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Jovian (emperor)

Jovian was Roman Emperor from June 363 to February 364. Upon the death of Emperor Julian during his campaign against the Sasanid Empire, Jovian was hastily declared Emperor by his soldiers. To save his army, he sought peace with the Persians on humiliating terms and reestablished Christianity as the state religion, his reign lasted only eight months. Jovian was born at Singidunum in 331 AD, the son of Varronianus, the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards, he joined the guards and by 363 had risen to the same command that his father had once held. In this capacity in 361, he escorted. Jovian was married to Charito and they had two sons and the other's name is unknown. Jovian accompanied the Emperor Julian on the Mesopotamian campaign of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. At the Battle of Samarra, a small but decisive engagement, Julian was mortally wounded, died on 26 June 363; the next day, after the aged Saturninius Secundus Salutius, praetorian prefect of the Orient had declined the purple, the army elected, despite Julian's reinstitution of paganism, the Christian Jovian, senior officer of the Scholae, as Emperor.

On the morning of his accession, Jovian resumed the retreat begun by Julian. Though harassed by the Persians, the army succeeded in reaching the city of Dura on the banks of the Tigris. There the army came to a halt; when the attempt to bridge the river failed, he was forced to sue for a peace treaty on humiliating terms. In exchange for an unhindered retreat to his own territory, he agreed to withdraw from the five Roman provinces, Moxoeona, Azbdicena and Corduena, to allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisibis, Castra Maurorum and Singara; the Romans surrendered their interests in the Kingdom of Armenia to the Persians. The king of Armenia, Arsaces II, was to receive no help from Rome; the treaty was seen as a disgrace. After crossing the Tigris, Jovian sent an embassy to the West to announce his elevation. With the treaty signed and his army marched to Nisibis; the populace of Nisibis, devastated by the news their city was to be given to the Sasanids, were given three days to leave.

Jovian's arrival at Antioch in October 363, was met with an enraged populace. This caused offensive graffiti and insulting authorless bills throughout the city, which, in turn, caused him to order the Library of Antioch to be burned down. Jovian left Antioch in November 363. By December 363 Jovian was at Ancyra proclaiming his infant son, consul. While en route from there to Constantinople, Jovian was found dead in his tent at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea, his death, which went uninvestigated, was the result of poisonous fumes seeping from the newly painted bedchamber walls by a brazier. Jovian was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in a porphyry sarcophagus, he was succeeded by two brothers, Valentinian I and Valens, who subsequently divided the empire between them. Following Jovian's death and Valens removed any threats to their position. Jovian's son Varronianus was blinded to ensure he would never inherit the throne, Jovian's father died before he could see him. According to John Chrysostom, Jovian's wife Charito lived in fear the remaining days of her life.

Jovian reestablished Christianity as the state religion and restored the labarum as the army's standard. Upon arriving at Antioch, he revoked the edicts of Julian against Christians, but did not close any temples opened by him. Jovian issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that his subjects could enjoy full liberty of conscience. Despite supporting the Nicene doctrines, he passed no edicts against Arians. Philostorgius, an Arian church historian, stated, "The Emperor Jovian restored the churches to their original uses, set them free from all the vexatious persecutions inflicted on them by the Apostate. List of Byzantine emperors Barker, John W.. Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0299039448. Browning, Robert; the Emperor Julian. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03731-6. Curran, John. "From Jovian to Theodosius". In Cameron, Averil; the Cambridge Ancient History: The Late Empire, A. D. 337-425. XIII. Cambridge University Press. P. 78-110. ISBN 0 521 30200 5.

Drijvers, Jan Willem. "Jovian between History and Myth". In Burgersdijk, Diederik W. P.. Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire. Brill. P. 234-256. ISBN 9789004370890. Heather, Peter. "Ammianus on Jovian: history and literature". In Drijvers, Jan Willem; the Late Roman World and Its Historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus. Routledge. P. 93-103. ISBN 0-415-20271-X. Jones, A. H. M.. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: AD 260-395. Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 07233 6. Lenski, Noel. Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century A. D. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520-23332-4. Moffatt, Ann. Constantine Porphyrogennetos - The Book of Ceremonies. Brill. ISBN 978-18-76-50342-0. Rohmann, Dirk. Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. ISBN 978-3-11-048445-8. Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804726306. Vasiliev, A. A.. "Imperial Porphyry Sarcopha

The Eve Arden Show

The Eve Arden Show is a 26-episode American sitcom which aired during the 1957–1958 season on CBS, alternately sponsored by Lever Brothers and Shulton, Inc.. The show, starring Eve Arden, is about a widowed mother, Liza Hammond, of twin daughters who earns money from writing books, it features actress Frances Bavier, the future Aunt Bee of The Andy Griffith Show, as Nora, Arden's mother and housekeeper. In eight of the twenty-six episodes, Allyn Joslyn portrays George Howell, her agent and potential boyfriend; the series was produced for Arden's Westhaven Enterprises by Desilu. The show was filmed with three cameras in front of a live audience, although a laugh track was used for sweetening purposes; the show was based on author Emily Kimbrough's book It Gives Me Great Pleasure. Eve Arden had enjoyed a successful run on radio in the CBS program Our Miss Brooks from 1948 to 1957; when it premiered as a television series in the fall of 1952, it was popular with audiences and ran for four years on CBS.

During its final season, the ratings fell and the show was canceled in the spring of 1956. In the fall of 1957, Desilu Studios, which had produced Our Miss Brooks, attempted to resurrect Arden's television career with The Eve Arden Show and CBS scheduled it for Tuesday nights. With this new program, Arden was not able to duplicate the success. Despite the fact that it followed The Phil Silvers Show, both sitcoms failed to beat its competition on ABC - Cheyenne and The Life and Times Of Wyatt Earp. After the 1957–1958 season, The Phil Silvers Show was renewed for one more year but The Eve Arden Show ended its one-year run after its 26th episode. For the next several years, Arden continued to work on television as a guest star on several programs. In 1967, Desi Arnaz brought her back to weekly television in an NBC sitcom co-starring singer-comedian Kaye Ballard called The Mothers-In-Law; the series lasted two years. Eve Arden as Liza Hammond Allyn Joslyn as George Howell Frances Bavier as Nora Gail Stone as Jenny Hammond Karen Greene as Mary Hammond Willard Waterman as Carl Foster Guest stars include Philip Ahn, Mary Jane Croft, Bill Goodwin, Mary Beth Hughes, Kathryn Card and Danny Richards, Jr. as Liza's nephew, Melvin.

Four episodes of the series were released on Region 1 DVD on February 2008 by Alpha Video. "The Eve Arden Show" Old Time Radio The Eve Arden Show on IMDb The Eve Arden Show at TV.com Episode of The Eve Arden Show at the Internet Archive

Demographics of Hungary

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hungary, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Hungary's population has been declining since 1980; the population composition at the foundation of Hungary depends on the size of the arriving Hungarian population and the size of the Slavic population at the time. One source mentions 200 000 Slavs and 400 000 Hungarians, while other sources don't give estimates for both, making comparison more difficult; the size of the Hungarian population around 895 is estimated between 120 000 and 600 000, with a number of estimates in the 400-600 000 range. Other sources only mention a fighting force of 25 000 Magyar warriors used in the attack, while declining to estimate the total population including women and children and warriors not participating in the invasion. In the historical demographics the largest earlier shock was the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, several plagues took a toll on the country's population.

According to the demographers, about 80 percent of the population was made up of Hungarians before the Battle of Mohács, however the Hungarian ethnic group became a minority in its own country in the 18th century due to the resettlement policies and continuous immigration from neighboring countries. Major territorial changes made Hungary ethnically homogeneous after World War I. Nowadays, more than nine-tenths of the population is ethnically Hungarian and speaks Hungarian as the mother tongue. Note: The data refer to the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, not that of the present-day republic; the total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on good data for the entire period in the present-day Hungary. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation. Unless otherwise indicated, vital statistics are from the Hungarian Statistical Office. Number of births from January–November 2018 = 82,580 Number of births from January–November 2019 = 81,341 Number of deaths from January–November 2018 = 118,693 Number of deaths from January–November 2019 = 117,964 Natural growth from January–November 2018 = –36,113 Natural growth from January–November 2019 = –36,623 The infant mortality rate decreased after WW II.

In 1949, the IMR was 91.0. The rate decreased to 47.6 in 1960, 35.9 in 1970, 23.2 in 1980, 14.8 in 1990, 9.2 in 2000 and reached an all-time low in 2009: 5.1 per 1000 live born children. There are large variations in the birth rates as of 2016: Zala County has the lowest birth rate with 7.5 births per thousand inhabitants, while Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County has the highest birth rate with 11.2 births per thousand inhabitants. The death rates differ from as low as 11.3 deaths per thousand inhabitants in Pest County to as high as 15.7 deaths per thousand inhabitants in Békés County. Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review. One birth every 6 minutes One death every 4 minutes Net loss of one person every 16 minutes One net migrant every 90 minutes Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. Population 9,825,704 9,850,845 Age structure 0-14 years: 14.66% 15-24 years: 10.76% 25-54 years: 42.01% 55-64 years: 13.07% 65 years and over: 19.5% 0-14 years: 14.71% 15-24 years: 10.96% 25-54 years: 41.88% 55-64 years: 13.4% 65 years and over: 19.05% 0–14 years: 15% 15–64 years: 69.3% 65 years and over: 15.8% Median age total: 42.7 years.

Country comparison to the world: 25th male: 40.8 years female: 44.7 years total: 42.3 years male: 40.4 years female: 44.3 years Birth rate 8.9 births/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 206th 9 births/1,000 population Death rate 12.8 deaths/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 12thTotal fertility rate 1.45 children born/woman Country comparison to the world: 205thNet migration rate 1.3 migrant/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 58thMother's mean age at first birth 28.3 years Population growth rate -0.26% Country comparison to the world: 214th -0.25% Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.3 years Country comparison to the world: 88th male: 72.6 years female: 80.2 years Religions Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% Infant mortality rate total: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births Country comparison to the world: 177th male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births Languages Hungarian 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2% note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census.