Balkh is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country. It is divided into 15 districts and has a population of about 1,245,100, the city of Mazar-i-Sharif serves as the capital of the province. The Mazar-e Sharif International Airport and Camp Marmal sit on the edge of Mazar-i-Sharif. The name of the province is derived from the ancient city of Balkh, home to the famous blue mosque, it was once destroyed by Genghis Khan but rebuilt by Timur. The city of Mazar-e-Sharif has been an important stop on the routes from the Far East to the Middle East. The city of Balkh and the area of Balkh Province was considered a part of historical regions in history including Ariana. It serves today as Afghanistans second but main gateway to Central Asia, the province covers an area of 16,840 km2. Nearly half of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain while half of the area is made up of flat land, the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca.
2200–1700 BCE, located in present-day Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centered on the upper Amu Darya and its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. The early Greek historian Ctesias c.400 BCE alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in ca.2140 BC, or some 1000 years before the Trojan War. Ever since the discovery of cuneiform enabled actual Assyrian records to be deciphered in the 19th century, according to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-European tribes who moved south-west into what is today Iran and into north-western India around 2500–2000 BCE. Later, it became the province of the Achaemenid Empire. It was in these regions, where the soil of the mountainous country is surrounded by the Turanian desert. It is suggested by E. Herzfeld that Bactria once belonged to the Median empire and it was annexed by the Achaemenid Persians in the 6th century BCE and together with Margiana it formed the twelfth satrapy of the Achaemenids.
He was tortured and killed, Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Persia. However, in the south, beyond the Oxus, he met strong resistance, after two years of war Bactria was occupied by the Macedonians, but Alexander never successfully subdued the people. After Alexanders death, the Macedonian Empire was eventually divided up between several generals in Alexanders army, Bactria became part of Seleucus I, the founder of the Seleucid Empire. He was the founder of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids—particularly from Antiochus III the Great, who was ultimately defeated by the Romans
Faryab is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, which is located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan. It has a population of about 948,000, which is multi-ethnic, the province encompasses 15 districts and over 1,000 villages. The capital of Faryab province is Maymana, Faryab is a Persian toponym meaning lands irrigated by diversion of river water. It is named after a town that was founded by the Sassanids and it is the hometown to the famed Islamic philosopher, al-Farabi, per the biographer Ibn al-Nadim. The area has part of Greater Khorasan. British geographers referred to the area as Afghan Turkestan, the history of settlement in Faryab is ancient and comprises layer upon layer of occupation. At times, it was a pot within which a host of cultures have merged into a non-conflictual whole or at least peaceable coexistence. Maymana and Andkhui actually entered written history 2,500 years ago when Jews arrived and settled in 586 BC, the territory was under Persian control at the time, which gave way to Greek rule following the conquest by Alexander the Great in 326 BC.
Persian dominance was restored from the 3rd to the 7th century AD, the pre-Islamic period ended with the conquest of northern Afghanistan by Arab Muslims. The area turned into a vast battlefield as the two great Arab and Persian cultures battled for not only political and geographical supremacy but ideological supremacy, as a result, centuries of Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity and indigenous pagan cults were swept away. Various Islamic dynasties rose to power and influenced the locals and they included the Saffarids, Ghaznavids and Ghurids. The history of Faryab was greatly altered yet again in the 11th century, as he moved into the area from the north and towns including Maymana were razed, populations massacred, grain and livestock stolen or burnt and ancient irrigation systems obliterated. Control by the descendants of Genghis Khan stemmed from the capitals of Bukhara or Samarkand north of the Amu Darya River. They ruled in a manner, allowing local tribal chiefs in Maymana and elsewhere considerable autonomy.
Uzbek occupation of the area began within the Turko-Mongol period, in 1500, Uzbek princes, known as Khanate of Bukhara, themselves a Turco-Mongol product, swept across the Amu Darya, reaching Faryab and related areas around 1505. They joined a substantial and largely pastoral Arab population and ruled the area until the mid-18th century and it was conquered by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1748 and became part of the Durrani Empire. The area was untouched by the British during the three Anglo-Afghan wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries, Faryab become a province in 1964. From the administrative reforms of the 1930s until it was known as Maymana and was a sub-province of Balkh Province, which had its headquarters in Mazar-i-Sharif
Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum is an Afghan politician who has served as Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014. He served in the past as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Afghan National Army, during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Dostum was a general in the Afghan army. He became an independent warlord and leader of Afghanistans Uzbek community and he participated in battles against the Mujahideen fighters in the 1980s as well as against the Taliban in the 1990s. After the fall of the Taliban, he resided in Turkey before returning to the country. In 2013 he made an apology for his role in the civil war. He subsequently entered parliament, and joined Ashraf Ghanis presidential administration as a vice president, Dostum was born in 1954 in Khwaja du koh, Jowzjan Province, Afghanistan. Coming from a family, he received a very basic traditional education as he was forced to drop out of school at a young age. From there, he took up work in the gas fields, Dostum began working in 1970 in a state-owned gas refinery in Sheberghan, participating in union politics, as the new government started to arm the staff of the workers in the oil and gas refineries.
The reason for this was to create groups for the defense of the revolution, because of the new communist ideas entering Afghanistan in the 1970s, he enlisted in the army in 1978. Dostum received his military training in Jalalabad. His squadron was deployed in the areas around Sheberghan, under the auspices of the Ministry of National Security. By the mid-1980s he commanded around 20,000 militia men, while the unit recruited throughout Jowzjan and had a relatively broad base, many of its early troops and commanders came from Dostums home village. He left the army after the purge of Parchamis, but returned after the Soviet occupation began, during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Dostum was commanding a militia battalion to fight and rout mujahideen forces, he had been appointed an officer due to prior military experience. This eventually became a regiment and incorporated into the defense forces as the 53rd Infantry Division. Dostum and his new division reported directly to President Mohammad Najibullah, on he became the commander of the military unit 374 in Jowzjan.
He defended the Soviet-backed Afghan government against the U. S. Pakistani, while he was only a regional commander, he had largely raised his forces by himself. The Jowzjani militia Dostum controlled was one of the few in the country which was able to be deployed outside its own region and they were deployed in Kandahar in 1988 when Soviet forces were withdrawing from Afghanistan. Dostums men would become an important force in the fall of Kabul in 1992, in April 1992, the opposition forces began their march to Kabul against the government of Najibullah
National Assembly (Afghanistan)
The National Assembly, known as the Afghan Parliament, is Afghanistans national legislature. It is a body, comprising two chambers, Meshrano Jirga ) or the House of Elders, an upper house with 102 seats. Wolesi Jirga or the House of the People, a house with 250 seats. Every member of the National Assembly takes into judgment the general welfare, a new larger building for the Afghan National Assembly was built with Indian assistance. It was inaugurated in late 2015 by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi and it is located across the now-ruined Darul Aman Palace. The National Assembly of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as the highest legislative organ is the manifestation of the will of its people, every member of the National Assembly takes into judgment the general welfare and supreme interests of all people of Afghanistan at the time of casting their vote. The Wolesi Jirga has 250 seats with members elected by the people. Sixty-eight women were elected to the seats reserved under the Constitution, each province was given proportionate representation in the Wolesi Jirga according to its population.
Each member of the Wolesi Jirga will enjoy a five-year term, the Meshrano Jirga consists of a mixture of appointed and elected members. Sixty-eight members were selected by 34 directly elected Provincial Councils, and 34 were appointed by the President, President Karzai’s appointments were vetted by an independent UN sponsored election board and included 17 women, as required by the Constitution. Each provincial council has elected one member to serve in the Jirga. Representatives of provincial councils will serve a term of four years, sebghatulla Mojadeddi was appointed President of Meshrano Jirga. The foundation stone for the new Afghan Parliament was laid in August 2005 by the last king of Afghanistan, Zahir Shah, in the presence of Hamid Karzai and Manmohan Singh. Indias Central Public Works Department was the consultant for the project, the new Parliament building is corralled in an 84-acre plot on the outskirts of Kabul and fringes such historical landmarks as Amanullah Khans Palace and the Queens Palace.
The construction work on the building was slated to be complete by 2012. The deadline, was pushed due to challenging work conditions, shortage of skilled workforce. More than 500 laborers had worked on the building, most of them Indian nationals, after completion, this is believed to be one of the best parliament building in the world. The main attraction of the building is a dome of 32 meter diameter and 17.15 meter height is considered to be the largest dome in Asia
Sar-e Pol Province
Sar-e Pol, spelled Sari Pul, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country. It borders Jowzjan and Balkh to the west and north, Ghor Province to the south, the province is divided into 7 districts and contains 896 villages. It has a population of about 532,000, which is multi-ethnic, the province was created in 1988, with the support of northern Afghan politician Sayed Nasim Mihanparast. The city of Sar-e Pol serves as the provincial capital, between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century, the territory was ruled by the Khanate of Bukhara. It was given to Ahmad Shah Durrani by Murad Beg of Bukhara after a treaty was signed in or about 1750 and it was ruled by the Durranis followed by the Barakzai dynasty. The area was untouched by the British during the three Anglo-Afghan wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries and it remained peaceful for about one hundred years until the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan. During the Afghan Civil War, the area was controlled by forces loyal to Abdul Rashid Dostum and it was captured by the Taliban in 1998.
Aminullah Amin, the first senior member of the Taliban to be captured, was the governor of the province. The Afghan National Security Forces began expanding in the last decade, the Afghanistan-Turkmenistan border is maintained by the Afghan Border Police while law and order for the rest of the province is provided by the NATO-trained Afghan National Police. In operations against militants, the chief said they had arrested a prominent Taliban commander Mullah Nader along with 11 other people during the recent operations. He said scores of kilograms of hashish and opium had seized from people during the operations. The biggest threat to travelers in Sar-i-Pul remains highway bandits and thieves, corrupt militiamen and police, the Taliban have small cadres operating throughout the province but rely on larger support networks in neighboring provinces. The current governor of the province is Mohammad Zahir Wahdat, the city of Sar-e Pol serves as the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are managed by the Afghan National Police, the provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul.
The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces, including the NATO-led forces, Sayed Anwar Rahmati, Aziza Jalis, Sayed Anwar Sadat, Mohammad Hossein Fahimi, Sayed Mohammad Hossein Sharifi Balkhabi, and Haji Khair Mohammad Imaq are the current Wolesi Jirga members. They represent Sar-e Pol province in the Afghan National Assembly in Kabul, the percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 8% in 2005 to 15% in 2011. The percentage of births attended to by a birth attendant increased from 0% in 2005 to 20% in 2011. The overall literacy rate increased from 12% in 2005 to 23% in 2011, the overall net enrolment rate increased from 22% in 2005 to 46% in 2011
The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, most of Pakistan, and northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers, in 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah set out westward to take possession of Herat and he next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir, early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over the Punjab and Kashmir. Additionally, among the Durranis other military conquests, the Pashtun instigated the Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab, the Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as Father of the Nation.
In 1709 Mir Wais Hotak, chief of the Ghilji tribe of Kandahar Province, from 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud Hotak briefly ruled large parts of Iran and declared himself as Shah of Persia. However, the Hotak dynasty came to a end in 1738 after being toppled and banished by the Afsharids who were led by Nader Shah Afshar of Persia. The year 1747 marks the appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. In October 1747 a loya jirga concluded near the city of Kandahar with Ahmad Shah Durrani being selected as the new leader of the Afghans, despite being younger than the other contenders, Ahmad Shah had several overriding factors in his favor. He belonged to a family of political background, especially since his father served as Governor of Herat who died in a battle defending the Afghans. He had a larger army and possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shahs treasury, including the Koh-i-Noor diamond. One of Ahmad Shahs first military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghiljis, in 1749, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh, the Punjab region and the important trans Indus River to Ahmad Shah in order to save his capital from Afghan attack.
Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Ahmad Shah turned westward to take possession of Herat, Ahmad Shah next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush mountains. In short order, the army brought under its control the Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen. Ahmad Shah invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time and he sacked Delhi in 1757, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control of the city as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over Punjab and Kashmir. Leaving his second son Timur Shah to safeguard his interests, Ahmad Shah left India to return to Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah halted trade with Qing China and dispatched troops to Kokand. Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled virtually the whole of India from their capital at Pune, Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted, to counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao
Provincial Reconstruction Team
PRTs were first established in Afghanistan in early 2002, and as of 2008 operate there as well as in Iraq. While the concepts are similar, PRTs in Afghanistan and Iraq had separate compositions and missions and their common purpose, was to empower local governments to govern their constituents more effectively. A PRT included a component, civilian police advisors. In a US-led PRT, this included a representative from USAID, the Department of State, the Department of Agriculture. They were assisted by public diplomacy and reporting staff, a PRT in Afghanistan was commanded by a military officer, generally of the rank of Lieutenant Colonel or Commander. The staff generally numbered between sixty and one hundred persons, by 2009, the military still dominated the role within PRTs as only three to four civilians were posted to each team of eighty to two hundred and fifty personnel. The lack of civilian personnel civilian executive agencies was a concern of CENTCOM commanders. Activities in Afghanistan focused on extending the reach of the government into the provinces.
In an Iraq PRT, the Team Leader was a civilian who reports to the US Department of State, while civil affairs members were present on the team, there were more civilians than military personnel on the team. Functional areas included rule of law and development, some Iraq PRTs were embedded into the Brigade Combat Team with which they are colocated. The BCT retaine responsibility for providing security for the team members. Public diplomacy was an element to successful Provincial Reconstruction Team projects. PRTs, in Afghanistan, were tasked with an area of a province and coordinate, develop. These projects enabled the population to become familiar with and trust the U. S. counterinsurgency efforts in Afghanistan. Projects supported by PRTs were created and approved by the ranks of the provincial government in Afghanistan. The ability of PRTS to conduct Public diplomacy and their ability to work with the government made counterinsurgency objectives obtainable. The PRT’s civil affairs line of operation exerted a large amount of public diplomacy, CA operations were responsible, along with the provincial government, for implementation and supervision of projects in the province.
These projects included public affairs like humanitarian supply distribution, like school, Civil affairs operations were responsible for reaching out to the population to determine what is needed to make society stable and secure from the insurgent ideology
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. It lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. In addition, at times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948, among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798, the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.
The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861, however. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory, British India and the Native States. In general, the term British India had been used to to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has used to refer to the British in India. The terms Indian Empire and Empire of India were not used in legislation, the monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was often used in Queen Victorias Queens Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship.
In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Bengal, there were 565 princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August 1947. The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs and most communications were under British control, the British exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the majority were very small
Districts of Afghanistan
This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali, which are one level below the provinces. The number of districts has fluctuated over the years, with new districts created by splitting or merging parts of others, prior to 1979, there were 325 districts but a major reorganization in 2004 led to the number increasing to 397. As of June 2005, the Afghan Ministry of the Interior recognised 398 districts and this number is expected to change with further administrative reorganization. Qalat Shah Joy Shamulzayi Shinkay Tarnak Wa Jaldak List of splits and creations of districts in Afghanistan Afghanistan Information Management Service, accessed 2006-07-27
Demographics of Afghanistan
The population of Afghanistan is around 32 million as of 2015, which includes the 2.7 million Afghan citizens that are residing temporarily in Pakistan and Iran. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade, the largest ethnic group among Afghanistans population is the Pashtuns, followed by Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen and others. As of 2013 46% of Afghanistans population are under 15 years of age, the average woman gave birth to five children during her life and 6. 8% of all babies died in child-birth or infancy. Life expectancy in 2013 was 60 years and only 0. 1% of the population between ages 15 and 49 had HIV, Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country. Dari is mostly spoken in the Tajik- and Hazara-dominated areas, while Pashto is spoken mainly in the Pashtun tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush mountains and Turkmen are spoken in parts of the north. Smaller groups in parts of the country speak about 30 other languages.
Multilingualism is common throughout the country, especially in the major cities, islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistans citizens. The remaining 1% or less practice other religions such as Sikhism and Hinduism, excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most People are organized into tribal and other kinship-based groups, who follow their own traditional customs, for instance Pashtuns Pashtunwali. The majority of the population lives in rural areas and is involved in agricultural activities. As of 2013, the population of Afghanistan is around 32,564,342. Of this,5.7 million people were reported to be living in urban areas, after the 1978 Marxist coup, hundreds of Afghans began leaving the country as refugees - most of these were related to the ousted president Mohammad Daoud Khan. In 1979, the population was reported to be about 15.5 million, the Statistical Yearbook published in 1983 by the Babrak Karmal government claimed a total population of 15.96 million for 1981–82.
Some suggest that between 600,000 and 2 million Afghans were killed during the various 1979–2001 wars, majority of them during the Soviet war in the 1980s, according to the Population Reference Bureau, the Afghan population is estimated to increase to 82 million by 2050. Urban areas are experiencing population growth since the Karzai administration began in late 2001. The only city in Afghanistan with over a million residents is its capital, the other largest cities in the country are shown in the chart below. 0–14 years,42. 3% 15–64 years,55. 3%65 years and over,2. 4% In 1979, the population was reported to be about 15.5 million. The nations healthy ministry stated that most of the HIV patients were among intravenous drug users and that 70% of them were men, 25% women, and the remaining 5% children. They belonged to Kabul and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring or other foreign countries, regarding Kandahar,22 cases were reported in 2012
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and these companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. For example, in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries, there are governors, school governors. The adjective pertaining to a governor is gubernatorial, from the Latin root gubernyare, the historical female form is governess, though female officials are referred to by the gender-neutral form governor of the noun to avoid confusion with other meanings of the term. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity were ultimately replaced by Roman standardized provincial governments after their conquest by Rome, in Pharaonic times, the governors of each of the various provinces in the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt are usually known by the Greek word.
The core function of a Roman governor was as a magistrate or judge, and the management of taxation, under the Republic and the early Empire, however, a governor commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were all men who had served in senior magistracies in Rome in the previous year, a special case was Egypt, a rich private domain and vital granary, where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh. The Emperor was represented there by a sui generis styled praefectus augustalis. Otherwise, the governors of provinces had various titles, some known as consularis, apart from Egypt and the East, each diocese was directed by a governor known as a vicarius. The prefectures were directed by praefecti praetorio and this system survived with few significant changes until the collapse of the empire in the West, and in the East, the breakdown of order with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that stage, a new kind of governor emerged, the Strategos, crown colonies of the United Kingdom continue to be administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power.
Because of the different constitutional histories of the colonies of the United Kingdom. Administrators and High Commissioners exercise similar powers to Governors, frequently the name Government House is given to Governors residences. The term can be used in a generic sense, especially for compound titles which include it, Governor-general. In the United Kingdoms remaining overseas territories, the governor is normally a direct appointee of the British Government, the Governors chief responsibility is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony. In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an Administrator or Commissioner, in Australia, each state has the governor as its formal representative of the Queen, as head of the state government. It is not an office but a ceremonial one. Each state governor is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Premier, State Governors have emergency reserve powers but these are rarely used
Khanate of Bukhara
The Khanate of Bukhara was a Central Asian state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century. Bukhara became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid empire during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan, the khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty and they were the last Genghisid descendants to rule Bukhara. In 1740, it was conquered by Nadir Shah, the Shah of Iran, after his death in 1747, the khanate was controlled by the non-Genghisid descendants of the Uzbek emir Khudayar Bi, through the prime ministerial position of ataliq. In 1785, his descendent, Shah Murad, formalized the familys rule. The Manghits were non-Genghisid and took the Islamic title of Emir instead of Khan since their legitimacy was not based on descent from Genghis Khan, the Shaybanid dynasty ruled the Khanate from 1500 to 1598. Under their rule, Bukhara became a center of arts and literature, new books on history and geography were written in this period, such as Haft iqlīm by Amin Ahmad Razi, a native of Iran.
Among the famous poets and theologians who worked in Bukhara in that era were Mushfiki, Nizami Muamaya, molana Abd-al Hakim was the most famous of the many physicians who practised in the Bukharan khanate in the 16th century. Abd al-Aziz Khan established a library having no equal the world over, the prominent scholar Sultan Mirak Munshi worked there from 1540. The gifted calligrapher Mir Abid Khusaini produced masterpieces of Nastaliq and Reihani script and he was a brilliant miniature-painter, master of encrustation, and was the librarian of Bukharas library. The Shaybanids instituted a number of measures to improve the system of public education. Each neighborhood mahalla — unit of local self-government — of Bukhara had a hedge school, children started elementary education at the age of six. After two years they could be taken to madrasah, the course of education in madrasah consisted of three steps of seven years each. Hence, the course of education in madrasah lasted twenty-one years. The pupils studied theology, jurisprudence, logic and this educational system had a positive influence upon the development and wide circulation of the Persian and Uzbek languages, and on the development of literature, science and skills.
The Janid Dynasty ruled the Khanate from 1599 until 1747, yar Muhammad and his family had escaped from Astrakhan after Astrakhan fell to Russians. He had a son named Jani Muhammad who had two sons named Baqi Muhammad and Vali Muhammad from his wife, who was the daughter of the last Shaybanid ruler, Khanate of Bukhara breaks up into, See Manghits —. See Yadigarids and Qongirats —, abul Ghazi Khan List of Turkic dynasties and countries List of Sunni Muslim dynasties The Ashtarkhanid Rulers of Bukhara