Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
Valparaíso is a major city and educational centre in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile. "Greater Valparaíso" is the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Valparaíso is located about 120 kilometres northwest of Santiago by road and is one of the South Pacific's most important seaports. Valparaíso is the capital of Chile's second most populated administrative region and has been the headquarters for the Chilean National Congress since 1990. Valparaíso has seven universities. Valparaíso played an important geopolitical role in the second half of the 19th century, when the city served as a major stopover for ships traveling between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by crossing the Straits of Magellan. Valparaíso mushroomed during its golden age, as a magnet for European immigrants, when the city was known by international sailors as "Little San Francisco" and "The Jewel of the Pacific". In 2003, the historic quarter of Valparaíso was declared a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization World Heritage site.
Notable features include Latin America's oldest stock exchange, the continent's first volunteer fire department, Chile's first public library, the oldest Spanish language newspaper in continuous publication in the world, El Mercurio de Valparaíso. The second half of the twentieth century was unfavorable to Valparaíso, as many wealthy families abandoned the city; the opening of the Panama Canal and reduction in ship traffic dealt a serious blow to Valparaíso's port-based economy. Over the first 15 years of the twenty-first century the city reached a recovery, attracting artists and cultural entrepreneurs who have set up in the city's hillside historic districts. Today, many thousands of tourists visit Valparaíso from around the world to enjoy the city's labyrinth of cobbled alleys and colorful buildings; the port of Valparaíso continues to be a major distribution center for container traffic and fruit exports. Valparaíso receives growing attention from cruise ships that visit during the South American summer.
Most Valparaíso has transformed itself into a major educational center with four large traditional universities and several large vocational colleges. The city exemplifies Chilean culture, with festivals every year, street artists and musicians; the Bay of Valparaíso was first populated by the Picunche natives, known for their agriculture, or the Chango people, who were nomads dedicated to fishing, traveling between modern-day Caldera and Concepcion. Spanish explorers, considered the first European discoverers of Chile, arrived in 1536, aboard the Santiaguillo, a supply ship sent by Diego de Almagro; the Santiaguillo carried men and supplies for Almagro's expedition, under the command of Juan de Saavedra, who named the town after his native village of Valparaíso de Arriba in Cuenca Province, Spain. During Spanish colonial times, Valparaíso remained a small village, with only a few houses and a church. In 1810, a wealthy merchant built the first pier in the history of Chile and the first during the colonial era.
In its place today, stands the building of El Mercurio de Valparaíso. The ocean rose to this point. Reclamation of land from the sea moved the coastline five blocks away. Between 1810 and 1830, he built much of the existing port of the city, including much of the land reclamation work that now provides the city's commercial centre. In 1814, the naval Battle of Valaparaiso was fought offshore of the town, between American and British ships involved in the War of 1812. After Chile's independence from Spain, beginning the Republican Era, Valparaíso became the main harbour for the nascent Chilean navy, opened international trade opportunities, limited to Spain and its other colonies. Valparaíso soon became a desired stopover for ships rounding South America via the Straits of Magellan and Cape Horn, it gained particular importance supplying the California Gold Rush. As a major seaport, Valparaíso received immigrants from many European countries from Britain, France and Italy. German, French and English were spoken among its citizens, who founded and published newspapers in these languages.
International immigration transformed the local culture from Spanish origins and Amerindian origins, in ways that included the construction of the first non-Catholic cemetery of Chile, the Dissidents' Cemetery. Football was introduced to Chile by English immigrants. Immigrants from Scotland and Germany founded the first private secular schools. Immigrants formed the first volunteer fire-fighting units, their buildings reflected a variety of European styles, making Valparaíso more varied than some other Chilean cities. In August 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck Valparaíso; the Chilean doctor, Carlos Van Buren, of U. S. descent, was involved in medical care of earthquake victims. He established a modern hospital Carlos Van Buren Hospital in 1912; the golden age of Valparaíso's commerce ended after the opening of the Panama Canal. Shipping shifted to the canal; the port's use and traffic declined causing a decline in the city's economy. Since the turn of the 21st century, shipping has increased in the last few decades with fruit exports, increasing opening of the Chilean economy to world commerce, larger-s
Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns, phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences, double entendres, telling character names. Word play is quite common in oral cultures as a method of reinforcing meaning. Examples of text-based word play are found in languages without alphabet-based scripts; some techniques used in word play include interpreting idioms and creating contradictions and redundancies, as in Tom Swifties: "Hurry up and get to the back of the ship," Tom said sternly. Linguistic fossils and set phrases are manipulated for word play, as in Wellerisms: "We'll have to rehearse that," said the undertaker as the coffin fell out of the car. Another use of fossils is in using antonyms of unpaired words – "I was well-coiffed and sheveled,". Most writers engage in word play to some extent, but certain writers are committed to, or adept at, word play as a major feature of their work.
Shakespeare's "quibbles" have made him a noted punster. P. G. Wodehouse was hailed by The Times as a "comic genius recognized in his lifetime as a classic and an old master of farce" for his own acclaimed wordplay. James Joyce, author of Ulysses, is another noted word-player. For example, in his Finnegans Wake Joyce's phrase "they were yung and freudened" implies the more conventional "they were young and frightened". An epitaph unassigned to any grave, demonstrates use in rhyme. Here lie the bones of one'Bun', his name was not'Bun' but'Wood' But'Wood' would not rhyme with gun But'Bun' would. Crossword puzzles employ wordplay to challenge solvers. Cryptic crosswords are based on elaborate systems of wordplay. An example of modern word play can be found on line 103 of Childish Gambino's "III. Life: The Biggest Troll". H2O plus my D, that's my hood, I'm living in itYoung Thug used a play on words in his verse on "Sacrifices" by Drake featuring 2 Chainz and Young Thug. I'ma use her name, like, "Who is he?"
You get it? I said I'ma username, like, "Who is he?" Word play can enter common usage as neologisms. Word play is related to word games. See language game for a linguist's variation. Word play can cause problems for translators: e.g. in the book Winnie-the-Pooh a character mistakes the word "issue" for the noise of a sneeze, a resemblance which disappears when the word "issue" is translated into another language. Etymology False Etymology Figure of speech List of forms of word play Metaphor Phono-semantic matching Simile Pun A categorized taxonomy of word play composed of record-holding words
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over thousands of cultivars, they form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, northwestern Africa. Species and hybrids are all grown for their beauty and are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses; the name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon, itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd-, related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres long, with 5–9 leaflets and basal stipules. Most roses are deciduous but a few are evergreen or nearly so; the flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals; these may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature; the aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so petalled that they do not provide access for pollination; the hips of most species are red. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species the dog rose and rugosa rose, are rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant.
The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds finches eat the seeds; the sharp growths along a rose stem, though called "thorns", are technically prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis, unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. Rose prickles are sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it; some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight prickles an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots. Despite the presence of prickles, roses are browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles; the genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera: Hulthemia containing two species from southwest Asia, Rosa persica and Rosa berberifolia, which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules. Hesperrhodos contains Rosa stellata, from North America.
Platyrhodon with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii. Rosa containing all the other roses; this subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections. Banksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China. Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India. Caninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia and North Africa. Carolinae – white and bright pink flowered species all from North America. Chinensis – white, yellow and mixed-color roses from China and Burma. Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe. Gymnocarpae – one species in western North America, others in east Asia. Laevigatae – a single white flowered species from China. Pimpinellifoliae – white, bright yellow and striped roses from Asia and Europe. Rosa – white, lilac and red roses from everywhere but North Africa. Synstylae – white and crimson flowered roses from all areas. Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors, they have been used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops.
Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids. A few species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage, ornamental thorns or for their showy fruit. Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, P
Juan Galo Lavalle was an Argentine military and political figure. Lavalle was born in Buenos Aires to María Mercedes González Bordallo and Manuel José Lavalle, general accountant of rents and tobacco for the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1799, the family moved to Santiago de Chile, but returned to Buenos Aires in 1807. In 1812 Lavalle joined the Regiment of mounted grenadiers as a cadet. By 1813 he reached the grade of lieutenant and moved to the army, which under orders of Carlos María de Alvear besieged Montevideo. Lavalle fought against José Gervasio Artigas in 1815 and in the Battle of Guayabos under the command of Manuel Dorrego. In 1816 Lavalle moved to Mendoza to join the Army of the Andes of the "liberator" José de San Martín and fought in Chacabuco and the Maipú in Chile, he continued along with San Martín on his way to Peru and Ecuador and took part in the battles of Pichincha and the Riobamba, after which he became known as the Hero of Riobamba. Because of disagreements with Simón Bolívar, Lavalle returned to Buenos Aires by the end of 1823.
He would govern Mendoza Province for a short time. He fought in the war against Brazil in command of 1,200 cavalry, with great episodes of valour in the battles of Bacacay and Ituzaingó in February 1827, beating the forces of General Abreu and being himself proclaimed General on the field of battle itself. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, Lavalle was a freemason. By the time he returned to Buenos Aires, the President of the United Provinces, Unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia, had resigned, Manuel Dorrego was elected the federal governor of Buenos Aires Province. Lavalle, a Unitarian himself, led a coup to take the government and executed governor Dorrego without a trial, his government started a reign of terror, aiming to destroy the Federal Party, but the resistance in the countryside didn't recede. In 1829, the demographic growth was negative. During that time, José de San Martín had returned from Europe. While he was in Montevideo, Lavalle offered him the government of Argentina as he was the only man capable of putting an end to the chaotic situation, because of his authority over leaders on both sides.
But when he learned about the spiraling factionalist violence, San Martín realised that he would have to choose sides as the only actual way to govern, so he refused and returned instead to self-exile in Europe. The other provinces did not recognize Lavalle as the legitimate governor, supported the rosista resistance instead. Lavalle would be defeated a short time at the Battle of Márquez Bridge by the forces of Juan Manuel de Rosas and Santa Fe governor Estanislao López. López returned to his province, menaced by Unitarian José María Paz. Meanwhile, Rosas forced him to resign with the Cañuelas pact. Juan José Viamonte was designated as interim governor, the legislature, removed during Lavalle's coup d'état was restored; this legislature would elect Rosas as the governor. Lavalle retired to the Banda Oriental. During the French blockade to the Río de la Plata, Fructuoso Rivera was reluctant to take military actions against Rosas, aware of his strength. Unitarians, who thought that the whole Argentine Confederation would rise against Rosas at the first chance, urged Lavalle to lead the attack, who requested not to share command with Rivera.
As a result, they led both their own armies. His imminent attack was backed up by conspiracies in Buenos Aires, which were discovered and aborted by the Mazorca. Manuel Vicente Maza and his son were among the perpetrators, were executed as a result. Pedro Castelli organized an ill-fated uprising against Rosas, was executed as well. Rosas did not wait to be attacked and ordered Pascual Echagüe to cross the Paraná river and take the fight to Uruguay; the Uruguayan armies split: Rivera returned to defend Montevideo, Lavalle moved to Entre Ríos Province. He expected that the local populations would join him against Rosas and increase his forces, but he found severe resistance, so he moved instead to Corrientes Province. Governor Pedro Ferré defeated López, Rivera defeated Pascual Echagüe, clearing for Lavalle the way to Buenos Aires. However, by that point France had given up its trust on the effectiveness of the blockade, as what was thought it would be an easy and short conflict was turning into a long war, without clear security of a final victory.
France cut its financial support to Lavalle. He didn't find help at local towns either, there was widespread desertion among his ranks. Buenos Aires was ready to resist his military attack, but the lack of support forced him to give up and retire from the battlefield, without starting any battle. Persecuted, his troops suffered constant attacks and Lavalle was forced to move further north, being defeated by Manuel Oribe in La Rioja and Tucumán. Escaping with a small group of 200 men, he was accidentally shot by a Montonera detachment which spread-shot a reputed Unitarian's house, not realizing that Juan Lavalle, the chief of the Unitarians, was staying there; this occurred in 1841 in San Salvador de Jujuy. Afraid that his body would be desecrated by the Federales, his followers fled to Bolivia carrying Lavalle's decomposing remains with them. Hurrying over the Humahuaca pass, they decided to strip the skeleton by boiling it and, after burying the flesh in an unmarked grave, carry the bones, which are today buried at the La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
A statue of the general standing on top of a long, slender column, commemorates the figure of Lavalle at Plaza Lavalle in Buenos Aires. The classic source on Lavalle is "History of Arg
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (