarly and general interest books, with a particular focus on Native and Indigenous studies, sports history, American studies and cultural criticism, environmental studies and creative works. UNP publishes scholarly editions of the works of Willa Cather, including the classics My Antonia and O Pioneers!. Bison Books began in 1961 as UNP's first trade imprint and focused on inexpensive paperbacks of general-interest works in Western Americana. In 2013 Bison Books shifted its focus to the trans-Mississippi West; the imprint has featured the work of notable authors such as André Breton, George Armstrong Custer, William F. Cody, Loren Eiseley, Michel Foucault, Che Guevara, Wright Morris, Tillie Olsen, Mari Sandoz, Wallace Stegner, Leo Tolstoy, Philip Wylie, Stefan Zweig.
Potomac Books began in 1983 as the imprint of British publishing house Brassey and established a strong reputation for works on military history. The trade imprint was acquired by Books International in 1999 and renamed Potomac Books in 2004, expanding its catalog to include world and national affairs, presidential history and diplomacy, biography and memoir. UNP purchased Potomac Books in 2013; the Jewish Publication Society known as JPS and known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. Founded in Philadelphia in 1888, JPS is well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh. UNP purchased all of JPS's outstanding book inventory, is responsible for the production and marketing of all JPS publications, although JPS continues its operations from its Philadelphia headquarters, acquiring new manuscripts and developing new projects. Prairie Schooner magazine Nineteenth-Century French Studies Official website Fight Over a Beloved Book
Gordon S. Wood
Gordon Stewart Wood is the Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution, his book The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 won a 1970 Bancroft Prize. In 2010, he was awarded the National Humanities Medal. Wood was born in Concord and grew up in Worcester and Waltham, he has served as a trustee there. After serving in the U. S. Air Force in Japan, during which time he earned an A. M. at Harvard University, he entered the Ph. D. program in history at Harvard, where he studied under Bernard Bailyn, receiving his Ph. D. in 1964. Wood has taught at Harvard, the College of William and Mary, the University of Michigan, Brown University, in 1982–83 was Pitt Professor at Cambridge University. In addition to his books, Wood has written numerous influential articles, notably "Rhetoric and Reality in the American Revolution", "Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style: Causality and Deceit in the Eighteenth century", "Interests and Disinterestedness in the Making of the Constitution".
He is a frequent contributor to The New York Review of Books and The New Republic. A recent project was the third volume of the Oxford History of the United States – Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 – a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. Contributing to the anthology Our American Story, Wood addressed the possibility of a shared American narrative, he focused on the idea of equality as "the most radical and most powerful ideological force" that the American Revolution unleashed. "This powerful sense of equality is still alive and well in America, despite all of its disturbing and unsettling consequences, it is what makes us one people." Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich publicly and effusively praised Wood's The Radicalism of the American Revolution, erroneously calling it The Founding of America. Wood, who met Gingrich once in 1994, surmised that Gingrich may have approved because the book "had a kind of Toquevillian touch to it, I guess, maybe suggesting American exceptionalism, that he liked".
He jokingly described Gingrich's praise in an interview on C-SPAN in 2002 as "the kiss of death for me among a lot of academics, who are not right-wing Republicans."In one of the celebrated scenes of the 1997 movie Good Will Hunting, Matt Damon's title character gets into a battle of wits with a student from Harvard University, whom he accuses of uncritically parroting the views of the authors on his reading list as a first-year graduate student. He goes on to predict that a little in his curriculum, he would be "regurgitating Gordon Wood." The student begins to respond with a critique of Wood, which Hunting interrupts and incorrectly claims to be a passage plagiarized from page 98 of Daniel Vickers' Work in Essex County. In "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia" S5 E12, Charlie references Gordon Wood at a college party, trying to replicate the success of Matt Damon's character in "Good Will Hunting", he has little success since he has no idea who or what Gordon Wood or his work is - embarrassingly assuming he will be able to pull off the same argument as he is a janitor like Matt Damon's character.
Wood married the former Louise Goss on April 30, 1956. They have three children: Christopher and Amy, their son, Christopher Wood, is a professor of German at New York University and their daughter, Amy, is a professor of history at Illinois State University, Elizabeth is an administrator at Milton Academy. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787, University of North Carolina Press, 1969, 1998. Representation in the American Revolution, University of Virginia Press, 1969; the Rising Glory of America, 1760–1820, George Braziller, 1971, revised edition, Northeastern University Press, 1990. The Confederation and the Constitution, Brown, 1973. Revolution and the Political Integration of the Enslaved and Disenfranchised, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1974. Leadership in the American Revolution, Library of Congress, 1974. Social Radicalism and the Idea of Equality in the American Revolution, University of St. Thomas, 1976; the Great Republic, Brown, 1977, 4th edition, Heath, 1992.
The Making of the Constitution, Baylor University Press, 1987. Rising Glory of America, 1760–1820, Northeastern University Press, 1990; the Radicalism of the American Revolution, Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. Russian-American Dialogue on the American Revolution, University of Missouri Press, 1995. Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997. Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret the Past, Princeton University Press, 1998. Monarchism and Republicanism in the Early United States, La Trobe University, 2000; the American Revolution: A History, Modern Library, 2001. The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin, Penguin Press, 2004. Revolutionary Characters: W
2016 Republican National Convention
The 2016 Republican National Convention, in which delegates of the United States Republican Party chose the party's nominees for President of the United States and Vice President of the United States in the 2016 U. S. presidential election, was held July 18 -- 2016, at Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland, Ohio. The event marked the third time Cleveland has hosted the Republican National Convention and the first since 1936. In addition to determining the party's national ticket, the convention ratified the party platform. There were 2,472 delegates to the Republican National Convention, with a simple majority of 1,237 required to win the presidential nomination. Most of those delegates were bound for the first ballot of the convention based on the results of the 2016 Republican presidential primaries; the convention formally nominated Donald Trump for President and Indiana Governor Mike Pence for Vice President. Trump and Pence went on to win the general election with a majority of the electoral votes, although Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton and her running mate Tim Kaine received the largest number of popular votes.
In 2016, both the Democratic and Republican conventions were held before the Summer Olympics instead of after, as was the case in 2008 and 2012. One reason the Republican Party scheduled their convention in July was to help avoid a longer, drawn-out primary battle similar to what happened in 2012, which left the party fractured heading into the general election and led to Mitt Romney losing the election to Barack Obama; the Democratic Party followed suit, scheduling their convention in Philadelphia the week after the Republicans' convention, to provide a quicker response. On May 3, Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus declared Donald Trump the presumptive nominee after Texas senator Ted Cruz dropped out of the race; the next day, Ohio Governor John Kasich suspended his campaign making Trump the presumptive Republican presidential nominee. Trump was the first presidential nominee of a major party since Wendell Willkie, the Republican candidate in 1940, who has held neither political office nor a high military rank prior to his nomination.
He was the first presidential nominee of a major party without political experience since General Dwight D. Eisenhower first captured the Republican presidential nomination in 1952; this was the first Republican National Convention to be held in July since 1980. Twitter and CBS News live streamed the convention via Twitter. On April 2, 2014, the Republican National Committee announced that Cincinnati, Dallas, Kansas City and Las Vegas were the finalists for hosting the convention. In late June 2014, Cleveland and Dallas were announced as the final two contenders to be the host city. Cleveland was selected on July 8, 2014; the 2016 Cleveland Host Committee, an Ohio nonprofit corporation with no political affiliation, is the official and federally designated Presidential Convention Host Committee for the convention. It is responsible for "organizing and funding" the convention; the Host Committee is composed of prominent Ohio business executives, civic leaders, other community leaders. David Gilbert, CEO of Destination Cleveland and the Greater Cleveland Sports Commission, is the President and CEO of the host committee.
Organizers have found it hard to raise the money needed to put on the convention, supported by corporate donations. Corporations that donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to the 2012 convention but nothing in 2016 include JPMorgan Chase, General Electric, Ford Motor Company, Motorola Solutions and Amgen. Reluctance to be associated with Trump, or concern that the convention might be disrupted by floor fights or violence, were sometimes cited as factors in the decision to withhold funds. In July as the convention got under way, the Cleveland Host Committee said it had raised $58 million of its $64 million goal, they asked billionaire Sheldon Adelson, who contributes to Republicans, to make up the $6 million shortfall. Quicken Loans Arena was selected in July 2014 as the host site for the 2016 Republican National Convention; the arena hosted the first Republican presidential debate of the 2016 election, aired by Fox News Channel, on August 6, 2015. The convention was held July 18–21, 2016; the Cleveland 2016 Host Committee, who "facilitated construction of the'cloakroom" space' for Republican lawmakers, which consisted of an "exclusive office and gathering space" built on the Cleveland Cavaliers practice court, received $923,100 from the Friends of the House 2016 LLC".
Bank records obtained by the Center for Public Integrity show that Comcast, the American Petroleum Institute, Koch Companies Public Sector, PhRMA, other trade and lobby groups, "funded a limited liability company called'Friends of the House 2016 LLC' to pay for the'cloakroom.' The convention is designated as a National Special Security Event, meaning that ultimate authority over law enforcement goes to the Secret Service and Department of Homeland Security. A publicized online petition by gun activists to allow the open carry of guns inside Quicken Loans Arena garnered 45,000 signatures; the Secret Service has the autho