San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Ballyfermot is a suburb in the city of Dublin, Ireland. Located seven kilometres west of the city centre, south of the Phoenix Park, it is bordered on the north by Chapelizod, on the south by Walkinstown, on the east by Inchicore, on the north-west by Palmerstown and the south-west by Clondalkin; the River Liffey lies to the north, the Grand Canal, now a recreational waterway, lies to the south. Ballyfermot is designated as postal district Dublin 10. Cherry Orchard is a suburb within Ballyfermot. Ballyfermot is a civil parish in the barony of Uppercross; the place name Ballyfermot—rendered in Irish Baile Formaid and sometimes Baile Thormaid—is derived from the Middle Irish baile, the Old Norse personal name Þormundr. The 12th century saw the Cambro-Normans expand west from Pembroke in South Wales into Leinster; the Papal Bull Laudabiliter of Adrian IV, encouragement by his successor, Pope Alexander III urged a Norman invasion of Ireland. An expeditionary force led by Richard De Clare with a retinue of about six hundred were dispatched with the consent of Angevin King Henry II of England.
They arrived at Wexford in 1169 by invitation from Ri of Leinster. Diarmait was at war with the Ard Rí, Ruari O'Conor and Tighernan O'Ruairc, Prince of Breffni who together had unseated him. After the Treaty of Windsor in 1175, through feudal land grants and intermarriage, the Cambro Norman knights came into possession of land in south and west Dublin. Family names associated with the area at this time included Mac Giolla Mocolmog, O'Cathasaidhe, Fitzwilliam, Le Gros, O'Dualainghe, Tyrrell, O'Hennessy, O'Morchain, Dillon, O'Kelly, De Barneval, Newcomyn. In 1307 the manor of Ballyfermot was held by William Fitzwilliam and his wife Avice, who leased part of it to Thomas Cantock, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Ballyfermot Castle, was constructed on the site of bailey. Located northwest of the intersection of Le Fanu and Raheen Roads, it was the centre of the Upper and Lower Ballyfermot townships. Built in stone by Wolfram De Barneval in the fourteenth century, it was a stronghold against the formidable O'Byrnes and O'Tooles.
These aboriginal Gaelic families had been discommoded from their lush home-farms around Naas. They were driven south into the wooded Dublin hills. Unlike their intermarried Mac Giolla Mocolmog relatives, now called FitzDiarmuid, they had not integrated into the evolving Hiberno-Norman society, they raided and burned local bawn enclosures from their inaccessible hillside encampments beyond Brittas and Bohernabreena. The Castle was inherited by the Newcomen family, who enhanced it and held it into the mid-seventeenth century, its political importance subsequently declined with the Newcomens. It housed a school managed by headmaster William Prosser in the latter eighteenth century. Samuel Lewis in his celebrated work A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland places a Captain Lampier and his wife Bridget as living there in 1834; the castle defence wing to the south and east is reputed to have been destroyed by fire. Ballyfermot House, known locally as'the tiled house', was built by the Verveer family, it stood on the great park to the north of the castle's aquaculture pond.
Built in the early eighteenth century, the house had a quirky slated façade in the Dutch style. The nineteenth century newspaper publisher and writer Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu, proprietor of the Dublin Evening Mail lived in nearby Chapelizod when not in residence his city townhouse at Merrion Square. Ballyfermot and Chapelizod feature in his novel The House by the Churchyard and some of his other works; this large Georgian house still adjoins Church Lane next to St. Laurence's parish churchyard in Chapelizod; the eighteenth-century church, alongside the original medieval bell tower, is still in use. It serves the united parish of Ballyfermot and Chapelizod in the Church of Ireland. Le Fanu Road is named. Le Fanu was a mentor of the writer Bram Stoker author of Dracula, who did the theatre reviews for his newspaper The Dublin Evening Mail. A short distance from the castle site at the south-east end of Le Fanu Park is a mound which covers the ruins and churchyard of the rectory church of St Laurence.
It is believed to have roots in Celtic Christianity a minor branch of the Tallaght Maelruain or Kilnamanagh monasteries. It was connected to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem at Kilmainham in the thirteenth century; the churchyard ruins survived into the nineteen sixties. This church served the surrounding townlands into the late seventeenth century. Among the local people buried here are members of the Newcomen and Barnewall families. Sir Robert Newcomen who died in 1629 and his son Sir Beverley Newcomen, Admiral of Ireland, who died in 1637 while taking soundings at Waterford harbour were buried here, his mother Elizabeth who died in 1643 is buried. She subsequently married Sir Hubert Adrian-Verveer; the Newcomens, Barons of Newcastle Lyons were influential in Irish governance and legal circles. They resided at Ballyfermot Castle; this noble family intermarried with the Barnwalls of Drimnagh, the Plunketts of Malahide and the St. Lawrences of Howth. MPs for the Westmeath constituency of Kilbeggan, they married into the Fitzgeralds of Maynooth, the Nugents, Husseys and Nagles of East and West Meath.
Area manor houses of note include Johnstown House, Colepark House, Sarsfield House, Floraville, Auburn Villa and Gallanstown House. The Ballyfermot townl
Jon Stewart is an American comedian, producer, political commentator and television host. He hosted The Daily Show, a satirical news program on Comedy Central, from 1999 to 2015. Stewart started as a stand-up comedian but branched into television as host of Short Attention Span Theater for Comedy Central, he went on to host The Jon Stewart Show and You Wrote It, You Watch It, both on MTV. Stewart has had several film roles as an actor but did few cinematic projects after becoming host of The Daily Show in 1999, he was a writer and co-executive producer of the show. After Stewart joined, The Daily Show gained popularity and critical acclaim, during his tenure, The Daily Show won 22 Primetime Emmy Awards. Stewart is known as an outspoken, humorous critic of personality-driven media shows, in particular those of the U. S. media networks such as CNN, Fox News, MSNBC. Critics say Stewart benefits from a double standard: he critiques other news shows from the safe, removed position of his "news satire" desk.
Stewart agrees, saying that neither his show nor Comedy Central purport to be anything other than satire and comedy. In spite of its self-professed entertainment mandate, The Daily Show has been nominated for news and journalism awards among its accolades. Stewart hosted the 80th Academy Awards, he is the co-author of America: A Citizen's Guide to Democracy Inaction, one of the best-selling books in the U. S. in 2004, Earth: A Visitor's Guide to the Human Race, released in 2010. Jon Stewart was born Jonathan Stuart Leibowitz on November 28, 1962, in New York City, to Marian, a teacher and educational consultant, Donald Leibowitz, a professor of physics at The College of New Jersey and Thomas Edison State College. Stewart's family are Jewish immigrants to America from Poland and Belarus. One of his grandfathers was born in Manzhouli, he is the second of four sons, with younger brothers Dan and Matthew. Stewart's parents divorced when he was eleven years old, Stewart was estranged from his father.
Because of his strained relationship with his father, which in 2015 he described as "still'complicated'", he dropped his surname and began using his middle name, Stuart. Stewart stated, "There was a thought of using my mother's maiden name, but I thought that would be just too big a fuck you to my dad... Did I have some problems with my father? Yes, yet people always view through the prism of ethnic identity." He had his surname changed to Stewart in 2001. Stewart and his brother Lawrence, the Chief Operating Officer of NYSE Euronext, grew up in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, where they attended Lawrence High School. According to Stewart, he was subjected to anti-Semitic bullying as a child, he describes himself in high school as "very into Eugene Debs and a bit of a leftist."Stewart grew up in the era of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal, which inspired in him "a healthy skepticism towards official reports". His first job was working with his brother at a Woolworth's store, jokingly says being fired by Lawrence was one of the "scarring events" of his youth.
Stewart graduated in 1984 from The College of William & Mary in Virginia, where he played on the soccer team and majored in chemistry before switching to psychology. While at William & Mary, Stewart became a brother of the Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity, but disassociated himself from the fraternity and left after six months. "My college career was waking up late, memorizing someone else's notes, doing bong hits, going to soccer practice," he said. His soccer coach would describe him as a "good player" with "high energy". After college, Stewart held numerous jobs: a contingency planner for the New Jersey Department of Human Services, a contract administrator for the City University of New York, a puppeteer for children with disabilities, a soccer coach at Gloucester High School in Virginia, a caterer, a busboy, a shelf stocker at Woolworth's, a bartender at the Franklin Corner Tavern, a bartender at the legendary City Gardens in Trenton, New Jersey, he has said that working at City Gardens was a pivotal moment for him: "finding this place City Gardens was like,'Oh, maybe I'm not a giant weirdo.
Maybe there are other people who have a similar sense of yearning for something other than what they have now.' I think it inspired a lot of man. It was a creative environment, it was a place of great possibility." With a reputation for being a funny man in school, Jon Stewart returned to New York City in 1986 to try his hand at the comedy club circuit, but he could not muster the courage to get on stage until the following year. He made his stand-up debut at The Bitter End, where his comedic idol, Woody Allen began, he began using the stage name "Jon Stewart" by dropping his last name and changing the spelling of his middle name "Stuart" to "Stewart". He jokes this is because people had difficulty with the pronunciation of Leibowitz or it "sounded too Hollywood", he has implied that the name change was due to a strained relationship with his father, with whom Stewart no longer had any contact. Stewart became a regular at the Comedy Cellar. For two years, he would perform at 2 a.m.. In 1989, Stewart landed his first television job as a writer for Caroline's Comedy Hour.
In 1990, he began co-hosting Comedy Central's Short Attention Span Theater, with Patty Rosborough. In 1992, Stewar
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
The Mentalist is an American drama television series that ran from September 23, 2008, until February 18, 2015, broadcasting 151 episodes over seven seasons, on CBS. Created by Bruno Heller, its executive producer, the show follows former "psychic" Patrick Jane, a consultant to the California Bureau of Investigation, using the developed observational skills he employed to "read" people's minds; the series follows Patrick Jane, an independent consultant for the California Bureau of Investigation based in Sacramento, California. Although not an officer of the law, he uses his skills from his former career as a successful, yet admittedly fraudulent, psychic medium to help a team of CBI agents solve murders; the real reason for Jane's involvement with law enforcement is to track down the serial killer known as Red John, responsible for the brutal murders of his wife, Angela Ruskin Jane, his daughter, Charlotte Anne Jane. Before the murders, Jane had a lucrative career as a con man posing as a psychic medium and enjoyed near-celebrity status.
Five years before the events in the show's pilot episode, he appeared on television to claim that his paranormal abilities helped the police profile a serial killer named Red John. Red John, angered by the perceived slight, murdered his young daughter in revenge. Jane subsequently abandoned his career and teamed with the CBI, using his skills to help them solve various crimes, his main focus is on the cases involving Red Red John copycats. He admits to faking the supernatural aspects of his skills asserting that "there's no such thing as psychics", yet he has finely honed skills in cold reading and picking pockets, as well as his intuitive observations and an immense insight into the human psyche and the behavior of witnesses, his associates at the CBI include their boss, Teresa Lisbon, colleagues Wayne Rigsby, Grace Van Pelt, Kimball Cho. Various directors and recurring civilians come across as the show unfolds, including Sam Bosco and Gale Bertram, Kristina Frye and Walter Mashburn; as the show progresses, the focus shifts from general cases through seasons one to three, to catching Red John, through seasons four to six.
At the midpoint of season six, the Red John case is solved, the FBI steps in, closing the CBI, the show adopts a new track for two seasons, along with a few new characters. The show set episodes based on fictional locales with names such as Salinger Mill and Rancho Rosa. Like the majority of American television shows, The Mentalist was filmed within the studio zone in Los Angeles County, but filmed a few scenes on location in Sacramento; the structure used to represent the CBI headquarters in Sacramento is the back of the Pico House in downtown Los Angeles. On October 15, 2008, CBS ordered the first season of The Mentalist and the show has subsequently been renewed annually since 2010, both in the domestic market and overseas. TNT began syndicating The Mentalist in the fall of 2011. In the period between the end of Late Show with David Letterman and Late Show with Stephen Colbert in the summer of 2015, The Mentalist was carried weeknights on CBS in full as part of the network's temporary late-night lineup.
In November 2013, Amanda Righetti and Owain Yeoman were confirmed to be leaving after season six concluded. On May 10, 2014, CBS renewed the series for a 13-episode seventh season, which premiered on November 30, 2014, announced it as the final season. In the season-seven episode "Orange Blossom Ice Cream", scenes set in Beirut were filmed in Los Angeles and supplemented by freelance footage of Beirut by Michael Timney; the first season of The Mentalist received positive reviews, with critics being divided on the procedural format, but praising the performance of Simon Baker. On Rotten Tomatoes, season one had an overall rating of 53% from 19 critics, with the consensus saying, "The setup and episodic storytelling is far from original, but The Mentalist distinguishes itself from other procedurals due to the talents of Simon Baker." On Metacritic, season one has a score of 65/100, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Robert Bianco of USA Today felt the pilot episode lacked in originality, but praised Baker, saying, "The Mentalist may be a copy, but it's a well-done copy sparked by an actor who has come into his own as a TV star."
Matthew Gilbert of The Boston Globe said, "the CBS show has little dramatic heft or distinction, but it's wily and brisk enough to engage you for an hour." Gilbert praised the chemistry between Baker and Tunney, but criticized the crime cases, feeling they were predictable and at times uninteresting. Mary McNamara of The Los Angeles Times praised Baker as "virtually irresistible" and said, "...psychological sleight of hand can't fill an hour every week. For that you need complicated, interesting crimes and complicated, interesting characters solving them; the Mentalist seems prepared to deliver just that."The pilot episode had an audience of 15.6 million viewers in its first airing, 7.8 million in a reairing three days later. The December 2, 2008, episode, "Flame Red", was the highest-rated television show of the week, marking the first time a program in its first season had achieved that distinction since Desperate Housewives four years earlier; the show drew comparisons to the USA Network comedy Psych, which featured a lead character with heightened powers of observation that were mistaken for psychic abilities, who works as an independent consultant for law enforcement in California, which debuted two years earlier, including Psych itself making repeated references to the similarities with the later-premiering show.
2009: 25th TCA Awards for "Outstanding new pr
Donald McNichol Sutherland is a Canadian actor whose film career spans more than five decades. Sutherland rose to fame after starring in a series of successful films including The Dirty Dozen, M*A*S*H, Kelly's Heroes, Don't Look Now, Fellini's Casanova, 1900, Animal House, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Ordinary People and Eye of the Needle, he subsequently established himself as one of the most respected and versatile character actors of Canada. He went on to star in many other successful films where he appeared either in leading or supporting roles such as A Dry White Season, JFK, Outbreak, A Time to Kill, Without Limits, The Italian Job, Cold Mountain, Pride & Prejudice, Aurora Borealis and The Hunger Games franchise. Sutherland has been nominated for eight Golden Globe Awards, winning two for his performances in the television films Citizen X and Path to War. Inductee of Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canadian Walk of Fame, he received a Canadian Academy Award for the drama film Threshold.
Several media outlets and movie critics describe him as one of the best actors who have never been nominated for an Academy Award. In 2017, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his contributions to cinema, he is the father of Rossif Sutherland and Angus Sutherland. Sutherland was born in Saint John, New Brunswick, the son of Dorothy Isobel and Frederick McLea Sutherland, who worked in sales and ran the local gas and bus company, he is of Scottish and English ancestry. As a child, he had rheumatic fever and poliomyelitis, his teenage years were spent in Nova Scotia. He obtained his first part-time job, at the age of 14, as a news correspondent for local radio station CKBW. Sutherland graduated from Bridgewater High School, he studied at Victoria University, an affiliated college of the University of Toronto, where he met his first wife Lois Hardwick, graduated with a double major in engineering and drama. He had at one point been a member of the "UC Follies" comedy troupe in Toronto, he changed his mind about becoming an engineer, left Canada for Britain in 1957, studying at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art.
After quitting the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, Sutherland spent a year and a half at the Perth Repertory Theatre in Scotland. In the early to mid-1960s, Sutherland began to gain small roles in British films and TV, he featured alongside Christopher Lee in horror films such as Castle of the Living Dead and Dr. Terror's House of Horrors, he had a supporting role in the Hammer Films production Die! Die! My Darling!, with Tallulah Bankhead and Stefanie Powers. In the same year, he appeared in the Cold War classic The Bedford Incident and appeared in the TV series The Saint, in the 1965 episode "The Happy Suicide", in the TV series Gideon's Way, in the 1966 episode "The Millionaire's Daughter". In 1966, Sutherland appeared in the BBC TV play Lee Oswald-Assassin, playing a friend of Lee Harvey Oswald, Charles Givens. In 1967, he appeared in "The Superlative Seven," an episode of The Avengers, he made a second, more substantial appearance in The Saint. The episode, "Escape Route," was directed by the show's star, Roger Moore, who recalled that Sutherland "asked me if he could show it to some producers as he was up for an important role... they came to view a rough cut and he got The Dirty Dozen."
The film, which starred Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson, was the 5th highest-grossing film of 1967 and MGM's highest-grossing movie of the year. In 1968, after the breakthrough in the UK-filmed The Dirty Dozen, Sutherland left London for Hollywood, he appeared in two war films, playing the lead role as "Hawkeye" Pierce in Robert Altman's MASH in 1970. Sutherland starred with Gene Wilder in the 1970 comedy Start the Revolution Without Me. During the filming of the Academy Award-winning detective thriller Klute, Sutherland had an intimate relationship with co-star Jane Fonda. Sutherland and Fonda went on to co-produce and star together in the anti-Vietnam War documentary F. T. A. Consisting of a series of sketches performed outside army bases in the Pacific Rim and interviews with American troops who were on active service. A follow up to their teaming up in Klute and Fonda performed together in Steelyard Blues, a "freewheeling, Age-of-Aquarius, romp-and-roll caper" from the writer David S. Ward. Sutherland found himself as a leading man throughout the 1970s in films such as the Venice-based psychological horror film Don't Look Now, co-starring Julie Christie, a role which saw him nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor, the war film The Eagle Has Landed, Federico Fellini's Casanova and the thriller Eye of the Needle.
His role as Corpse of Lt. Robert Schmied in the Maximilian Schell's 1976 German film-directed End of the Game is listed in crazy credits, and as the ever-optimistic health inspector in the science fiction/horror film Invasion of the Body Snatchers alongside Brooke Adams and Jeff Goldblum. He helped launch the internationally popular Canadian television series Witness to Yesterday, with a performance as the Montreal doctor Norman
Kate Noelle Holmes is an American actress and director. She first achieved fame as Joey Potter on the television series Dawson's Creek, she made her feature film debut in Ang Lee's The Ice Storm in 1997. Subsequent film roles include: Go, Teaching Mrs. Tingle, Wonder Boys, The Gift, Phone Booth, The Singing Detective, Pieces of April, Batman Begins, Thank You for Smoking, Mad Money, Don't Be Afraid of the Dark and Jill, Miss Meadows, Woman in Gold, Touched with Fire and Logan Lucky. In 2008, she made her Broadway theatre debut in a production of Arthur Miller's All My Sons. In 2011, she played Jacqueline Kennedy in the TV miniseries The Kennedys, a role she reprised in The Kennedys: After Camelot, she made her directorial debut with the 2016 film All We Had, in which she starred. Her marriage to actor Tom Cruise, which lasted from 2006 to 2012, led to a great deal of media attention, with the pair being called a supercouple and being given the nickname "TomKat" in various countries. Holmes was born in Ohio.
She is the youngest of five children born to Kathleen, a homemaker and philanthropist, Martin Joseph Holmes, Sr. an attorney. She has one brother. Holmes attended Christ the King Church in Toledo, she graduated from the all-female Notre Dame Academy in Toledo. At St. John's Jesuit and St. Francis de Sales, nearby all-male high schools, Holmes appeared in school musicals, playing a waitress in Hello, Dolly! and Lola in Damn Yankees. She was accepted to Columbia University. At age 14, she began classes at a modeling school in Toledo which led her to the International Modeling and Talent Association Competition held in New York City in 1996. Holmes was signed to an agent after performing a monologue from To Kill a Mockingbird. An audition tape was sent to the casting director for the 1997 film The Ice Storm, directed by Ang Lee, Holmes made her big-screen debut in the role of Libbets Casey in the film, opposite Kevin Kline and Sigourney Weaver. In January 1997, Holmes went to Los Angeles for pilot season, when producers cast and shoot new programs in the hopes of securing a spot on a network schedule.
The Toledo Blade reported she was offered the lead in Buffy the Vampire Slayer but she turned it down in order to finish high school. Columbia TriStar Television, producer of a new show named Dawson's Creek, created by screenwriter Kevin Williamson, asked her to come to Los Angeles to audition, but there was a conflict with her schedule. "I was doing Damn Yankees. And I was playing Lola. I got to wear the feather boa. I thought, ` There is no way. I couldn't let my school down. We had sold a lot of tickets. So I told The WB, ` I'm sorry. I just can't meet with you this week. I've got other commitments.'"The producers permitted her to audition on videotape. Holmes read for the part of Joey Potter, the tomboy best friend of the title character Dawson, on a videotape shot in her basement, her mother reading Dawson's lines; the Hollywood Reporter claimed the story of Holmes's audition "has become the stuff of legend" and "no one thought that it was weird that one of the female leads would audition via Federal Express."
Holmes won the part. Paul Stupin, executive producer of the show, said his first reaction on seeing her audition tape was "That's Joey Potter!" Creator and executive producer Kevin Williamson said Holmes has a "unique combination of talent and skill that makes Hollywood come calling. But that's just the beginning. To meet her is to fall under her spell." Williamson thought she had the right look for Joey Potter. "She had those eyes, those eyes just stained with loneliness." While Dawson's Creek was met with mixed reviews, Holmes attained national attention. Holmes was soon on the covers of magazines such as Seventeen, TV Guide, Rolling Stone. Jancee Dunn, an editor at Rolling Stone said she was chosen for the cover because "every time you mention Dawson's Creek you tend to get a lot of dolphin-like shrieks from teenage girls; the fact that she is drop-dead gorgeous didn't hurt either."During her time as a series regular on Dawson's Creek, Holmes first leading role in a film came in 1998's Disturbing Behavior, a Scream-era Stepford Wives-goes-to-high school thriller, where she was a loner from the wrong side of the tracks.
The film was recut from. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote of her character, Rachel, "dresses in black and likes to strike poses on the beds of pickup trucks and is a bad girl, in great danger of becoming a good one." Despite the fact that it received mixed reviews and was not a huge financial success, the actress won a MTV Movie Award for Best Breakthrough Performance for the role and received a Saturn Award nomination for the part. Holmes, said the film was "just horrible." In 1999, she played a disaffected supermarket clerk in Doug Liman's ensemble piece Go. The film received excellent reviews and made a profit, Holmes herself was liked by critics; the same year, in Kevin Williamson's Teaching Mrs. Tingle, which he wrote and directed, Holmes played a straight-A student whose vindictive teacher threatens to keep her from a needed scholarship. In 1999, she had an uncredited cameo with Dawson's Creek co-star Joshua Jackson in Muppets from Space, filmed in Wilmington where Dawson's Creek also