London Motorfair is a successor to the British International Motor Show, held at Earls Court biannually from 1977 to 1999. In 1993, when the event won the support of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders and P&O Events, the name changed from "Motorfair" to "The London Motor Show"; the London Motor Show returned in May 2016 at Battersea Park, with Prince Michael of Kent as its patron. The second London Motor Show took place from 5 to 7 May 2017; the third London Motor Show took place from 17 to 20 May 2018 at ExCeL London. The fourth event takes place from 16 to 19 May 2019, once again at ExCeL; the third of the “relaunched” London Motor Show took place at ExCeL London from 17–20 May 2018, within the Royal Wedding. It featured a zone entitled "Built in Britain", promoting British engineering with exhibitors like Aston Martin, Bentley and JCB; the second of the “relaunched” London Motor Show ran from 4–7 May 2017, again in Battersea Park, with forty exhibitors. There were four premiers in the United Kingdom Alpina B4 S Mini Remastered David Brown Kahn Vengeance Volante MG XS The relaunched London Motor Show ran from 5–8 May 2016 in Battersea Park, with forty exhibitors.
There were two premiers in the United Kingdom, the launch of the prototype hydrogen car, Riversimple. Infiniti Q60 MG GS Noble M600 The show ran from October 20–31, included Classic Car Day and special Motorsport Days. AC Ace Aston Martin V8 Volante Cadillac Seville SLS and STS Daewoo Matiz Honda Civic Station Wagon Isuzu VehiCROSS Kia Credos London Taxi TX1 Lotus Esprit Sport 350 Nissan Skyline GT-R V-Spec Seat Ibiza Cupra Sport F2 Spectre R45 Concept TVR Cerbera Speed 12 Rover 200 Audi RS2 Fiat Punto Lister Storm Honda Civic Coupe Marcos GT Le Mans Peugeot 106 XSi SEAT Ibiza Spectre R42 TVR Cerbera Prototype Vauxhall Tigra Volkswagen Golf Jim McRae's Rally Car Volkswagen Vento VR6 Ray Armes' Rally Car The 1991 Motor Show was larger than previous years, with the use of the new extension of Earls Court 2, opened by Princess Diana on 17 October for the Motorfair. Mitsubishi Space Wagon Peugeot 106 Renault 19 Cabriolet SEAT Toledo Vauxhall Astra Vauxhall Frontera Land Rover Discovery Rover 200 Vauxhall Calibra Citroën AX GT Ford Sierra RS500 Cosworth Lotus Esprit Jaguar XJR8 Peugeot 405 Mi16 TVR ES Vauxhall Astra GTE Austin Metro Gala Austin Metro Vanden Plas Austin Mini Sprite Alfa Romeo Alfetta 83' Alfa Romeo Giulietta 83' Dutton Austin Mini Moke "Californian" Ford Granada 83' MG Maestro 1600 Lotus Excel 83' Jaguar XJ-SC Jensen Interceptor Series 4 Peugeot 205 5-door Peugeot 205 GTI Peugeot 505 GTI Renault 11 TL Renault 11 TSE Electronic Renault Fuego Turbo Tickford Aston Martin Lagonda Tickford Capri Turbo Official website
West Riding of Yorkshire
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding, was based on the historic boundaries; the lieutenancy at that time included the City of York and as such was named West Riding of the County of York and the County of the City of York. Its boundaries correspond to the present ceremonial counties of West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and the Craven and Selby districts of North Yorkshire, along with smaller parts in Lancashire, Greater Manchester and, since 1996, the unitary East Riding of Yorkshire; the West Riding encompasses 1,771,562 acres from Sheffield in the south to Sedbergh in the north and from Dunsop Bridge in the west to Adlingfleet in the east. The southern industrial district, considered in the broadest application of the term, extended northward from Sheffield to Skipton and eastward from Sheffield to Doncaster, covering less than one-half of the riding. Within this district were Barnsley, Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Keighley, Morley, Pontefract, Rotherham, Sheffield and Wakefield.
Major centres elsewhere in the riding included Ripon. Within the industrial region, other urban districts included Bingley, Bolton on Dearne, Cleckheaton, Featherstone, Hoyland Nether, Mexborough, Normanton, Rothwell, Shipley, Sowerby Bridge, Swinton, Wath-upon-Dearne and Worsborough. Outside the industrial region were Goole, Ilkley and Selby; the West Riding contained a large rural area to the north including part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The subdivision of Yorkshire into three ridings or "thirds" is of Scandinavian origin; the West Riding was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Unlike most English counties, being so large, was divided first into the three ridings and the city of York; each riding was divided into wapentakes, a division comparable to the hundreds of Southern England and the wards of England's four northern-most historic counties. Within the West Riding of Yorkshire there were ten wapentakes in total, four of which were split into two divisions, those were— Claro, Skyrack and Tickhill and Staincliffe.
The wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley was created with two divisions but was split into two separate wapentakes. A wapentake known as the Ainsty to the west of York, was until the 15th century a wapentake of the West Riding, but since has come under the jurisdiction of the City of York The administrative county was formed in 1889 by the Local Government Act 1888, covered the historic West Riding except for the larger urban areas, which were county boroughs with the powers of both a municipal borough and a county council. There were five in number: Bradford, Huddersfield and Sheffield; the City of York was included in the county for lieutenancy purposes. The number of county boroughs increased over the years; the boundaries of existing county boroughs were widened. Beginning in 1898, the West Riding County Council was based at the County Hall in Wakefield, inherited by the West Yorkshire County Council in 1974; the Local Government Act 1888 included the entirety of Todmorden with the West Riding administrative county, in its lieutenancy area.
Other boundary changes in the county included the expansion of the county borough of Sheffield southward in areas in Derbyshire such as Dore. Fingerposts erected in the West Riding. At the top of the post was a roundel in the form of a hollow circle with a horizontal line across the middle, displaying "Yorks W. R.", the name of the fingerpost's location, a grid reference. Other counties, apart from Dorset, did not display a grid reference and did not have a horizontal bar through the roundel. From 1964, many fingerposts were replaced by ones in the modern style, but some of the old style still survive within the West Riding boundaries. By 1971 1,924,853 people lived in the administrative county, against 1,860,435 in the ten county boroughs; the term West Riding is still used in the names of the following clubs, organisations: 33rd Foot, First Yorkshire West Riding Regiment, a re-enactment group based in Halifax who depict this Regiment during the Napoleonic Wars 49 Signal Squadron, a squadron of 34 Signal Regiment based at Carlton Barracks in Leeds 51st Light Infantry, a re-enactment group based in the West Midlands who depict this Regiment during the Napoleonic Wars 106 Field Squadron, a squadron of 72 Engineer Regiment based in Greenhill and Manningham Lane, Bradford 269 Bat
Low tension coil
A low tension coil is an electrical device used to create a spark across the points of an ignitor on early 1900s gasoline engines flywheel engines and miss engines, other engines of that era. In modern electronic terms, a low tension coil is a large inductor, an electrical device that stores energy for brief periods; the term "low tension" was the terminology of the day used to differentiate it from the term "high tension", meant "low voltage" as opposed to "high voltage". High tension coils produce high voltages meant to produce a spark across a spark plug. A low tension coil consists of an iron core; the size of the iron core, the number of turns of wire, the size of the wire determine the electrical properties of the coil. Terminals are provided to connect the coil into the ignition circuit; the wood ends are provided for mechanical stability, to provide for the terminal placement and to hold the wire on the coil over time. A cloth or tape covering is provided to protect the windings. A low tension coil for engine ignition is used in conjunction with an ignitor.
The ignitor is no more than a set of contacts that reside inside the combustion chamber of the engine. A series circuit is made between the three components: battery connects to coil, second terminal on the coil connects to the ignitor, second terminal on the ignitor connects to the second terminal of the battery; the low tension coil system was used for multi-cylinder engines, although as it required a separate coil for each cylinder. An inductor attempts to maintain a constant current flow through it. If the current in the circuit in which the inductor is connected goes down for some reason, the voltage developed across the inductor will go up in an attempt to try to maintain the constant current; when used with an ignitor ignition system in an engine, there is current flow when the ignitor contacts are closed. When the ignitor contacts are opened by the mechanical parts of the engine, current flow is interrupted; because the low tension coil wants to maintain that current flow, the voltage across the coil goes up.
When the voltage rises high enough, the voltage will jump the still small gap of the ignitor contacts and create a spark which ignites the fuel mixture in the engine. Since there is a finite amount of energy stored in the coil, as soon as the spark jumps the gap the voltage across the coil collapses; as soon as the engine rotates and the ignitor contacts again close, current starts to flow through the coil and it again stores energy for the next cycle. A good description and moving gif of a low tension coil in operation can be found on Harrys Old Engines Ignition Page Ignition coil Inductor Induction coil Trembler coil Harrys Old Engines Ignition Page
The Scott Motorcycle Company
The Scott Motorcycle Company was owned by Scott Motors Limited, West Yorkshire and was a well-known producer of motorcycles and light engines for industry. Founded by Alfred Angas Scott in 1908 as the Scott Engineering Company in Bradford, Scott motorcycles were produced until 1978. In an article in Motor Cycle magazine in 1914, Alfred Scott wrote that he was drawn to the two-stroke engine because he was trained on high speed steam and marine engines, when turning his attention to gas and petrol engines the regular power strokes of the two-stroke, seemed preferable to the one power stroke in four of the Otto cycle, he said this attraction to the two stroke was further enhanced by the reliable and excellent service from a two stroke engine designed by his brother and used to drive machinery in his experimental workshop. Scott's first experiments with a two-stroke were in a motor boat, where he was able to make tests and obtain'diagrams' under working conditions, his first attempt at a motor cycle was fitting an engine of his own design to a Premier bicycle in 1901.
This twin cylinder engine had steel cylinders with shrunk-on aluminium radiator'flanges', drove the front wheel via friction directly to the tyre. He described the drive system as'useless in the wet', he could not prevent the cylinders from scoring, his next engine had cast iron cylinders of 2 1/4" bore, drove by belt to clutch countershaft and by chain to the rear wheel. Various ingenious ignition arrangements were used including link work driven by a pin placed mid-way on the connecting rod. In parallel to this he continued work on a 4" bore, 4" stroke marine engine which developed 10HP at 800rpm, fitted with a large water-cooled brake wheel. By recording brake and indicator readings he was able to experiment with port shapes and piston shapes, developing the'curved top' piston. Scott designed and patented a vertical twin two-stroke engine in 1904, patented the familiar Scott motorcycle frame in 1908 designed to accept an engine of the type in the former patent and to achieve a low centre of gravity.
The resulting motorcycle was launched in 1908 featuring a 450 cc two-stroke twin-cylinder water-cooled engine. Innovative features included a patented two-speed chain transmission in which the alternative ratios were selected by clutches operated by a rocking foot pedal and a kick start patented; the first few machines to his design were produced by Bradford based car firm Jowett in 1908 and soon after he set up as a manufacturer in his own right at the Mornington Works, Grosvenor Road, Bradford. While Scott's production machines were marketed as a kind of luxury "wheeled horse" for the Edwardian Gentleman, there was valuable publicity to be had in competition success and the early Scott motorcycles were so powerful that they easily beat four-stroke motorcycles of the same capacity. After Scott's victory at the 1908 Wass Bank hillclimb, the Auto-Cycle Union handicapped their motorcycles by multiplying their cubic capacity by 1.32 for competitive purposes, which resulted in good, free advertising for Scott.
The handicap was lifted three years later. Scott made several appearances at the Isle of Man TT Races between 1910 and 1914 with specially built racing machines. In 1910 a Scott was the first two-stroke motorcycle to complete a full TT course under race conditions and in 1911 a Scott ridden by Frank Phillip gained the TT lap record of 50.11 mph continuous average speed. This winning streak continued with Scott's being the fastest machines in 1912, 1913, 1914 and winning the event in 1912 and 1913. From 1911 to 1914 Scott's Tourist Trophy racers used rotary valves to control the inlet and transfer phases of the two-stroke cycle. In 1911 the engine was controlled by advancing or retarding the valve timing and not by the throttle. Scott reverted to throttle control in 1912, giving the rotary valves a fixed gear drive in the same year. Three months after the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Scott announced they had received a large government contract and launch of their 1915 models would be delayed.
This marked the end of production of civilian Scott motorcycles for the duration of the war. Despatch riders volunteering for war service were allowed to use their own motorcycles, there are pictures of Scotts in such use, but the army requirement in 1914 was for single cylinder 3.5HP models, or opposed twins. Further rationalisation was needed for the Expeditionary Force due to managing spares, Scott was not on the list, however they were engaged to produce motorcycle based mobile machine gun batteries with 18 machines being sent to the front for testing at the end of 1914; the machine gun units each comprised 3 Scott 552cc machines, one with the gun, one carrying ammunition, one as a spare. Enfield were commissioned to produce their own version of this mobile machine gun platform powered by the 770cc JAP V-twin engine. Alfred Scott developed a three-wheeled machine gun carriage, not taken up by the military and in 1919 he left the company he had founded to develop the vehicle for civilian use as the Scott Sociable.
This did not prove to be as successful as the Scott motorcycle but Scott never returned to the Scott Motorcycle Company. After the war production restarted with the 532 cc Standard Tourer and in 1922 Scott introduced the Squirrel, its first sporting model to be offered to the general public; this had a smaller 486 cc engine to bring it within the 500 cc competition limit but, with aluminium pistons and careful preparation, it produced more power. In addition, many heavy accessories such as foot boards and leg shields whi
The International Harvester Company was a United States manufacturer of agricultural machinery, construction equipment, trucks and household and commercial products. Its reorganized successor, after spin-off of several of those businesses, is Navistar International. In 1902, J. P. Morgan merged the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms, to form International Harvester. In 1985, International Harvester sold off most of its agricultural division to Tenneco, Inc. which merged it into its subsidiary J. I. Case under the Case IH brand. Following the terms of IH's agreement with Tenneco, the remainder of International Harvester became Navistar International Corporation in 1986; the roots of International Harvester run to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper, which he field-demonstrated throughout 1831, for which he received a patent in 1834. Together with his brother Leander J. McCormick, McCormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company.
The McCormick reaper sold well as a result of savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market areas, he developed marketing and sales techniques, developing a vast network of trained salesmen able to demonstrate operation of the machines in the field. McCormick died in 1885, with his company passing to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. whose antipathy and incompetence toward organized labor sparked the Haymarket affair, the origin of May Day as a labor holiday. In 1902, the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms merged to create the International Harvester Company. Banker J. P. Morgan provided the financing. In 1919, the Parlin and Orendorff factory in Canton, was a leader in the plow manufacturing industry. International Harvester purchased the factory. In 1926, IH's Farmall Works began production in a new plant in Rock Island, built to produce the new Farmall tractor.
By 1930, the 100,000th Farmall was produced. IH next set their sights on introducing a true'general-purpose' tractor designed to satisfy the needs of the average US family farmer; the resulting'letter' series of Raymond Loewy-designed Farmall tractors in 1939 proved a huge success, IH enjoyed a sales lead in tractors and related equipment that continued through much of the 1940s and 1950s, despite stiff competition from Ford, John Deere, other tractor manufacturers. IH ranked 33rd among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts. In 1946 IH acquired a defense plant in Louisville, enlarged, re-equipped for production of the Farmall A, B, the new 340 tractors. In 1948, IH acquired the Metropolitan Body Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut; this was the manufacturing facility for the bodies of the commercially successful Metro line of forward control vans and trucks from 1938 until 1964. In 1974, the five-millionth IHC tractor was produced at the Rock Island Farmall plant.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, despite good sales, IH's profit margins remained slim. The continual addition of unrelated business lines created a somewhat unwieldy corporate organization, the company found it difficult to focus on a primary business, be it agricultural equipment, construction equipment, or truck production. An overly conservative management, combined with a rigid policy of in-house promotions, tended to stifle new management strategies, as well as technical innovation. Products with ancient technology continued in production despite their marginal addition to sales. Worse, IH not only faced a threat of strong competition in each of its main businesses, but had to contend with increased production costs due to labor and government-imposed environmental and safety regulations. In 1979, IH named a new CEO, determined to improve profit margins and drastically cut ballooning costs. Unprofitable model lines were terminated, factory production curtailed. By the end of the year, IH profits were at their highest in 10 years, but cash reserves were still too low.
Union members became irate over production cutbacks and other cost-cutting measures. In the spring and summer of 1979, IH began short-term planning for a strike. On November 1, IH announced figures showing that president and chairman Archie McCardell received a $1.8 million bonus. McCardell sought overtime, work rule, other changes from the United Auto Workers, which led to a strike on November 2, 1979. Soon after, the economy turned unfavorable, IH faced a financial crisis; the strike lasted about six months. When it ended, IH had lost $600 million. By 1981, the company's finances were at their lowest point ever; the strike, accompanied by the economy and internal corporate problems, had placed IH in a hole that had only a slim way out. Things only got worse until 1984. International Harvester, following long negotiations, agreed to sell selected assets of its agricultural products division to Tenneco, Inc. on November 26, 1984. Tenneco had a subsidiary, J. I. Case, that manufactured tractors, but lacked the full line of farm implements that IH produced (combines, cotton pickers, tillage equi
The Jowett Javelin was an executive car, produced from 1947 to 1953 by Jowett Cars Ltd of Idle, near Bradford in England. The model went through five variants each having a standard and "de luxe" option; the car was designed by Gerald Palmer during World War II and was intended to be a major leap forward from the staid designs of pre-war Jowetts. Just over 23,000 units were produced; the new Javelin, not yet in full production, made its first public appearance on Saturday 27 July 1946 in a cavalcade to celebrate 60 years of the British Motor Industry organised by the SMMT. Started by the King in Regent's Park the cavalcade passed through Marble Arch around London's West End and Piccadilly Circus and back up to Regent's Park. Series production was not underway until November 1947. In a 1949 road test report The Times' correspondent welcomed the Javelin's good performance and original design; the engine mounted ahead of the front axle briskly accelerates a body. The moderate size of the engine, the car's light weight and good streamlining all contribute to its excellent performance.
Controls were all light to operate and it was a restful car to drive. The flat four overhead valve engine of 1486 cc with a compression ratio of 7.2:1 was water-cooled and had an aluminium block and wet cylinder liners. It developed 50 bhp at 4100 rpm giving the car a maximum speed of 77 mph and a 0-50 mph time of 13.4 seconds. Two Zenith carburettors were fitted and PA and PB versions had hydraulic tappets; the radiator was behind the engine. A four-speed gearbox with column change was used. Early cars had gearboxes made by the Henry Meadows company. Jowett made the gearboxes, but the decision to make the gearboxes in-house proved to be a costly mistake. Though Jowett had some experience in transmission manufacturing, the project went disastrously wrong. Design features included aerodynamic styling with the headlights faired into the wings and, for the time, a steeply sloped, curved windscreen; the body was of pressed steel, incorporating a box-section chassis, was made for Jowett by Briggs Motor Bodies in their Doncaster factory.
The suspension used torsion-bars on internal gear-and-pinion steering. PA and PB models had mixed Girling hydraulic brakes at mechanical braking at the rear. Versions were hydraulic; the car had a track of 51 inches. Overall the car weighed about a ton depending on model and year; the car was expensive, costing £819 at launch.. The Jowett was competing against cars such as the Jaguar 1½ litre, Lanchester LD10, Riley RM 1½ litre and the Singer Super 12. A de-luxe saloon version tested by The Motor magazine in 1953 had a top speed of 82.4 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 20.9 seconds. A fuel consumption of 29.1 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1207 including taxes. An early example won in its class at the 1949 Monte Carlo Rally and another won the 2-litre touring-car class at the Spa 24-hour race in the same year. In the 1952 International RAC Rally a Javelin again won its class and took the "Best Closed Car" award, in 1953 the International Tulip Rally was won outright by a entered Javelin.
A Javelin features in How to Irritate People sketch "Car Salesman". In the film Vera Drake, Vera's car is a Javelin. In episode 104, "Fallen Angel", of the television series Ballykissangel, Father Clifford inherits a Jowett Javelin; the car was used throughout the rest of Series One and all of Series Two, until it went off a cliff in episode 301 "As Happy As A Turkey On Boxing Day". The song "Jowett Javelin" appears on the Harvey Andrews album "Snaps" and describes a ride in the automobile. A Jowett Javelin is used in the Simple Minds music video for "See the Lights" from the album Real Life. Javelin video Jowett Car Club Limited Site Jowett North West Section Site Photograph of Jowett Javelin
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K