SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Joystick

A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick known as the control column, is the principal control device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a center stick or side-stick, it has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft's flight. Joysticks are used to control video games, have one or more push-buttons whose state can be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. Joysticks are used for controlling machines such as cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles, surveillance cameras, zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones. Joysticks originated as controls for aircraft ailerons and elevators, are first known to have been used as such on Louis Bleriot's Bleriot VIII aircraft of 1908, in combination with a foot-operated rudder bar for the yaw control surface on the tail.

The name "joystick" is thought to originate with early 20th century French pilot Robert Esnault-Pelterie. There are competing claims on behalf of fellow pilots Robert Loraine, James Henry Joyce, A. E. George. Loraine is cited by the Oxford English Dictionary for using the term "joystick" in his diary in 1909 when he went to Pau to learn to fly at Bleriot's school. George was a pioneer aviator who with his colleague Jobling built and flew a biplane at Newcastle in England in 1910, he is alleged to have invented the "George Stick". The George and Jobling aircraft control column is in the collection of the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Joysticks were present in early planes; the coining of the term "joystick" may be credited to Loraine, as his is the earliest known usage of the term, although he most did not invent the device. The electrical two-axis joystick was invented by C. B. Mirick at the United States Naval Research Laboratory and patented in 1926". NRL was developing remote controlled aircraft at the time and the joystick was used to support this effort.

In the awarded patent, Mirick writes: "My control system is applicable in maneuvering aircraft without a pilot."The Germans developed an electrical two-axis joystick around 1944. The device was used as part of the Germans' Funkgerät FuG 203 Kehl radio control transmitter system used in certain German bomber aircraft, used to guide both the rocket-boosted anti-ship missile Henschel Hs 293, the unpowered pioneering precision-guided munition Fritz-X, against maritime and other targets. Here, the joystick of the Kehl transmitter was used by an operator to steer the missile towards its target; this joystick had on-off switches rather than analogue sensors. Both the Hs 293 and Fritz-X used FuG 230 Straßburg radio receivers in them to send the Kehl's control signals to the ordnance's control surfaces. A comparable joystick unit was used for the contemporary American Azon steerable munition to laterally steer the munition in the yaw axis only; this German invention was picked up by someone in the team of scientists assembled at the Heeresversuchsanstalt in Peenemünde.

Here a part of the team on the German rocket program was developing the Wasserfall missile, a variant of the V-2 rocket, the first ground-to-air missile. The Wasserfall steering equipment converted the electrical signal to radio signals and transmitted these to the missile. In the 1960s the use of joysticks became widespread in radio-controlled model aircraft systems such as the Kwik Fly produced by Phill Kraft; the now-defunct Kraft Systems firm became an important OEM supplier of joysticks to the computer industry and other users. The first use of joysticks outside the radio-controlled aircraft industry may have been in the control of powered wheelchairs, such as the Permobil. During this time period NASA used joysticks as control devices as part of the Apollo missions. For example, the lunar lander test models were controlled with a joystick. In many modern airliners aircraft, for example all Airbus aircraft developed from the 1980s, the joystick has received a new lease on life for flight control in the form of a "side-stick", a controller similar to a gaming joystick but, used to control the flight, replacing the traditional yoke.

The sidestick saves weight, improves movement and visibility in the cockpit, may be safer in an accident than the traditional "control yoke". Ralph H. Baer, inventor of the Magnavox Odyssey console, released in 1972, created the first video game joysticks in 1967, they were able to control the vertical position of a spot displayed on a screen. The earliest known electronic game joystick with a fire button was released by Sega as part of their 1969 arcade game Missile, a shooter simulation game that used it as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move a motorized tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen. In 1970, the game was released in North America as S. A. M. I. by Midway Games. Taito released a four-way joystick as part of their arcade racing video game Astro Race in 1973, while their 1975 run and gun multi-directional shooter game Western Gun introduced dual-stick controls with one eight-way joystick for movement and the other for changing the shooting direction.

In North America, it was released by Midwa

Progressive stamping

Progressive stamping is a metalworking method that can encompass punching, coining and several other ways of modifying metal raw material, combined with an automatic feeding system. The feeding system pushes a strip of metal through all of the stations of a progressive stamping die; each station performs one or more operations. The final station is a cutoff operation; the carrying web, along with metal, punched away in previous operations, is treated as scrap metal. Both are cut away, knocked down and ejected from the die set, in mass production are transferred to scrap bins via underground scrap material conveyor belts; the progressive stamping die. As the press moves up, the top die moves with it; when the press moves down, the die performs the stamping operation. With each stroke of the press, a completed part is removed from the die. Since additional work is done in each "station" of the die, it is important that the strip be advanced precisely so that it aligns within a few thousandths of an inch as it moves from station to station.

Bullet shaped or conical "pilots" enter pierced round holes in the strip to assure this alignment since the feeding mechanism cannot provide the necessary precision in feed length. Progressive stamping can be produced on transfer presses; these are presses that transfer the components from one station to the next with the use of mechanical "fingers". For mass production of stamped parts which do require complicated in-press operations, it is always advisable to use a progressive press. One of the advantages of this type of press is the production cycle time. Depending upon the part, productions can run well over 800 parts/minute. One of the disadvantages of this type of press is that it is not suitable for high precision deep drawing, when the depth of the stamping exceeds the diameter of the part; when necessary, this process is performed upon a transfer press, which run at slower speeds, rely on the mechanical fingers to hold the component in place during the entire forming cycle. In the case of the progressive press, only part of the forming cycle can be guided by spring-loaded sleeves or similar, which result in concentricity and ovality issues and non uniform material thickness.

Other disadvantages of progressive presses compared to transfer presses are: increased raw material input required to transfer parts, tools are much more expensive because they are made in blocks with little independent regulation per station. The dies are made of tool steel to withstand the high shock loading involved, retain the necessary sharp cutting edge, resist the abrasive forces involved; the cost is determined by the number of features. It is advised to keep the features as simple as possible to keep the cost of tooling to a minimum. Features that are close together produce a problem because it may not provide enough clearance for the punch, which could result in another station, it can be problematic to have narrow cuts and protrusions. A representative example of the product of a progressive die is the lid of a beverage can; the pull tab is made in one progressive stamping process and the lid & assembly is made in another, the pull tab feeding at a right angle into the lid & assembly process.

Various car brake calipers have plates that are bent into shape cut too using these methods. Stamping press Kalpakjian, Serope. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. P. 474. ISBN 0-13-148965-8. Moghaddam, M. J. M. R. Soleymani, M. A. Farsi. "Sequence planning for stamping operations in progressive dies." Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing: 1-11

Nordre Frihavnsgade

Nordre Frihavnsgade is a street in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen, linking the junction Trianglen in the southwest with Østbanegade In the northeast. The street passes the two small squares Victor Borges Plads and Melchiors Plads. An underpass under the raised railway tracks at the end of the street provides access to Nordhavn's Århusgade neighbourhood. Nordre Frihavnsgade is one of Copenhagen's most popular shopping- and café streets with many food and antique stores. Many urban "Hipster"-shops can be found on the street as well, including many restaurants. Famous buildings on the street include Ingrid Jespersens Gymnasieskole, a private school located near the Trianglen-end of the street; the first section of the street, betweentandersandersgade]], was part of Kalkbrænderivejen /literally "The Lime Plant Road") which provided a link to the lime plant, established on the coast to the north of the city in 1731. The name was changed to Nordre Frihavnsvej in 1892 in connection with the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen.

The land along the street was built over with apartment buildings during the following decade and the name of the street was changed to Nordre Frihavnsgade in 1906. The building was listed in 1995; the property Petersborg on the corner of Trianglen is from 1888 and was designed by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen. Ingrid Jespersen's School at No. 11 was established as a girls' school in 1894 and was for many years one of the most progressive of its kind in the country. It was based in rented rooms in Gustav Adolph Hagemann's former house but it was replaced by a three-storey building in 1897. In 1929, it took over the former police station at No. 9. The block at No. 31, between Victor Borges Plads and Randersgade, is one of the more stately properties along the street. It was designed by Thorvald Sørensen; the first Letz Sushi restaurant opened at No. 15 in 2003