The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
O Come, All Ye Faithful
"O Come, All Ye Faithful" is a Christmas carol, attributed to various authors, including John Francis Wade, John Reading, King John IV of Portugal, anonymous monks. The earliest printed version is in a book published by Wade, but the earliest manuscript bears the name of King John IV, is located in the library of the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa. A manuscript by Wade, dating to 1751, is held by Stonyhurst College in Lancashire; the original four verses of the hymn were extended to a total of eight, these have been translated into many languages. The English translation of "O Come, All Ye Faithful" by the English Catholic priest Frederick Oakeley, written in 1841, is widespread in most English-speaking countries; the present harmonisation is from the English Hymnal. The original text of the hymn has been from time to time attributed to various groups and individuals, including St. Bonaventure in the 13th century or King John IV of Portugal in the 17th, though it was more believed that the text was written by Cistercian monks - the German, Portuguese or Spanish provinces of that order having at various times been credited.
In modern English hymnals the text is credited to John Francis Wade, whose name appears on the earliest printed versions. However, this is most an error of attribution. Wade, an English Catholic, lived in exile in France and made a living as a copyist of musical manuscripts which he found in libraries, he signed his copies because his calligraphy was so beautiful that his clients requested this. In 1751 he published a printed compilation of his manuscript copies, Cantus Diversi pro Dominicis et Festis per annum; this is the first printed source for Adeste Fideles. The version published by Wade consisted of four Latin verses, but in the 18th century, the French Catholic priest Jean-François-Étienne Borderies wrote an additional three verses in Latin. Another, additional Latin verse is printed; the text has been translated innumerable times into English. The most common version today is a combination of one of Frederick Oakeley's translations of the original four verses, William Thomas Brooke's translation of the three additional verses.
It was first published in Murray's Hymnal in 1852. Oakeley titled the song “Ye Faithful, approach ye” when it was sung at his Margaret Church in Marylebone, before it was altered to its current form; the song was sometimes referred to as the "Portuguese Hymn" after the Duke of Leeds, in 1795, heard a version of it sung at the Portuguese embassy in London. The most named Portuguese author is King John IV of Portugal, "The Musician King". John was a patron of music and the arts, a sophisticated writer on music. During his reign he collected one of the largest musical libraries in the world, destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, he founded a Music School in Vila Viçosa that "exported" musicians to Spain and Italy. It was at John's Vila Viçosa palace that two manuscripts of the "Portuguese Hymn" have been found and dated to 1640; these manuscripts predate Wade's eighteenth-century versions. Among King John's writings is a Defense of Modern Music. In the same year he had a huge struggle to get instrumental music approved by the Vatican for use in the Catholic Church.
Aother famous composition of his is a setting of the Crux fidelis, a work that remains popular during Lent among church choirs. Besides John Francis Wade, the tune has been attributed to several musicians, from John Reading and his son, to Handel, the German composer Gluck; the Portuguese composer Marcos Portugal or King John IV of Portugal have been credited. Thomas Arne, whom Wade knew, is another possible composer. There are several similar musical themes written around that time, though it can be hard to determine whether these were written in imitation of the hymn, whether the hymn was based on them, or whether they are unconnected; the hymn was first published by John Francis Wade in his collection Cantus Diversi, with four Latin verses, music set in the traditional square notation used for medieval liturgical music. It was published again in the 1760 edition of Evening Offices of the Church, it appeared in Samuel Webbe's An Essay on the Church Plain Chant. The Sacred Harp hymn tune "Portuguese Hymn", in 9 11 11 meter with 7 7 10 refrain, is different from the usual tune.
These are the original four Latin verses as published by Wade, along with their English translation by Frederick Oakeley. These are the additional Latin verses composed in the 18th century, with English prose translations, not from Oakeley: The words of the hymn have been interpreted as a Jacobite birth ode to Bonnie Prince Charlie. Professor Bennett Zon, head of music at Durham University, has interpreted it this way, claiming that the secret political code was decipherable by the "faithful", with "Bethlehem" a common Jacobite cipher for England and Regem Angelorum a pun on Angelorum and Anglorum. Wade had fled to France. From the 1740s to 1770s the earliest forms of the carol appeared in English Roman Catholic liturgical books close to prayers for the exiled Old Pretender. In the books by Wade it was decorated with Jacobite floral imagery, as were other liturgical texts with coded
Rolando Villazón Mauleón is a French/Mexican tenor. He now lives in France, in 2007 he became a French citizen. Villazón has published several books, including the novels Malabares and Paladas de sombra contra la oscuridad which have been translated into French and German, he is a member of the Collège de'Pataphysique in Paris. He was raised in a suburban area of Greater Mexico City, Mexico. In an interview for Mexican television, Villazón told the story of, he said that one day, as he was getting out of the shower in his apartment in Mexico City, somebody came knocking on his door. He told Rolando he invited him to his music academy to develop his voice, he came to international attention in 1999 when he won second prize in Plácido Domingo's Operalia competition, as well as the first Zarzuela prize. The same year he sang for the first time in Italy as des Grieux in Manon at the Teatro Carlo Felice in Genoa. In 2000 he appeared for the first time as Macduff in Macbeth. Over the years he has presented many of his best roles there, among them José in Carmen and des Grieux in Manon.
In Munich in 2000 he sang Rodolfo in La bohème and in 2002 in Los Angeles, Rinuccio in Gianni Schicchi. In 2003 he sang Rodolfo at the Glyndebourne Festival Opera in England, he enjoyed success in the title role of Les Contes d'Hoffmann at London's Royal Opera House. The following year he appeared as Alfredo in La traviata at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, in 2005, both at St. Petersburg and the Salzburg Festival. In addition to his appearances on the opera stage, he has an active recording career, he has recorded four solo CDs with Virgin Classics and is additionally featured, along with Patrizia Ciofi and Topi Lehtipuu, on the recording of Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda by Claudio Monteverdi, conducted by Emmanuelle Haïm. In August 2005, he sang a regarded Alfredo in Verdi's La traviata at the Salzburg Festival, conducted by Carlo Rizzi, directed by Willy Decker. Co-starring was Anna Netrebko as Violetta, they appeared together in a performance of Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore at the Vienna State Opera, released on DVD.
In 2007, Villazón switched his recording company and signed an exclusive long-term contract with Deutsche Grammophon. An album of zarzuelas conducted by Plácido Domingo, was released in Spring 2007; the U. S. version of his album Viva Villazón was released in September 2007. In early 2010 he was a judge in the ITV show Popstar to Operastar. In 2007, Villazón cancelled many of his scheduled engagements in order to diagnose and remedy a persistent vocal issue. In May 2009, Rolando Villazón announced that he had to undergo surgery in order to remove a congenital cyst in one of his vocal cords. After completing his rehabilitation, he returned to the stage in March 2010 singing Nemorino in L'elisir d'amore at the Vienna State Opera in March 2010, embarked on a series of recitals, he made his debut as a stage director with a new production of Werther at the Opéra de Lyon in January 2011. In December 2012, he appeared as Rodolfo in La bohème at London's Royal Opera House, a role he first sang there in 2005.
In recent years, Villazon has undertaken a number of Mozart tenor roles both in concert and in operatic performances, notably Don Ottavio in Mozart's Don Giovanni at the Festspiel Baden-Baden, the role of Alessandro in Mozart's Il re pastore under William Christie at Zürich Opera House. His first all-Mozart solo album featuring the composer's concert arias for tenor was released in January 2014. Villazón sang "La Prima Luce" on the 2014 Yanni/Plácido Domingo/Ric Wake collaboration album Inspirato. Romeo y Julieta CD, Radio Televisión Española Der Fliegende Holländer CD, Teldec Classics Berlioz: La Révolution Grecque CD, EMI Classics Italian Opera Arias CD, Virgin Classics Gounod & Massenet Arias CD, Virgin Classics Tristan und Isolde CDs and DVD, EMI Classics Don Carlo 2 DVDs, Opus Arte La Traviata CD, Deutsche Grammophon Merry Christmas CD, Virgin Classics Opera Recital CD. 2010 Messiah CD with the Mormon Tabernacle Choir and Orchestra at Temple Square Le Nozze di Figaro CD, Deutsche Grammophon O Come Little Children Official website Official page on Deutsche Grammophon
Daniel César Martín Brühl González is a German-Spanish actor. He began his work at a young age in a German soap opera called Verbotene Liebe in 1995. In 2003, his starring role in the German film Good Bye, Lenin! received wider recognition and critical acclaim which garnered him the European Film Award for Best Actor and the German Film Award for Best Actor. Brühl has worked in both American productions in several different languages, he was introduced to mainstream U. S. audiences with his breakout role of Fredrick Zoller, a German war hero in Quentin Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds, appeared in such films as The Bourne Ultimatum, The Fifth Estate and A Most Wanted Man. Brühl received widespread critical acclaim and further recognition for his portrayal of former Formula 1 driver Niki Lauda in the Ron Howard biographical film Rush. In 2016, Brühl made his Marvel Cinematic Universe debut in Captain America: Civil War, portraying Helmut Zemo. Brühl was born in Spain, his father was TV director Hanno Brühl, born in São Paulo, Brazil, of German origin.
His Spanish mother was a Catalan teacher. He has a brother and a sister and Miriam. Shortly after his birth, his family moved to Cologne, where he grew up and attended the Dreikönigsgymnasium. A fluent English-speaker, he grew up speaking Catalan, Spanish and Portuguese. Brühl began acting at a young age, with a debut role in 1995 as street kid Benji in the soap opera Verbotene Liebe, his international breakthrough role came in 2003 as Alex Kerner in the German Golden Globe-nominated tragicomedy Good Bye, Lenin!, which reached an estimated six million cinema-goers worldwide. In 2003, Brühl won the European Film Academy award trophies for Best Actor for the role. Brühl made his English-speaking film debut in 2004's Ladies in Lavender, starring alongside English actresses Judi Dench and Maggie Smith; the same year, he won the People's Choice trophy for Best Actor for the film Love in Thoughts while at the same time, he was nominated for Best Actor for The Edukators. Brühl featured as Lieutenant Horstmayer, a central character in the 2005 film Joyeux Noël, a trilingual World War I film based on the experiences of French and Scottish soldiers during the Christmas truce of 1914.
The film shows Brühl's linguistic ability as he ably communicates in German and English throughout. In 2006, he was invited to be part of the short film and Cinéfondation juries of the Cannes Film Festival. Brühl made a cameo appearance in 2 Days in Paris, a romantic comedy film directed by French actress Julie Delpy. In September 2006, his Cannes-nominated film Salvador premiered in Spain. In the film, he played a Spanish anarchist executed during the Franco era. In 2007, he appeared in a small role in the film The Bourne Ultimatum, he was in Krabat, based on a popular German children's story, which premiered in German cinemas in October 2008. He was introduced to mainstream U. S. audiences in the role of Frederik Zoller, a German war hero in Quentin Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds, starring Brad Pitt, which premiered at Cannes 2009. He and his co-stars won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. In 2009, he starred in Julie Delpy's third directorial film, The Countess.
In May 2009, Brühl decided to become active in a different field of filmmaking by launching production company Fouronfilm together with Film1. Brühl starred in the 2010 British-Russian production In Transit, in which he played a young Nazi soldier opposite John Malkovich, he co-starred with Clive Owen in the 2011 horror thriller Intruders, directed by Juan Carlos Fresnadillo. In 2013, he co-starred in a film based on the founding of WikiLeaks. Brühl played Daniel Domscheit-Berg, alongside Benedict Cumberbatch as Julian Assange. In the same year, Brühl portrayed former Formula 1 driver Niki Lauda in the Ron Howard biographical film Rush; the film was a commercial and critical success, for his role he received multiple award nominations, including the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, the Critic's Choice Award for Best Supporting Actor, the Screen Actors Guild Award and the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. In 2015, he starred in a thriller by Academy Award winner Florian Gallenberger.
The film was shot October to December 2014 in South America and Luxembourg. His co-stars were Emma Watson and Michael Nyqvist, the film was produced by Academy Award nominee Benjamin Herrmann. Brühl played Helmut Zemo in Captain America: Civil War, released in 2016. In Niki Caro's World War II film The Zookeeper's Wife, he played Nazi zoologist Lutz Heck, who forces Jan and Antonina Żabiński to abandon the Warsaw Zoo; the film is based on Diane Ackerman's non-fiction book. Since 2011, Brühl has been the joint operator of a tapas bar in the Kreuzberg district of Berlin. From February to October 2017, he was joint operator of a similar bar in Prenzlauer Berg, named Bar Gracia after Barcelona's nightlife district Gràcia, but the bar closed in October 2017 because of little economic success. In 2006, Brühl separated from his longtime girlfriend and fiancée, actress Jessica Schwarz, whom he had met on the set of the 2001 film No Regrets. Since 2010, he has been in a relationship with practicing psychologist and former model Felicitas Rombold.
They have a son together, Anton Hanno, married sometime between and early 2018. Daniel Brühl on IMDb Daniel Brühl Fan Site
Western Front (World War I)
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium gaining military control of important industrial regions in France; the tide of the advance was turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918. Between 1915 and 1917 there were several offensives along this front; the attacks employed massive artillery massed infantry advances. Entrenchments, machine gun emplacements, barbed wire and artillery inflicted severe casualties during attacks and counter-attacks and no significant advances were made. Among the most costly of these offensives were the Battle of Verdun, in 1916, with a combined 700,000 casualties, the Battle of the Somme in 1916, with more than a million casualties, the Battle of Passchendaele, in 1917, with 487,000 casualties.
To break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front, both sides tried new military technology, including poison gas and tanks. The adoption of better tactics and the cumulative weakening of the armies in the west led to the return of mobility in 1918; the German Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that ended the war of the Central Powers against Russia and Romania on the Eastern Front. Using short, intense "hurricane" bombardments and infiltration tactics, the German armies moved nearly 100 kilometres to the west, the deepest advance by either side since 1914, but the result was indecisive; the inexorable advance of the Allied armies during the second half of 1918 caused a sudden collapse of the German armies and persuaded the German commanders that defeat was inevitable. The German government surrendered in the Armistice of 11 November 1918, the terms of peace were settled by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. At the outbreak of the First World War, the German Army, with seven field armies in the west and one in the east, executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, moving through neutral Belgium to attack France, turning southwards to encircle the French Army and trap it on the German border.
The Western Front was the place where the most powerful military forces in Europe, the German and French armies and where the war was decided. Belgian neutrality had been guaranteed by Britain under the Treaty of London, 1839. Armies under German generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow attacked Belgium on 4 August 1914. Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on 2 August; the first battle in Belgium was the Siege of Liège. Liège was well surprised the German Army under Bülow with its level of resistance. German heavy artillery was able to demolish the main forts within a few days. Following the fall of Liège, most of the Belgian field army retreated to Antwerp, leaving the garrison of Namur isolated, with the Belgian capital, falling to the Germans on 20 August. Although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank. Another siege followed at Namur; the French deployed five armies on the frontier. The French Plan XVII was intended to bring about the capture of Alsace-Lorraine.
On 7 August, the VII Corps attacked Alsace to capture Colmar. The main offensive was launched on 14 August with the First and Second Armies attacking toward Sarrebourg-Morhange in Lorraine. In keeping with the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans withdrew while inflicting severe losses upon the French; the French Third and Fourth Armies advanced toward the Saar River and attempted to capture Saarburg, attacking Briey and Neufchateau but were repulsed. The French VII Corps captured Mulhouse after a brief engagement on 7 August but German reserve forces engaged them in the Battle of Mulhouse and forced a French retreat; the German Army swept through Belgium, razing villages. The application of "collective responsibility" against a civilian population further galvanised the allies. Newspapers condemned the German invasion, violence against civilians and destruction of property, which became known as the "Rape of Belgium". After marching through Belgium and the Ardennes, the Germans advanced into northern France in late August, where they met the French Army, under Joseph Joffre, the divisions of the British Expeditionary Force under Field Marshal Sir John French.
A series of engagements known as the Battle of the Frontiers ensued, which included the Battle of Charleroi and the Battle of Mons. In the former battle the French Fifth Army was destroyed by the German 2nd and 3rd Armies and the latter delayed the German advance by a day. A general Allied retreat followed, resulting in more clashes at the Battle of Le Cateau, the Siege of Maubeuge and the Battle of St. Quentin; the German Army came within 70 km of Paris but at the First Battle of the Marne and British troops were able to force a German retreat by exploiting a gap which appeared between the 1st and 2nd Armies, ending the German advance into France. The German Army retreated north of the Aisne River and dug in there, establishing the beginnings of a static western front, to last for the next three years. Following this German retirement, the opposing forces made reciprocal outflanking manoeuvres, known as the Race for the S
The Scottish people or Scots, are a nation and Celtic ethnic group native to Scotland. They emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century; the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland; the Latin word Scoti referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has been used for Scottish people outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as'Scotch', he states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.
People of Scottish descent live in many countries. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history; the Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France and the Low Countries to Scotland.
Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the highest concentrations of people of Scottish descent in the world outside of Scotland are located in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in Canada and Southland in New Zealand, the Falklands Islands, Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom. In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, the Angles, with the latter settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts. Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the Firth of Forth to the north and the River Tweed to the south.
They occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the earliest form of the language which became known as Scots. Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century, reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country. King Edgar divided the Kingdom of Northumbria between England. South-east of the Firth of Forth in Lothian and the Borders, a northern variety of Old English known as Early Scots, was spoken; as a result of David I, King of Scots' return from exile in England in 1113 to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman military force, David invited Norman families from France and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him. This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought a European style of feudalism to Scotland along with an influx of people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike England where it was by conquest.
To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans from this period, such as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns and many others. The Northern Isles and some parts of Caithness were Norn-speaking. From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic The Brus in the late 14th century in Aberdeen. From 1500 on, Scotland was divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders". Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language. Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people, the majority of whom co
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century; the fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films end with them. Themes explored include combat and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the stories told may be historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance. Subgenres, not distinct, include anti-war, animated and documentary. There are subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert, the Pacific in the Second World War, or Vietnam.
The war film genre is not tightly defined: the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of "films to grapple with the Great War" without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions; the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that "a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war." John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production: a) the suspension of civilian morality during times of war, b) primacy of collective goals over individual motivations, c) rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women, d) depiction of the reintegration of veterans. The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious, since war films are those about war being waged in the 20th century, with combat scenes central to the drama. However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War.
The critic Julian Smith argues, on the contrary, that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western, but that in practice, "successful and influential" war films are about modern wars, in particular World War II, with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing. The film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace and savagery. War films frame World War II as a conflict between "good" and "evil" as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples. James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and "war-movie escapades" like The Dirty Dozen. Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be, namely that What I knew in advance was what every member of our culture would know about World War II combat films—that they contained a hero, a group of mixed types, a military objective of some sort.
They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground, the sea, or in the air. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and iconography of battle. Further, Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definition-by-example of "the World War II combat film", in which a diverse and unsuited group of "hastily assembled volunteers" hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their "bravery and tenacity", she argues. Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War, in her view these few films, central to the genre, are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films. However, other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film, to include films that deal "with the roles of civilians, espionage agents, soldiers in any of the aspects of war" Neale points out that genres overlap, with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film, suggests that war films are characterised by combat which "determines the fate of the principal characters".
This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th-century wars. James Clarke includes Edward Zwick's Oscar-winning Glory among the war films he discusses in detail; the military historian Antony Beevor "despair" at how film-makers from America and Britain "play fast and loose with the facts", yet imply that "their version is as good as the truth." For example, he calls the 2000 American film U-571 a "shameless deception" for pretending that a US warship had helped to win the Battle of the Atlantic—seven months before America entered the war. He is critical of Christopher Nolan's 2017 film Dunkirk with its unhistorically empty beaches, low-level air combat over the sea, res