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Jounieh is a coastal city in Keserwan District, about 16 km north of Beirut, Lebanon and is part of Mount Lebanon. Jounieh is known for its seaside resorts and bustling nightlife, as well as its old stone souk, ferry port, paragliding site and gondola lift, which takes passengers up the mountain to the shrine of Our Lady of Lebanon in Harissa. Above Jounieh, on the way to Harissa, a small hill named Bkerké, overlooking the Jounieh bay, is the seat of the Patriarch of the Maronite Catholic Church. Residents of Jounieh and the surrounding towns are overwhelmingly Maronite Catholics. Maameltein is a district of the city. In the sixth part of The Introduction to Jounieh in the Mid Nineteenth Century, Professor Butrus Al-Boustani said: “Jounieh is a place on the Keserwan coast which has warehouses, a dye house. Ships and boats bring supplies and its grain trade is popular, thus a district of the following villages: Sarba and Harat Sakhr was named for it. Its total population is 2,500. Jounieh itself is not a residential area but a commercial district whose workers come from neighboring towns.”

Jounieh was connected with neighboring areas by roads built for carriages. So it was connected with Bkerké and beyond it during the rule of Dawud Basha, the ruler of Mount Lebanon, it was connected to Ghazir between 1868 despite the objection of Ghazir's residents. Another road connected Jounieh to the Beirut Bridge during the rule of Rustum Basha. To the north it was connected by a carriage’s road until Batroun during the rule of Wasa Basha. In 1892, Jounieh was connected to Beirut via a railroad that had stations between the two locations, three of which in Jounieh and its environs: Sarba, Mu’amilitain at the end of the line, which facilitated the transportation of goods and passengers from and to the Governorate of Beirut. In 1876, the number of shops exceeded 300, five silk factories, three rest houses, a mill, three juice factories, an artificial ice factory, a bank known by its owner's name "Bank Baghos", a group of small sailboat construction sites. In 1906, according to the Guide to Lebanon by Ibrahim Beik Al-Soud, the population of Jounieh was 2,400, it had a silk factory owned by the Nasras, a silkworms choker owned by Moussa de Franj, a silk factory owned by the heirs of Rizkallah and Abdul Ahad Khadra which had 190 wheels and produced 10,000 cocoons, 330 domestic animals, owned 80 carriages.

According to the records of the Keserwan Governorate, the town of Ghadir, in 1914, had 433 corporations and its population was 1,263. The town of Sarba had 213 commercial institutions and its population was 1,714. In Harat Sakhr, there were 165 corporations and its population was 808. In Sahil ‘Alma, there were 21 corporations its population reached 187. Jounieh had seen noticeable prosperity after France and the Maronite Patriarchy supported the opening a port for commercial ships which became the official port of Mount Lebanon. In 1913 and during the Mandate era, Jounieh suffered economic decline and recession as the French administration moved part of Jounieh’s administrative role to the Capital, Beirut. Jounieh came out of the First World War weakened by famine and economic stagnation. So several of its inhabitants were forced to move to the capital or to immigrate, Jounieh lost most of its expertise, its social and population development stopped, its economic development weakened. The 1932 statistics showed 1,286 housed in Jounieh: 371 in Sarba, 434 in Ghadir, 350 houses in Harat Sakhr, 131 in Sahil ‘Alma.

This affected the building industry and records in the town hall showed limited number of permits given from 1922-1940. The only active sectors in that period were schools, small crafts, planting of citrus trees, sugar cane, vegetables; this situation stayed the same until the rule of President Fuad Chehab who outfitted the city with all that it needed to become modern. Jounieh awakened from its slumber with projects for roads, modern planning, a stadium, a tourist port, a government house, infrastructure. President Chehab used a number of engineers headed by the French engineer Ecochard; the talk became of “Monte Carlo of the East” and Jounieh stood out as a bride of the Lebanese coast. In 1959, it started to attract banks, the first which were the Lebanese Commerce Bank and the Lebanese Federal Bank. By 1975 the number of banks reached six and today there are 38 banks in addition to the Lebanese Central Bank, established in 1879; the area witnessed an increase in the price of land from an average of seven to nine Lebanese pounds per square meter between 1950 and 1960 to an average of 25 to 35 Lebanese pounds in 1965.

The construction sector developed starting from Sarba to Harat Sakhr, the coast of ‘Alma. The buildings started expanding around the city as the agricultural sector contracted and became confined to the coasts of Kaslik and some orchards in Ghadir, Harat Sakhr and the coast of ‘Alma. In the beginning of the seventies, Jounieh was transformed to a major and complete tourist center with the tourist network around it and on its edges including: Casino du Liban, the cable cars, the Harisa Church, the caverns in Jeita, hotels and the port. With the war of 1975, the division of Beirut into East and West parts and the escalation of the violence, many people fled to safe areas and were organizing their lives in accordance with the new realities. From 1980 to 1990, Jounieh witnessed a massive migration as a large number of the Beirut traders moved to its markets. Buildings took over its green spaces, the tourist complexes took over its shores

Bocholt Cross

The Bocholt Cross is a forked crucifix in St. George's Church in Bocholt, in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and dates to the early 14th century, it is the oldest and most significant ornament of this church and the focal point of a regional pilgrimage today. The design of the crucifix was based on the forked cross at St. Maria im Kapitol in Cologne; the depiction of the body, the way in which the wounds caused by the scourge are portrayed, is identical. It is carved out of fir wood and measures 153 cm in height, the arms of the cross extending higher than the vertical post of the cross; the upright is only a little higher than the head of Christ and there is therefore no titulus. The body is made of walnut and is 102 cm high, the arm span is 97 cm; the arms and head have been separately attached. The smooth'skullcap' suggests that there was a wig of hair on the head; as a base for the artwork, the cross has been hollowed out. In the interior are four relics, the origin of, either unknown or can only be loosely estimated: a bone wrapped with silk which cannot therefore be identified, two human ribs and a light brown stone from the Holy Land The relic compartment has not been re-opened since the cross was made.

The post of the cross was painted green, this alluded to the Biblical tree of life symbolism. As a repository of relics the cross was referred to over the centuries as an altar of the Holy Cross. During the Neo-Gothic restoration in 1860 the Bocholt Cross, as part of a mercy seat was integrated into the high altar. Today it stands near the communion altar in a pedestal. Forked cross Coesfeld Cross Hans-Rudolf Gehrmann: 700 Jahre Bocholter Kreuz. Faltblatt. Bocholt, 2015. Pfarrei St. Georg Bocholt: Die Geschichte des Bocholter Kreuzes. Andachtszettel zum Bocholter Kreuz. Stadtgeschichte: 700 Jahre Kreuzverehrung in St. Georg, Pressemeldung der Stadt Bocholt dated 28 February 2015


Ratainda or Ratenda is a large village in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar district of Punjab State, India. The village is administrated by a Sarpanch, the elected representative of the village, it is located 2.5 km away from postal head office Moron, 6.3 km from census town Apra, 11.7 km away from Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar and 113 km from Chandigarh. The village has mix population which include, but not limited to, Backward Class, Schedule Cast and Farmer; the village doesn't have any Schedule Tribe population. The village has a Punjabi Medium, Co-educational Upper Primary with Secondary/Higher Secondary, established in the year 1966; the school has a playground and provides mid-day meal as per Indian Midday Meal Scheme and the meal prepared in school premises. Phillaur Junction is the nearest train station, situated 19.2 km away, Goraya Railway Station is 19.7 km away from the village. The nearest domestic airport is at Ludhiana, 50 km away from Ratainda; the nearest international airport is located in Chandigarh and Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport is 144 km away in Amritsar.

Baljit Singh Gosal a Canadian politician, elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 2011 election was born in Ratainda

Michelle Gould (racquetball)

Michelle Gould, born December 22, 1970, is a retired American racquetball player. She was the dominant player in the 1990s, finishing as the #1 player on the women's pro tour seven of those 10 seasons. Gould was once called "the best, man or woman, to play" racquetball, she had a strong drive serve. Injuries led to her retirement in 1999. Gould first appeared in the women's pro tour season ending top 10 at #2 in 1989–90, finished #1 in seven of the next eight seasons. After her final season at #1, Gould disappeared from the top 10. Gould's professional career was highlighted by winning the first two US Open Racquetball Championships in 1996 and 1997. During one stretch of her pro career, Gould won 18 consecutive tournaments, 30 of 33. Gould won her first International Racquetball Federation World Championship in 1992 by defeating Canadian Heather Stupp in the final, which avenged a loss to Stupp two years earlier, she won the next two World Championships in 1994 and 1996 defeating Robin Levine and Cheryl Gudinas in the finals.

She won the Pan American Championships six times: four times in singles in 1988, 1990, 1991, 1998 and twice in doubles in 1994 with Robin Levine and 1996 with Cheryl Gudinas. Gould won gold medals at the 1993 World Games and the 1995 Pan American Games. Gould's eight US Nationals Championships in singles are tied for most won by a woman with Cheryl Gudinas. Gould won those eight titles in a nine-year span from 1989 to 1997, interrupted only by Robin Levine's victory in 1994. Gould won six US National Doubles titles; the first was with Cindy Doyle in 1989 she won two with Jackie Paraiso in 1990 and 1991. Laura Fenton was Gould's partner for the 1993 title, Gudinas won the 1995 and 1996 championships with Gould. Born Michelle Gilman, she married Rod Gould in 1992. Gould grew up in Ontario and she first took racquetball lessons in Boise, where she lived with her husband

Shagai Plateau

Shagai Plateau referred to as Shagai Heights is an area of flat lands along the Khyber Pass. Fort Al Creator was nearby; the ascent to the Shagai Plateau begins near the entrance to the Khyber Pass from the southeast at Peshawar in what is now Pakistan. It was the site of a British encampment during the Second Anglo-Afghan War which began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British India; the first phase of the war ended in May 1879 with the Treaty of Gandamak, which permitted the Afghans to maintain internal sovereignty but forced them to cede control over their foreign policy to the British. Fighting resumed in September 1879, after an anti-British uprising in Kabul, concluded in September 1880 with the decisive Battle of Kandahar. A much more beautiful and panoramic view on an encampment on the plateau from the Royal Collection Trust

Ian Wilkinson (cyclist)

Ian Wilkinson is an elite racing cyclist from Barnoldswick in Lancashire who rides for Pedal Heaven. A prolific rider, he competes at the top level in cross country and marathon mountain bike racing, cyclo-cross and road racing, he is winning championships as a junior, under 23 and senior rider. He has represented Great Britain at many international events such as World Championships and World Cups in several disciplines, he was a member of British Cycling's World Class Performance Plan between 1999 and 2001. He went to France to ride on the road for a year before returning to Great Britain to ride for, followed by stints riding for Giant RT and Science in Sport/Trek. Outside of cycling, Wilkinson's occupation is as a builder. For the 2009 season, Wilkinson signed up with Team Halfords Bikehut. In 2010, Wilkinson joined Endura Racing, remaining with the squad for three seasons before joining Team UK Youth in 2013, he was announced as part of the Team Raleigh squad for 2014. SIS – Trek results 2006–2008 Media related to Ian Wilkinson at Wikimedia Commons