Rancho El Sur
Rancho El Sur was a 8,949.06-acre Mexican land grant in present day Monterey County, California on the Big Sur coast given in 1834 by Governor José Figueroa to Juan Bautista Alvarado. The grant extended from the mouth of Little Sur River inland about 2.5 miles over the coastal mountains and south along the coast past the mouth of the Big Sur River to Cooper's Point. In about 1892, the rancho land plus an additional 3,000 acres of resale homestead land was divided into two major parcels; the southern 4,800 acres became the Molera Ranch the foundation of Andrew Molera State Park. The northern 7,100 acres formed the El Sur Ranch. Before the arrival of Europeans, the land was occupied by the Esselen people, who resided along the upper Carmel and Arroyo Seco Rivers, along the Big Sur coast from near present-day Hurricane Point to the vicinity of Vicente Creek in the south; the native people were affected by the establishment of three Spanish Missions near them from 1770 to 1791. The native population was decimated by disease, including measles and syphilis, which wiped out 90 percent of the native population, by conscript labor, poor food, forced assimilation.
Most of the Esselen people's villages within the current Los Padres National Forest were left uninhabited. Mexican Governor José Figueroa granted two square leagues of land on the Big Sur coast to Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1834. In 1840, Alvarado traded ownership of Rancho El Sur to Captain John B. R. Cooper in exchange for the more accessible and farmed Rancho Bolsa del Potrero y Moro Cojo in the northern Salinas Valley. Cooper married Maria Jerónima de la Encarnación Vallejo, the sister of General Vallejo, in 1827. Juan Bautista Alvarado was Encarnacion's nephew; when Mexico ceded California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored, but required that the owners provide legal proof of their title. As required by the Land Act of 1851, Cooper filed a claim for Rancho El Sur with the Public Land Commission in 1852 and he received the legal land patent after years of litigation in 1866. Cooper never lived at the ranch, but various family members and ranch workers continuously occupied it from 1840 onward.
In the 1850s Cooper landed smuggled goods at the mouth of Big Sur River to avoid the heavy customs charges levied by the Americans at Monterey. After John B. R. Cooper's death in 1872, the ranch was divided between his widow Maria Encarnación Vallejo, their son John Bautista Henry Cooper, their two surviving daughters, Anna Maria de Guadalupe Cooper and Francisca Guadalupe Amelia Cooper. John B. H. Cooper became a Monterey County supervisor and managed the 22,000 acres Rancho Bolsa del Potrero y Moro Cojo in the Salinas Valley near present-day King City. In life he moved to San Francisco while continuing to manage the ranch. On May 28, 1871, John B. H. Cooper married Martha Brawley, they had four children: Alice, John and Alfred. He built a new home on Rancho El Sur Ranch but died soon after its completion on June 21, 1899, leaving his wife, three sons and a daughter, his wife received 2,591 acres of her husband's estate totaling 7,000 acres, over time bought the remainder from her sons and daughter.
Francisca retained her share of the property. John B. H. Cooper's sister Francisca married Eusebius J. Molera, an engineer and architect born in Spain, on March 28, 1876, in Vallejo, California; the marriage between the Cooper and Molera families left a legacy marked by their names on notable places throughout the region, including the Cooper-Molera Adobe in Monterey. Francisca and Eusebius Molera had a son and daughter and Frances. Andrew built up a successful dairy operation, his Monterey Jack cheese was well-liked. Andrew and Frances maintained a residence for most of their lives on Sacramento Street in San Francisco; the census record records their occupation as "farmer" and, indicative or their relative wealth, recorded the presence of a cook and maid living with them. During the time the Cooper family owned the land, they managed it as a cattle ranch and dairy, employing Hispanic and Indian vaqueros, they supported a community center. Big Sur pioneer Sam Trotter wrote about attending the "big dance Saturday night at the Cooper hall near the mouth of Big Sur on the Cooper grant."
In 1928, Henry C. Hunt, a business man from Carmel-by-the-Sea, purchased the northern 8,000 acres from John B. H. Cooper's widow, Martha Cooper Hughes Vasquez, for about $500,000. On November 28, 1931, he announced. Andrew J. Molera owned property in the Castroville area, encouraged farmers to grow artichokes in 1922, they have become a major crop in the Salinas Valley. Andrew was obese and died of a sudden heart attack in 1931, his sister Frances, granddaughter of Juan Bautista Roger Cooper, became the sole owner of the property. She arranged in 1965 100 years after her family gained title, to sell 2,200-acre of the original Cooper land grant to The Nature Conservancy, she stipulated. She died in 1968; the conservancy held the beachfront property in trust until the state of California could finance the purchase of the land. She added provisions to the sale requiring that the land remain undeveloped; when the California state park administration began to propose considerable development for the park, the Nature Conservancy threatened to revoke the sale arrangement, the state backed down.
The ranch was partitioned into fifte
Flag of California
The Bear Flag is the official flag of the U. S. state of California. The precursor of the flag was first flown during the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt and was known as the Bear Flag; the first official version of the Bear Flag was adopted by the California State Legislature and signed into law by Governor Hiram Johnson in 1911 as the official state flag. The 1911 statute stated: The bear flag is hereby selected and adopted as the state flag of California.... The said bear flag shall one-half the width thereof. In 1953, the design and specifications for the state flag were standardized in a bill signed by Governor Earl Warren and illustrated by Donald Graeme Kelley of Marin County, CA; the California state flag is called the "Bear Flag" and in fact, the present statute adopting the flag, California Government Code § 420, states: "The Bear Flag is the State Flag of California." Pursuant to Section 439 of the California Government Code, the regulations and protocols for the proper display of the flag of California is controlled by the California Adjutant General: The Adjutant General shall, by regulation, prescribe rules regarding the times and the manner in which the State Flag may be displayed.
He shall, compile the laws and regulations regarding the State Flag. Copies of the compilation shall be printed and made available to the public at cost by the Department of General Services; when the flag is displayed vertically, it is rotated 90 degrees clockwise such that the bear and star face upward and red stripe is on the left. The flag is used as the state ensign; the modern state flag is white with a wide red strip along the bottom. There is a red star in the upper left corner and a grizzly bear facing left in the center, walking on a patch of green grass; the size of the bear is 2/3 the size of the hoist width and has a ratio of 2 by 1. The grass plot has a ratio of 11 to 1; the five-point star is taken from the California Lone Star Flag of 1836. The bear on one 1911 version of the flag is claimed to have been modeled on the last California grizzly bear in captivity; the bear, named "Monarch", was captured in 1889 by newspaper reporter Allen Kelley, at the behest of William Randolph Hearst.
The bear was subsequently moved to Woodwards Gardens in San Francisco, to the zoo at Golden Gate Park. After the bear's death in 1911, it was mounted and preserved at the Academy of Sciences at Golden Gate Park. While the bear flag was adopted in 1911, until 1953 the image of the bear varied depending on the flag manufacturer. In 1953 the bear image was standardized based on an 1855 watercolor by Charles Christian Nahl; the 1953 law includes an official black and white rendering of the bear as well as the plot of grass and brown tufts. This drawing and other specifications that define the flag's colors and dimensions are identified as "54-J-03". In 2001, the North American Vexillological Association surveyed its members on the designs of the 72 U. S. state, U. S. territorial, Canadian provincial flags and ranked the flag of California 13th. The 1953 legislation defined the exact shades of the California flag with a total of five colors relative to the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card of America.
It is one of only four US state flags. Seal is used for the dark shading of the bear, the 12 darker tufts in the plot of grass, the border of the plot and the lettering "CALIFORNIA REPUBLIC". Old Glory Red is used for the bear's tongue and the red stripe at the bottom of the flag. Irish Green is used for the grass plot; the bear's claws are accented with white. The left front and rear paws have four white claws; the front right paw does not contain highlighting. In 1836, a coup led by Juan Alvarado declared Alta California's independence from Mexico. Declaring himself governor, Alvarado recruited American frontiersmen, led by Isaac Graham, to support him; the rebels captured the capital Monterey, but were unable to convince southern leaders such as Juan Bandini and Carlos Antonio Carrillo to join the rebellion. Faced with a civil war and the other Californios negotiated a compromise with the central government wherein California's leaders accepted its status as a "department" under the "Siete Leyes" Mexican constitution of 1836, in return for more local control.
Alvarado was appointed governor the next year. The Lone Star Flag of California, associated with Alvarado's rebellion, contained a single red star on a white background. One last original flag is archived at the Autry National Center; the original Grizzly Bear Flag was designed by Peter Storm. Versions of Storm's Bear Flag were raised for the first time in Sonoma, California, in June 1846 on a date between the 14th and the 17th, by the men who became known as the "Bear Flaggers", including William B. Ide; the exact creation date is at least somewhat unclear. However, U. S. Naval Lieutenant John Missroon reported the flag's existence as of June 17, 1846. One Bear Flag was designed by a cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln. According to the book Flags Over California, publis
Pueblo de Los Ángeles
See History of Los Angeles El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles was the Spanish civilian pueblo founded in 1781, which by the 20th century became the American metropolis of Los Angeles. Official settlements in Alta California were of three types: presidio and pueblo; the Pueblo de los Ángeles was the second pueblo created during the Spanish colonization of California. El Pueblo de la Reina de los Ángeles—'The Town of the Queen of Angels' was founded twelve years after the first presidio and mission, the Presidio of San Diego and the Mission San Diego de Alcalá; the original settlement consisted of forty-four people in eleven families, recruited from Estado de Occidente. As new settlers arrived and soldiers retired to civilian life in Los Angeles, the town became the principal urban center of southern Alta California, whose social and economic life revolved around the raising of livestock on the expansive ranchos. In 1542 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, with a commission from Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, was the first European to sail along and explore the California coast.
Although he claimed all he saw as territory of the Spanish Empire, no efforts at colonization were made for over two hundred years. Concerned about colonizing efforts by the Russians and French, Spain set plans in motion in the 1760s to establish a presence and defend its claim to the territory; the Spanish settlement did not reach Alta California until 1769, when explorer Gaspar de Portolà reached the San Diego area via the first land route from Mexico. Accompanying him were two Franciscan Padres, Junípero Serra and Juan Crespí, who recorded the expedition; as they came through today's Elysian Park, they were awed by a river that flowed from the northwest, past their point and on southward. Crespí named the river El Río de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula, meaning, in Spanish, "the River of Our Lady Queen of the Angels of Porciuncula"; the name derives from Santa Maria degli Angeli, the name of the small town in Italy housing the Porciuncula, the church where St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order, carried out his religious life.
The river, called the Porciuncula is today's Los Angeles River. Because the future town's name was a take on this "Queen of Heaven" Marian title, various versions of Crespí's formula would be used for the town, including the exceedingly long El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles sobre el Río Porciúncula. During the expedition, Father Crespí observed a location along the river that would be good for a settlement or mission. However, in 1771, Father Serra instead commissioned two missionaries to establish the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel-San Gabriel Mission near the present day Whittier Narrows section of the San Gabriel River; the missionaries encountered resistance from the Tongva to their attempts to resettle the Natives on the mission. The mission encountered further trouble in 1776 when a flood damaged the mission, convincing the missionaries to move and rebuild the mission on a higher and more defensible location: its present site in San Gabriel; the first Spanish governor of Las Californias, Felipe de Neve had, as well, recommended to Viceroy Bucareli Father Crespí's location on the Río Porciúncula for a mission.
Instead, in 1781, King Charles III mandated that a pueblo be built on the site instead, which would be the second town in Alta California, after San José de Guadalupe in 1777. The monarch, disregarding the production and trade roles of the missions, saw a greater need for secular pueblos to be established as the centers of agriculture and commerce to supply the crown's ever-growing military presence in "Nueva California." The priests at the missions ignored the royal mandate and continued their ranching and production of tallow, soap and beef in competition with new pueblo ventures. Governor de Neve took his assignment and had a complete set of maps and plans drawn up by May 1780 for the layout and settlement of the new pueblo, including the placement of government houses, town houses, the church, the fields, the farms, access to the river – the Instrucción and the Reglamento para el gobierno de la Provincia de Californias, but gathering the pobladores-settlers was a little more difficult.
After failing to recruit the target number of families in Sonora, he had to go as far as Sinaloa to end up with 11 families, that is, 11 men, 11 women, 22 children of various Spanish American castes: Criollo and Negro. As local lore tells it, on September 4, 1781 the 44 pobladores gathered at San Gabriel Mission and, escorted by a military detachment and two priests from the Mission, set out for the site that Crespí had chosen. In reality, several of the families were already working on their plots of land as early as late July. Governor de Neve gave the new town the name El Pueblo de la Reina de los Ángeles-The Town of the Queen of the Angels. Per the Laws of the Indies and Reglamento the new towns in Alta California were to have four square leagues of land; the streets, were laid out at forty-five degrees from the cardinal directions, a plan, still preserved in Downtown Los Angeles. The old town limits are still marked by Hoover and Indiana Streets in the west and east respectively. In 1784 an asistencia or sub-mission of the San Gabriel Mission was established on the central plaza, to provide religious services to the settlers.
The pueblo came under the jurisdiction of the Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces in the Viceroyalty of New Spai
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general; when appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general. In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank, although the rank is not regarded as a general officer; the rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade, was first used in the French revolutionary armies. In the first quarter of the 20th century and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general.
Some of these armies use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks. Mexico uses the ranks of General de brigada; this gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore; the rank of brigadier general is used in the Argentine Air Force. Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is the highest rank in the Air Force; this is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier. The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer; the Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General and Lieutenant General.
In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed; this policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was used as an honorary rank on retirement; the rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip - example. As in the United Kingdom, the rank was replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a "brigadier general" was a "general officer". Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations. In 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however "the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier", although classified as a "one-star rank", a brigadier general is not considered to be a general officer – the lowest ranking general officer is Major General.
Brigadier general is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier; the Belgian Army uses the rank of général de brigadegeneraal. However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context. General de brigada is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian Army – i.e. like in most British Commonwealth counties, the lowest general officer rank is a two-star rank, a General de Brigada wears a two-star insignia. Hence, it is equivalent to the major general rank of many counties. In the Brazilian Air Force, all of the senior ranks include "Brigadeiro" – the two-star rank is Brigadeiro, the three-star rank is Major-Brigadeiro and the four-star rank is Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar; the rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo hmu gyoke and is the deputy commander of one of Burma's Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division or Military Operation Commands.
In civil service, a brigadier general holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries. In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general is a rank for members who wear army or air force uniform, equal to a commodore for those in navy uniform. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of general officer. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, junior to a major-general or rear admiral; the rank title brigadier-general is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late
Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
Don Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo was a Californio general and public figure. He was born a subject of Spain, performed his military duties as an officer of the Republic of Mexico, shaped the transition of Alta California from a territory of Mexico to the U. S. state of California. He served in the first session of the California State Senate; the city of Vallejo, California is named for him, the nearby city of Benicia is named for his wife. Mariano Vallejo was born in Monterey, the eighth of thirteen children and third son of Ignacio Vicente Ferrer Vallejo and María Antonia Lugo. There is controversy over Vallejo's exact date of birth. According to Vallejo himself, his family bible, he was born on 7 July 1807, his baptismal certificate, signed by Fr. Baltasar Carnicer states that he was baptized on 5 July 1807, born the previous night. Other sources state a birthdate of 7 July 1808. M. G. Vallejo's parents were at Santa Barbara Mission February 18, 1791, his paternal grandparents, Gerónimo Vallejo and Antonia Gómez.
His father's great grandfather, Pedro Vallejo, was said to have served as viceroy of New Spain, although his name does not appear on the list of viceroys. Earlier Vallejo ancestors were said to include a captain who served under Hernan Cortés and an admiral, Alonso Vallejo, said to be the commander of the ship which brought Columbus back to Spain as a prisoner in 1500. However, these ancestors were only a family mythology. Ignacio himself had been a well considered sergeant at the Presidio of Monterey, who served as Alcalde of San José; as a teenager, his nephew Juan Bautista Alvarado, José Castro received special instruction from Governor Pablo Vicente de Solá. The boys received government documents and newspapers from Mexico City, as well as access to the governor's personal library. Vallejo worked as a clerk for English merchant William Hartnell, who taught Vallejo English and Latin. Vallejo was serving as the personal secretary to the new Governor of California, Luis Argüello, when news of Mexico's independence reached Monterey.
Argüello enrolled Vallejo as a cadet in the Presidio company in 1824. After being promoted to corporal, Argüello appointed Vallejo to the diputación, the territorial legislature, he was promoted to alférez, in 1829, Vallejo led a group of soldiers against the Miwoks, under chief Estanislao. After a three-day battle, Vallejo's troops forced the Miwok to flee to Mission San José, seeking refuge with the padres. In 1831 Vallejo participated in the "emergency installation" of Pío Pico as acting Governor. Vallejo became the Commander of the Presidio of San Francisco in 1833, oversaw the secularization of Mission San Francisco Solano. Mission San Francisco Solano was taken over by General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. At first he gave some of the land to the native mission workers, but he transferred all the land and building to own Rancho Petaluma Adobe of 44,000 acres in the Petaluma Valley. Vallejo laid out the town of Sonoma in 1835, he had a large plaza made in front of the old mission chapel. But he took tiles from the church roof and put them on his own house.
In poor shape the mission church was torn down. In need of a church for the town he made, in 1840 Vallejo had a small chapel built were the original parish church was, he founded the town of Sonoma, was granted Rancho Petaluma by Governor José Figueroa in 1834. In 1835 he was appointed Comandante of the Fourth Military District and Director of Colonization of the Northern Frontier, the highest military command in Northern California. Vallejo began construction of the Presidio of Sonoma to counter the Russian presence at Fort Ross. Vallejo transferred most of the soldiers from San Francisco to Sonoma, began construction of his two-story Casa Grande adobe on the town plaza, he formed an alliance with Sem-Yeto known as Chief Solano of the Suisunes tribe, providing Vallejo with over a thousand Suisunes allies during his conflicts with other tribes. Governor Figueroa died in September 1835, was replaced by Nicolás Gutiérrez, unpopular with the Californio population, resulting in an uprising headed by Juan Alvarado the next year.
Alvarado tried to persuade Vallejo to join the uprising. One hundred-seventy Californios led by José Castro and fifty Americans led by Isaac Graham marched on Monterey. After the rebels fired a single cannon shot into the Presidio, Governor Gutiérrez surrendered on November 5, 1836. On November 7, Alvarado wrote to his uncle Mariano, informing Vallejo he had claimed to be acting under Vallejo's orders and asking him to come to Monterey to take part in the government. Vallejo came to Monterey as a hero, on November 29, the diputación promoted Vallejo from alférez to colonel and named him Comandante General of the "Free State of Alta California", while Alvarado was named Governor; the Federal Government in Mexico City would endorse Vallejo and Alvarado's actions and confirm their new positions. In 1840, Isaac Graham began agitating for a Texas-style revolution in California, in March issuing a notice for a planned horse race, loosely construed into being a plot for revolt. Alvarado notified Vallejo of the situation, in April the Californian military began arresting American and English immigrants detaining about 100 in the Presidio of Monterey.
At the time, there were fewer than 400 foreigners from all nations in the department. Vallejo returned to
Pío de Jesús Pico was a Californio rancher and politician, the last governor of Alta California under Mexican rule. He served from 1845 to 1846, he was elected to one term on the Los Angeles Common Council. Pico was a first-generation Californio, born in Alta California to parents who emigrated from the part of New Spain, now Mexico, he was born at the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel to José María Pico and his wife María Eustaquia Gutiérrez, with the aid of midwife Eulalia Pérez de Guillén Mariné. His paternal grandmother, María Jacinta de la Bastida, was listed in the 1790 census as mulata, meaning mixed race with African ancestry, his paternal grandfather, Santiago de la Cruz Pico, was described as a Mestizo in the same census. Santiago de la Cruz Pico was one of the soldiers who accompanied Juan Bautista de Anza on the expedition that left Tubac, Arizona for California in 1775 to explore the region and colonize it. Pio Pico and his siblings were thus of Spanish and Native American ancestry. After the death of his father in 1819, Pico settled in California.
He married María Ignacia Alvarado there on February 24, 1834. His younger brother was General Andrés Pico. John Bidwell, an early California settler, mentioned Pico among the people he knew: Los Angeles I first saw in March 1845, it had 250 people, of whom I recall Don Abel Stearns, John Temple, Captain Alexander Bell, William Wolfskill, Lemuel Carpenter, David W. Alexander. By the 1850s Pico was one of the richest men in Alta California. In 1850 he purchased the 8,894-acre Rancho Paso de Bartolo, which included half of present-day Whittier. Two years he built a home on the ranch and lived there until 1892, it is preserved today as Pio Pico State Historic Park. Pico owned the former Mission San Fernando Rey de España, Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores, several other ranchos for a total of over 500,000 acres. In 1868, he constructed the three-story, 33-room hotel, Pico House on the old plaza of Los Angeles, opposite today's Olvera Street. At the time of its opening in 1869, it was the most lavish hotel in Southern California.
Before 1900, however, it, the surrounding neighborhood declined, as the business center moved further south. After decades as a shabby flophouse, the hotel was deeded to the State of California in 1953, it is now a part of El Pueblo de Los Angeles State Historic Monument. It is used on occasion for special events. Pico twice served as Governor of Alta California, taking office the first time from Manuel Victoria in 1832, when Victoria was deposed for refusing to follow through with orders to secularize the mission properties; as governor pro tem and "Vocal" of the Departmental Assembly, Pico began secularization. After 20 days in office, he abdicated in favor of Zamorano and Echeandía, who governed the north and south until José Figueroa reunified the governorship in 1833. Pico ran for office in 1834 as the first alcalde of San Diego after secularization of the mission but was defeated, he challenged Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado on political issues and was imprisoned on several occasions. In 1844 he was chosen as a leader of the California Assembly.
In 1845, he was again appointed governor. Pico made Los Angeles the province's capital. In the year leading up to the Mexican–American War, Governor Pico was outspoken in favor of California's becoming a British Protectorate rather than a U. S. territory. When U. S. troops occupied Los Angeles and San Diego in 1846 during the Mexican–American War, Pico fled to Baja California, Mexico, to argue before the Mexican Congress for sending troops to defend Alta California. Pico did not return to Los Angeles until after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, he reluctantly accepted the transfer of sovereignty. Automatically granted United States citizenship, he was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council in 1853, but he did not assume office. In 2010, scientists published an article about Pio Pico asserting that he showed signs of acromegaly, a disease not characterized until in the nineteenth century, they say that images of Pico from 1847 through 1858 show a characteristic pattern of progressive acromegaly, a disease caused by excessive and unregulated release of growth hormone from a growth hormone-secreting adenoma of the anterior pituitary gland.
He demonstrates progressive coarsening of his facial features with a large bulbous nose, broad forehead, protuberant lips and forward-jutting jaw. His hands reveal the diagnostic massive enlargement so typical of this illness. With a height of 67 inches in his forties, his acromegaly must have begun after puberty, or he would have manifested gigantism. Images of his younger brother Andrés Pico and elder brother, Jose Antonio Pico, show normal body features, suggesting Governor Pico's condition was a disease and not a benign familial trait. Pio Pico had never been recognized or diagnosed with acromegaly; the apparent pituitary adenoma had at least three additional secondary effects on his medical condition besides causing acromegaly. First, his eyes show progressive misalignment, indicating the tumor grew laterally into the cavernous sinus and compromised the cranial nerves controlling eye muscle power. Second, he has a hairless face. Although just a personal choice, in the presence of a large pituitary tumor, this is more due to testosterone deficiency.
This condition results from the enlarging tumor interfering with the normal function of gonadotropin pituitary
In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny: The special virtues of the American people and their institutions The mission of the United States to redeem and remake the west in the image of agrarian America An irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential dutyHistorian Frederick Merk says this concept was born out of "a sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven". Historians have emphasized that "manifest destiny" was a contested concept—Democrats endorsed the idea but many prominent Americans rejected it. Historian Daniel Walker Howe writes, "American imperialism did not represent an American consensus. Whigs saw America's moral mission as one of democratic example rather than one of conquest."Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan is credited with coining the term manifest destiny in 1845 to describe the essence of this mindset, a rhetorical tone.
The term was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico and it was used to divide half of Oregon with the United Kingdom. But manifest destiny always limped along because of its internal limitations and the issue of slavery, says Merk, it never became a national priority. By 1843, former U. S. President John Quincy Adams a major supporter of the concept underlying manifest destiny, had changed his mind and repudiated expansionism because it meant the expansion of slavery in Texas. Merk concluded: From the outset Manifest Destiny—vast in program, in its sense of continentalism—was slight in support, it lacked national, sectional, or party following commensurate with its magnitude. The reason was; the thesis that it embodied nationalism, found in much historical writing, is backed by little real supporting evidence. There was never a set of principles defining manifest destiny, therefore it was always a general idea rather than a specific policy made with a motto. Ill-defined but keenly felt, manifest destiny was an expression of conviction in the morality and value of expansionism that complemented other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism and Romantic nationalism.
Andrew Jackson, who spoke of "extending the area of freedom", typified the conflation of America's potential greatness, the nation's budding sense of Romantic self-identity, its expansion. Yet Jackson would not be the only president to elaborate on the principles underlying manifest destiny. Owing in part to the lack of a definitive narrative outlining its rationale, proponents offered divergent or conflicting viewpoints. While many writers focused upon American expansionism, be it into Mexico or across the Pacific, others saw the term as a call to example. Without an agreed upon interpretation, much less an elaborated political philosophy, these conflicting views of America's destiny were never resolved; this variety of possible meanings was summed up by Ernest Lee Tuveson: "A vast complex of ideas and actions is comprehended under the phrase "Manifest Destiny". They are not, as we should expect, all compatible, nor do they come from any one source." Journalist John L. O'Sullivan was an influential advocate for Jacksonian democracy and a complex character, described by Julian Hawthorne as "always full of grand and world-embracing schemes".
O'Sullivan wrote an article in 1839 that, while not using the term "manifest destiny", did predict a "divine destiny" for the United States based upon values such as equality, rights of conscience, personal enfranchisement "to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man". This destiny was not explicitly territorial, but O'Sullivan predicted that the United States would be one of a "Union of many Republics" sharing those values. Six years in 1845, O'Sullivan wrote another essay titled Annexation in the Democratic Review, in which he first used the phrase manifest destiny. In this article he urged the U. S. to annex the Republic of Texas, not only because Texas desired this, but because it was "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions". Overcoming Whig opposition, Democrats annexed Texas in 1845. O'Sullivan's first usage of the phrase "manifest destiny" attracted little attention. O'Sullivan's second use of the phrase became influential.
On December 27, 1845, in his newspaper the New York Morning News, O'Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with Britain. O'Sullivan argued that the United States had the right to claim "the whole of Oregon": And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us; that is, O'Sullivan believed that Providence had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy. Because Britain would not spread democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled. O'Sullivan believed. O'Sullivan's original conception of manifest destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force, he believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U. S. government or