James Hall (paleontologist)
James Hall was an American geologist and paleontologist. He was a noted authority on stratigraphy and had an influential role in the development of paleontology in the United States of America. James Hall was born in Hingham, the oldest of four children, his parents, James Hall Sr. and Sousanna Dourdain Hall, had emigrated from England two years earlier. Hall developed an early interest in science and enrolled in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, a established college that emphasized student participation and focused on science, he was Ebenezer Emmons, both notable geologists. Hall graduated with honors in 1832, received his master's degree in 1833, remained at Rensselaer to teach chemistry and geology. In 1836 a multi-year survey was established to collect information on the geology and natural history of New York. For purposes of the survey, the state was divided into four districts, Hall became assistant geologist for Ebenezer Emmons, chief of the Second District. Hall’s initial assignment was to study iron deposits in the Adirondack Mountains.
The following year the survey was reorganized: Hall was put in charge of the Fourth District, in western New York. Other notable geologists working on the survey included Timothy Conrad. Working together, the survey staff developed a stratigraphy for New York and set a precedent for naming stratigraphic divisions based on local geography. At the end of the survey in 1841, Hall was named the first state paleontologist. In 1843 he made his final report on the survey of the fourth geological district, published as Geology of New York, Part IV.. It became a classic in the field. Hall had built a solid reputation and was to devote the rest of his life to stratigraphic geology and invertebrate paleontology. Hall built a laboratory in Albany, New York, which became an important center of study and training for aspiring geologists and paleontologists. Many notable scientists began their career serving an apprenticeship with Hall, including Fielding Meek, Charles Walcott, Charles Beecher and Josiah Whitney.
Now known as the James Hall Office, the laboratory was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Among his many works, James Hall identified that stromatolite fossils discovered at Petrified Sea Gardens, a site near Saratoga Springs, New York, now a National Historic Landmark, were organic. After his work in New York, Hall extended his studies to other regions of the country. In 1850 Hall participated in a geological survey of northern Michigan and Wisconsin, where he identified the first fossil reefs found in North America, he was appointed state geologist for Wisconsin. In addition, several other state survey programs sought out Hall for his advice. In 1866 he was made director of the New York State Museum of Natural History in Albany. In 1893 he was appointed the State Geologist of New York. Between 1847 and 1894 Hall published 13 volumes of The Palaeontology of New York, his principal contribution in the field; this massive work consisted of over 1000 full-page illustrations. In addition, Hall wrote more than 30 other books, published over 1000 works, contributed sections to several federal and state publications on geology.
He was a founding member of the National Academy of Sciences and the first president of the Geological Society of America. He was one of the founders of the International Geologic Congress and served as a vice-president at their sessions in Paris and Berlin, he was elected one of the fifty foreign members of the Geological Society of London in 1848, in 1858 was awarded its Wollaston Medal. In 1884 he was elected correspondent of the French Academy of Sciences. At the age of 85 he traveled to St. Petersburg to attend the International Geological Congress and participate in an expedition to the Ural Mountains. Hall died two years in Bethlehem, New Hampshire, he is buried at the Albany Rural Cemetery, New York. A residence hall at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is named after James Hall, it is known as Hall Hall. In 1838 Hall married Sarah Aikin, the daughter of a Troy lawyer, they had two sons. Sarah helped illustrate some of Hall's publications. In 1849 she published an illustrated book of poetry and other poems.
Included in this volume was her English translation of Schiller's Ritter Toggenburg. She died in 1895. Geology of New York, Part IV Palaeontology of New York, 8 volumes. Geological Survey of Iowa, 2 volumes Report on the Geological Survey of the State of Wisconsin United States and Mexican Boundary Survey A comprehensive listing of the 1062 publications of James Hall was published in 2017 by Horowitz et al. in the Bulletins of American Paleontology. Dott, Robert H.. "James Hall Jr. 1811-1898". Biographical Memoirs. 87. Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press. Pp. 1–19. Merrill, George P; the First One Hundred Years of American Geology. Yale University Press. Reprinted 1969, Hafner Publishing Co. "James Hall". Webster's American Biographies. D. Appleton and Company. 1975. "Hall, James, Jr.". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons. 2008. "RPI: Alumni Hall of Fame: James Hall". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved 2006-11-06. Portrait of James Hall Clarke, J. M.. James Hall of Albany.
Horowitz, A. S. M. H. Nitecki, D. V. Nitecki. I. Ausich. Bibliography of James Hall. Bulletins of American Paleontology 392. Hovey, H. C. "The Life and Work of James Hall, LL. D." Am. Geol. 23:137-168 Stevenson, J. J. Mem
Lake Sunapee is located within Sullivan County and Merrimack County in western New Hampshire, the United States. It is the fifth-largest lake located in New Hampshire; the lake is 8.1 miles long and from 0.5 to 2.5 miles wide, covering 6.5 square miles, with a maximum depth of 105 feet. It contains eleven islands and is indented by several peninsulas and lake fingers, a combination which yields a total shoreline of some 70 miles. There are seven sandy beach areas including Mount Sunapee State Park beach. There are six boat ramps to access the lake at Sunapee Harbor, Georges Mills, Mount Sunapee State Park, Burkehaven Marina, a private marina; the lake contains three lighthouses on the National Register of Historic Places. The driving distance around the lake is 25 miles with many miles of lake water view; the lake is 1,093 feet above sea level. The lake's outlet is in Sunapee Harbor, the headway for the Sugar River, which flows west through Newport and Claremont to the Connecticut River and to the Atlantic Ocean.
The lake discharges about 250 cubic feet per second, the Sugar River drops 800 feet on its 27-mile journey to the Connecticut River. Lake Sunapee is a glacial lake; the glaciers deposited large rocks scattered everywhere in the woods when the ice melted about 11,000 years ago. These rocks are called glacial erratics. An example of a large glacial erratic can be found sitting on Minute Island in front of the John Hay Wildlife Refuge accessible along the wildlife shoreline trail; the Native Americans Algonquins, called the lake Soo-Nipi or "Wild Goose Waters" for the many geese that passed over the lake during migration. Lake Sunapee resembles a bird in flight, with the bird's head as the harbor area, from an aerial view, at times from Mount Sunapee; some local people can trace their ancestry back to the Penacooks who hunted geese in the autumn and fished for speckled trout using nets and spears. Following the extension of the B&M Railroad into Newbury, Lake Sunapee became a popular vacation area long before the introduction of the automobile.
The main rail station was at the southernmost point of the lake. Today, the village contains a colorful antique caboose commemorating the railroad line that passed by, bringing vacationers from other parts of the country. Steamboat service developed on the lake to accommodate the new populace. Steamships ferried passengers from the south end of the lake to cottages and large resort hotels around the lake. Bay Point, Blodgett Landing, Indian Cave known as Lake Avenue, were the most populated piers. One of the first commercial boats was propelled by horses in 1854. N. S. Gardner put a bowling alley on it, he launched the Penacook steamer to carry passengers to Little Island, so the steamboat era began. The Woodsum brothers launched the Lady Woodsum in 1876, it could carry 75 passengers. The 90-foot Edmund Burke was launched in 1885. In 1887, the Amenia White was launched, it was the flagship of the Woodsum fleet and the biggest steamer to sail Lake Sunapee. In 1897 the 70-foot steamship Kearsarge was launched carrying 250 passengers and continues to steam daily in the summer months.
In 1902 the 50-foot Weetamoo was launched and was scuttled near Newbury. The ship is still intact and is visited by local SCUBA clubs; the pilothouse of the Kearsarge was salvaged from the lake in the 1960s and is on display at the Sunapee Historical Center. The 52-foot MV Mount Sunapee II was launched in 1965 and takes passengers on lake cruises in summer months; the original Mount Sunapee had been a rum runner in Damariscotta, Maine. There were major steamer landings at Sunapee Harbor, Georges Mills, Lakeside Landing, Hastings Landing, Auburn Landing, Blodgett Landing, Pine Cliff, Lake Station, Soo-Nipi and Granliden to serve the grand hotels; the automobile led to the demise of the steamer era. The lake is surrounded by three towns: Sunapee lies to the west, incorporating the villages of Sunapee Harbor and Georges Mills. Depth At its deepest, Lake Sunapee is about 105 to 144 feet deep at a point called Hedgehog. Historical maps indicate a depth of 142 feet. There is a scuba school in Newbury on the lake.
Water quality The water is exceptionally pure. The water is captured by the LSPA and analyzed at the Colby-Sawyer College aquatic laboratory; the source of much of the water comes from cold underground springs rising from a bedrock aquifer. On a sunny day, objects can be seen to a depth of 30 feet; the lake has a rocky base and is milfoil-free, except for a 20-square-foot quarantined area. Rainfall One inch of rainfall on the lake produces 116 million US gallons of water. One inch in the 28,800-acre watershed produces nearly 900 million US gallons of water in Lake Sunapee. Ice Out Records have been kept since 1869; the official "Ice Out" report was given by Artie Osborne until his death in 2010. Ice Out occurs in April
Charlestown is the oldest neighborhood in Boston, United States. Called Mishawum by the Massachusett, it is located on a peninsula north of the Charles River, across from downtown Boston, adjoins the Mystic River and Boston Harbor. Charlestown was laid out in 1629 by engineer Thomas Graves, one of its early settlers, in the reign of Charles I of England, it was a separate town and the first capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Charlestown became a city in 1848 and was annexed by Boston on January 5, 1874. With that, it switched from Middlesex County, to which it had belonged since 1643, to Suffolk County, it has had a substantial Irish American population since the migration of Irish people during the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s. Since the late 1980s the neighborhood has changed because of its proximity to downtown and its colonial architecture. A mix of yuppie and upper-middle class gentrification has influenced much of the area, as it has in many of Boston's neighborhoods, but Charlestown still maintains a strong Irish American population and "Townie" identity.
In the 21st century, Charlestown's diversity has expanded along with growing rates of the poor and wealthy. Today Charlestown is a residential neighborhood, with much housing near the waterfront, overlooking the Boston skyline. Charlestown is home to many historic sites and organizations, with access from the Orange Line Sullivan Square or Community College stops or the I-93 expressway. Thomas and Jane Walford were the original English settlers of the peninsula between the Charles and the Mystic, they were given a grant by Sir Robert Gorges, with whom they had settled at Wessagusset in September 1623 and arrived at what they called Mishawaum in 1624. John Endicott, first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, sent William and Ralph Sprague to Mishawaum to lay out a settlement. Thomas Walford, acting as an interpreter with the Massachusetts Indians, negotiated with the local sachem Wonohaquaham for Endicott and his people to settle there. Although Walford had a virtual monopoly on the region's available furs, he welcomed the newcomers and helped them in any way he could, unaware that his Episcopalian religious beliefs would cause him to be banished from Massachusetts to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, within three years.
A Puritan English city during the Colonial era, Charlestown proper was founded in 1628 and settled July 4, 1629, by Thomas Graves, Increase Nowell, Simon Hoyt, the Rev. Francis Bright, Ralph and William Sprague, about 100 others who preceded the Great Migration. John Winthrop's company stopped here for some time in 1630, before deciding to settle across the Charles River at Boston; the territory of Charlestown was quite large. From it, Woburn was separated in 1642, Melrose and Malden in 1649, Stoneham in 1725, South Medford, the land south of the Mystic River was known as "Mistick Field", it was transferred from Charlestown to Medford in 1754. This grant included the "Charlestown Wood Lots", part of what was at the time Woburn. Other parts of Medford were transferred to Charlestown in 1811. Somerville was transferred in 1842. Everett, Burlington and Cambridge acquired areas allocated to Charlestown. On June 17, 1775, the Charlestown Peninsula was the site of the Battle of Bunker Hill, named for a hill at the northwest end of the peninsula near Charlestown Neck.
British troops unloaded at Moulton's Point and much of the battle took place on Breed's Hill, which overlooked the harbor from about 400 yards off the southern end of the peninsula. The town, including its wharves and dockyards, was completely destroyed during the battle by the British; the town was not appreciably rebuilt until the end of hostilities but, in 1786, the first bridge across the Charles River connected Boston with Charlestown. An 87-acre Navy Yard was established in 1800; the Bunker Hill Monument was erected between 1827 and 1843 using Quincy granite brought to the site by a combination of purpose-built railway and barge. Notable businesses included Schrafft's candy company. Around the 1860s an influx of Irish immigrants arrived in Charlestown; the area long remained an Irish and Catholic stronghold similar to South Boston and Dorchester, to the extent that the informal demonym "Townie" continues to imply the working-class Irish, as opposed to newer immigrants. During the Civil War, over 26,000 men joined the Union Army and Navy at the Navy Yard, responsible for constructing some of the most famous vessels of the conflict: the Merrimack, the Hartford, the Monadnock.
Following the war, the city commissioned Martin Milmore to construct its civil war memorial, dedicated in 1872 and still standing in the community's Training Field. The city developed a water supply from the Mystic Lakes and, on October 7, 1873, a vote was held to determine whether Charlestown should leave Middlesex County and join Boston as part of Suffolk County. Out of its 32,040 residents, 2240 voted in support of the merger and 1947 opposed. Boston residents approved the question, 5,960–1,868. Charlestown's separate city government was dissolved the next year. During the early 1960s, the city initiated plans to demolish and redevelop sixty percent of the housing in Charlestown. In 1963, the Boston Redevelopment Authority held a town meeting to discuss their development plans with the community; the BRA's dealings with Boston's West End had created an atmosphere of distrust towards urban renewal in Boston, Charlestown residents opposed the plan by an overwhelming majority. By 1
William Dwight Whitney
William Dwight Whitney was an American linguist and lexicographer known for his work on Sanskrit grammar and Vedic philology as well as his influential view of language as a social institution. He was the first president of the American Philological Association and editor-in-chief of The Century Dictionary. William Dwight Whitney was born in Northampton, Massachusetts on February 9, 1827, his father was Josiah Dwight Whitney of the New England Dwight family. His mother was Sarah Williston, he entered Williams College at fifteen, graduating in 1845. He continued studying and worked at a bank in Northampton for several years assisted his older brother Josiah Whitney on a geological survey of the Lake Superior region in 1849. On this expedition, he began the study of Sanskrit in his leisure hours. Around this time Whitney was living at Yale University in Connecticut. In 1850 he left the United States to study philology, Sanskrit, in Germany. There, he spent his winters at Berlin studying under Franz Bopp and Albrecht Weber, his summers were devoted to research under Rudolph von Roth at Tübingen.
It was during his time in Germany that Whitney began a major life project,'preparation of an edition and translation of the Atharva-veda'. He gained wide reputation for his scholarship in the field. In 1853, Yale University offered Whitney a position as'Professor of Sanskrit' ‒ a position made just for him and the first of its kind in the United States, he taught modern languages at the Sheffield Scientific School, served as secretary to the American Oriental Society from 1857 until he became its president in 1884. On August 28, 1856 he married Elizabeth Wooster Baldwin, she was the daughter of US Senator and Governor of the State of Connecticut. They had six children: Edward Baldwin Whitney was born August 16, 1857, became Assistant US Attorney General, had son mathematician Hassler Whitney. Williston Clapp Whitney was born April 2, 1859 but died March 11, 1861. Marian Parker Whitney was born February 6, 1861, became a professor of German at Vassar College and trustee of Connecticut College for Women Roger Sherman Baldwin Whitney was born January 6, 1863, but died January 17, 1874.
Emily Henrietta Whitney was born August 29, 1864. Margaret Dwight Whitney was born November 19, 1866, he died at his home, on Whitney Avenue, on June 7, 1894. Whitney revised definitions for the 1864 edition of Webster's American Dictionary, in 1869 became a founder and first president of the American Philological Association, he wrote metrical translations of the Vedas, numerous papers on the Vedas and linguistics, many of which were collected in the Oriental and Linguistic Studies series. He wrote several books on language, grammar textbooks of English, French and Sanskrit, his Sanskrit Grammar is notable in part for the criticism it contains of the Ashtadhyayi, the Sanskrit grammar attributed to Panini. Whitney describes the Ashtadhyayi as "containing the facts of the language cast into the artful and difficult form of about four thousand algebraic-like rules."In his Course in General Linguistics in the chapter on the'Immutability and Mutability of the Sign', Ferdinand de Saussure credits Whitney with insisting on the arbitrary nature of the linguistic signs.
The linguist Roman Jakobson remarks that Whitney exerted a deep influence on European linguistic thought by promoting the thesis of language as a social institution. In his fundamental books of the 1860s and 70's, language was defined as a system of arbitrary and conventional signs; this doctrine was borrowed and expanded by Ferdinand de Saussure, it entered into the posthumous edition of his'Course', adjusted by his disciples C. Bally and Albert Sechehaye; the teacher declares: "On the essential point it seems to us that the American linguist is right: language is a convention, the nature of the sign, agreed upon remains indifferent." Jakobson writes, Arbitrariness is posited as the first of two basic principles for defining the nature of the verbal sign: "The bond uniting the signifier with the signified is arbitrary." The commentary points out that no one has controverted this principle "but it is easier to discover a truth than to assign to it the appropriate place." Although he suffered from a heart ailment in his years, he was editor-in-chief of the first edition of the respected Century Dictionary, which appeared from 1889 to 1891.
Elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1860. Elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1868. Atharva Veda, editor with Rudolf von Roth Language and the Study of Language: Twelve Lectures on the Principles of Linguistic Science Taittiriya Pratisakhya and translator On Material and Form in Language Oriental and Linguistic Studies — First Series: The Veda, The Avesta, The Science of Language Oriental and Linguistic Studies — Second Series: The East and West and Mythology, Hindu Astronomy Darwinism and Language The Life and Growth of Language: An Outline of Linguistic Science Essentials of English Grammar for the Use of Schools * Sanskrit Grammar: Including Both the Classical Language, the Older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana Language and its Study: with Special Reference to the Indo-European * Logical Consistency in Views of Language Mixture in Language The Roots, Verb-forms and Primary Deri
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Mount Whitney is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of 14,505 feet. It is in Central California, on the boundary between California's Inyo and Tulare counties, 84.6 miles west-northwest of the lowest point in North America at Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park at 282 ft below sea level. The west slope of the mountain is in Sequoia National Park and the summit is the southern terminus of the John Muir Trail which runs 211.9 mi from Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley. The east slope is in the Inyo National Forest in Inyo County; the summit of Mount Whitney is on the Great Basin Divide. It lies near many of the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada; the peak rises above the Owens Valley, sitting 10,778 feet or just over two miles above the town of Lone Pine 15 miles to the east, in the Owens Valley. It rises more on the west side, lying only about 3,000 feet above the John Muir Trail at Guitar Lake.
The mountain is dome-shaped, with its famously jagged ridges extending to the sides. Mount Whitney has an alpine climate and ecology. Few plants grow near the summit: one example is the sky pilot, a cushion plant that grows low to the ground; the only animals are transient, such as the butterfly Parnassius phoebus and the gray-crowned rosy finch. The mountain is the highest point on the Great Basin Divide. Waterways on the west side of the peak flow into Whitney Creek; the Kern River terminates in the Tulare Basin. During wet years, water overflows from the Tulare Basin into the San Joaquin River which flows to the Pacific Ocean. From the east, water from Mount Whitney flows to Lone Pine Creek, which joins the Owens River, which in turn terminates at Owens Lake, an endorheic lake of the Great Basin; the estimated elevation of the summit of Mount Whitney has changed over the years. The technology of elevation measurement has become more refined and, more the vertical coordinate system has changed.
The peak was said to be at 14,494 ft and this is the elevation stamped on the USGS brass benchmark disk on the summit. An older plaque on the summit reads "elevation 14,496.811 feet" but this was estimated using the older vertical datum from 1929. Since the shape of the Earth has been estimated more accurately. Using a new vertical datum established in 1988 the benchmark is now estimated to be at 14,505 ft; the eastern slope of Whitney is far steeper than its western slope because the entire Sierra Nevada is the result of a fault-block, analogous to a cellar door: the door is hinged on the west and is rising on the east. The rise is caused by a normal fault system that runs along the eastern base of the Sierra, below Mount Whitney. Thus, the granite that forms Mount Whitney is the same as the granite that forms the Alabama Hills, thousands of feet lower down; the raising of Whitney is due to the same geological forces that cause the Basin and Range Province: the crust of much of the intermontane west is being stretched.
The granite that forms Mount Whitney is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. In Cretaceous time, masses of molten rock that originated from subduction rose underneath what is now Whitney and solidified underground to form large expanses of granite. In the last 2 to 10 million years, the Sierra was pushed up which enabled glacial and river erosion to strip the upper layers of rock to reveal the resistant granite that makes up Mount Whitney today. In July 1864, the members of the California Geological Survey named the peak after Josiah Whitney, the State Geologist of California and benefactor of the survey. During the same expedition, geologist Clarence King attempted to climb Whitney from its west side, but stopped just short. In 1871, King returned to climb what he believed to be Whitney, but having taken a different approach, he summited nearby Mount Langley. Upon learning of his mistake in 1873, King completed his own first ascent of Whitney, but did so a month too late to claim the first recorded ascent.
Just a month earlier, on August 18, 1873, Charles Begole, A. H. Johnson, John Lucas, all of nearby Lone Pine, had become the first to reach the highest summit in the contiguous United States; as they climbed the mountain during a fishing trip to nearby Kern Canyon, they called the mountain Fisherman's Peak. In 1881 Samuel Pierpont Langley, founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory remained for some time on the summit, making daily observations on the solar heat. Accompanying Langley in 1881 was another party consisting of Judge William B. Wallace of Visalia, W. A. Wright and Reverend Frederick Wales. Wallace wrote in his memoirs that "The Pi Ute Indians called Mt. Whitney "Too-man-i-goo-yah," which means "the old man." They believe that the Great Spirit who presides over the destiny of their people once had his home in that mountain." The spelling Too-man-i-goo-yah is a transliteration from the indigenous Paiute Mono language. Other variations are Tumanguya. In 1891, the United States Geological Survey's Board on Geographic Names decided to recognize the earlier name Mount Whitney.
Despite losing out on their preferred name, residents of Lone Pine financed the first trail to the summit, engineered by Gustave Marsh, completed on July 22, 1904. Just four days the new trail enabled the first recorded death on Whitney. Having hiked the trail, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries employee Byrd Surby was struck and killed by lightning while eating lunch