Timpani or kettledrums are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a semispherical drum, they consist of a membrane called a head stretched over a large bowl traditionally made of copper. Most modern timpani are pedal timpani and can be tuned and to specific pitches by skilled players through the use of a movable foot-pedal, they are played by striking the head with a specialized drum stick called a timpani stick or timpani mallet. Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of ensembles, including concert bands, marching bands, in some rock bands. Timpani is an Italian plural, the singular of, timpano. However, in English the term timpano is only in use by practitioners: several are more referred to collectively as kettledrums, temple drums, timp-toms, or timps, they are often incorrectly termed timpanis. A musician who plays timpani is a timpanist.
First attested in English in the late 19th century, the Italian word timpani derives from the Latin tympanum, the latinisation of the Greek word τύμπανον, "a hand drum", which in turn derives from the verb τύπτω, meaning "to strike, to hit". Alternative spellings with y in place of either or both i's—tympani, tympany, or timpany—are encountered in older English texts. Although the word timpani has been adopted in the English language, some English speakers choose to use the word kettledrums; the German word for timpani is Pauken. The Ashanti pair of talking drums are known as atumpan; the tympanum is defined in the Etymologiae of St. Isidore of Seville: Tympanum est pellis vel corium ligno ex una parte extentum. Est enim pars media symphoniae in similitudinem cribri. Tympanum autem dictum quod medium est. Unde, et margaritum ipsum ut symphonia ad virgulam percutitur; the tympanum is hide stretched over a hollow wooden vessel which extends out. It is said by the symphonias to resemble a sieve, but has been likened to half a pearl.
It is struck with beating time for the symphonia. The reference comparing the tympanum to half a pearl is borrowed from Pliny the Elder; the basic timpano consists of a drum head stretched across the opening of a bowl made of copper or, in less expensive models, fiberglass or aluminum. In the Sachs–Hornbostel classification, this makes timpani membranophones; the head is affixed to a hoop. The counter hoop is held in place with a number of tuning screws called tension rods placed around the circumference; the head's tension can be adjusted by tightening the rods. Most timpani have six to eight tension rods; the shape and material of the bowl's surface help to determine the drum's timbre. For example, hemispheric bowls produce brighter tones. Modern timpani are made with copper due to its efficient regulation of internal and external temperatures relative to aluminum and fiberglass. Timpani come in a variety of sizes from about 33 inches in diameter down to piccoli timpani of 12 inches or less. A 33-inch drum can produce C2, specialty piccoli timpani can play up into the treble clef.
In Darius Milhaud's 1923 ballet score La création du monde, the timpanist must play F♯4. Each drum has a range of a perfect fifth, or seven semitones. Changing the pitch of a timpani by turning each tension rod individually is a laborious process. In the late 19th century, mechanical systems to change the tension of the entire head at once were developed. Any timpani equipped with such a system may be considered machine timpani, although this term refers to drums that use a handle connected to a spider-type tuning mechanism. By far the most common type of timpani used today are pedal timpani, which allows the tension of the head to be adjusted using a pedal mechanism; the pedal is connected to the tension screws via an assembly of either cast metal or metal rods called the spider. There are three types of pedal mechanisms in common use today: The ratchet clutch system uses a ratchet and pawl to hold the pedal in place; the timpanist must first disengage the clutch before using the pedal to tune the drum.
When the desired pitch is achieved, the timpanist must reengage the clutch. Because the ratchet engages in only a fixed set of positions, the timpanist must fine-tune the drum by means of a fine-tuning handle. In the balanced action system, a spring or hydraulic cylinder is used to balance the tension on the head so the pedal will stay in position and the head will stay at pitch; the pedal on a balanced action drum is sometimes called a floating pedal since there is no clutch holding it in place. The friction clutch or post and clutch system uses a clutch. Disengaging the clutch frees it from the post, allowing the pedal to move without restraint. Professional-level timpani have copper bowls; these drums can have one of two styles of pedals. The Dresden pedal is operated by ankle motion. A Berlin-style pedal is attached by means of a long arm to th
Busby Berkeley was an American film director and musical choreographer. Berkeley devised elaborate musical production numbers that involved complex geometric patterns. Berkeley's works used large numbers of showgirls and props as fantasy elements in kaleidoscopic on-screen performances. Berkeley was born in California, to Francis Enos and stage actress Gertrude Berkeley. Among Gertrude's friends, a performer in Tim Frawly's Stock company run by Busby Berkeley's father, were actress Amy Busby from which Berkeley gained the appellation "Buzz" or "Busby" and actor William Gillette only four years away from playing Sherlock Holmes. Whether he was christened Busby Berkeley William Enos, or Berkeley William Enos, with "Busby" being a nickname, is not unanimous – the "Child's names" entry on his birth certificate is blank. In addition to her stage work, Gertrude played mother roles in silent films while Berkeley was still a child. Berkeley made his stage début at five. In 1917, he lived in Athol, working as an advertising and sales manager.
During World War I, Berkeley served as a field artillery lieutenant. Watching soldiers drill may have inspired his complex choreography. During the 1920s, Berkeley was a dance director for nearly two dozen Broadway musicals, including such hits as A Connecticut Yankee; as a choreographer, Berkeley was less concerned with the dancing skill of his chorus girls as he was with their ability to form themselves into attractive geometric patterns. His musical numbers were among the largest and best-regimented on Broadway, his earliest film work was in Samuel Goldwyn's Eddie Cantor musicals, where he began developing such techniques as a "parade of faces", moving his dancers all over the stage in as many kaleidoscopic patterns as possible. Berkeley's top shot technique appeared seminally in the Cantor films, the 1932 Universal drama film Night World, his numbers were known for starting out in the realm of the stage, but exceeding this space by moving into a time and place that could only be cinematic, only to return to shots of an applauding audience and the fall of a curtain.
He used only one camera to achieve this, instead of the usual four, to retain control over his vision so no director could edit the film. As choreographer, Berkeley was allowed a certain degree of independence in his direction of musical numbers, they were markedly distinct from the narrative sections of the films, he didn't see the other sections of the picture. The numbers he choreographed were upbeat and focused on decoration as opposed to substance some costing around $10,000 a minute, more than the picture they were in. One exception to this is the number "Remember My Forgotten Man" from Gold Diggers of 1933, which dealt with the treatment of World War I veterans during The Great Depression. Berkeley's popularity with an entertainment-hungry Great Depression audience was secured when he choreographed four musicals back-to-back for Warner Bros.: 42nd Street, Footlight Parade, the aforementioned Gold Diggers of 1933, Fashions of 1934, as well as In Caliente and Wonder Bar with Dolores del Río.
Berkeley always denied any deep significance to his work, arguing that his main professional goals were to top himself and to never repeat his past accomplishments. As the outsized musicals in which Berkeley specialized became passé, he turned to straight directing; the result was 1939's They Made Me a Criminal, one of John Garfield's best films. Berkeley had several well-publicized run-ins with MGM stars such as Judy Garland. In 1943, he was removed as director of Girl Crazy because of disagreements with Garland, although the lavish musical number "I Got Rhythm", which he directed, remained in the picture, his next stop was at 20th Century-Fox for 1943's The Gang's All Here, in which Berkeley choreographed Carmen Miranda's "Lady in the Tutti-Frutti Hat" number. The film made money. Berkeley returned to MGM in the late 1940s, where among many other accomplishments he conceived the Technicolor finales for the studio's Esther Williams films. Berkeley's final film as choreographer was MGM's Billy Rose's Jumbo.
In the late 1960s, the camp craze brought. He toured the college and lecture circuit, directed a 1930s-style cold medication commercial for Contac capsules entitled the "Cold Diggers of 1969", complete with a top shot of a dancing clock. In his 75th year, Berkeley returned to Broadway to direct a successful revival of No No Nanette starring his old Warner Brothers colleague and "42nd Street" star Ruby Keeler. Berkeley was inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame in 1988. Berkeley was married six times including to Merna Kennedy, Esther Muir and starlet Claire James, was survived by his wife Etta Dunn, he was involved in an alienation of affections lawsuit in 1938 involving Carole Landis, was engaged to Lorraine Stein. Berkeley drank often drinking martinis in his daily bath. After his mother’s death and his career began to slow, he attempted suicide by slitting his wrists and taking an overdose of sleeping pills, he was taken to the hospital and kept there for many days, which experience affected his mental state.
Latin music is a genre used by the music industry as a catch-all term for music that comes from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking areas of the world, namely Ibero America and Iberian Peninsula, as well as music sung in either language. In the United States, the music industry defines Latin music as any recording sung in Spanish regardless of its genre or the artist's nationality; the Recording Industry Association of America and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the US. Spain, Brazil and the United States are the largest Latin music markets in the world. Since the late 1990s, the US has had a rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". A great part of the English-speaking media started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Major record labels such as Universal Music Group, Sony Music, Warner Music have two divisions dedicated to the Latin market: one which focuses on Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, the other for the Hispanic market in the United States.
Since 1990, Billboard has held the Latin Music Conference every year. The week-long conference features speakers including key personnel such as executives and producers from the Latin music industry and notable artists in the Latin music scene; the conference concludes with the annual Billboard Latin Music Awards. In 2000, the Latin Recording Academy inaugurated the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish or Portuguese; the awards encompass music from Latin America, Spain and the United States. The Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame was established in 2012 to recognize songwriters from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking regions around the world; the term "Latin music" originated from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat and Tito Puente and accelerating in decades. As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration."
Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and became an international trend, led by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity. Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, Celia Cruz expanding the audience. In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries together.
Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world". In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Salsa music lost some traction, its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics; this became known as the salsa romantica era. Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance, a collection of classics covered by the artist. By the mid-1990s, Latin pop music was dominated by younger artists such as Menudo alumnus Ricky Martin, Colombian teen Shakira, Julio's son Enrique Iglesias. Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, Nek crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs.
In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano became the most prominent genre. Selena helped push Tejano music into the mainstream market with her albums Entre a Mi Mundo and Amor Prohibido, although the genre's popularity declined following her death in 1995. In the tropical music field, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity. In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. In the tropical music scene, bachata music became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field. By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, urban and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U. S. Latin radio programmers. Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain.
Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, Anuel AA, Karol G, Bryant Myers, Arcangel and Noriel. Categ
Better Call Saul
Better Call Saul is an American television crime drama series created by Vince Gilligan and Peter Gould. It is a spin-off prequel of Gilligan's prior series Breaking Bad. Set in the early and mid 2000s, Better Call Saul follows the story of con-man turned small-time lawyer, Jimmy McGill, six years before the events of Breaking Bad, showing his transformation into the persona of criminal-for-hire Saul Goodman. Jimmy becomes the lawyer for former beat cop Mike Ehrmantraut, whose relevant skill set allows him to enter the criminal underworld of drug trafficking in Albuquerque, New Mexico; the show premiered on AMC on February 8, 2015. The 10-episode fourth season aired between August and October 2018; the show has been renewed for a fifth season, planned to premiere in 2020. Jimmy is working as a low-paid solo practitioner, with the back room of a nail salon as his home and office, his friend and romantic interest, Kim Wexler works as a lawyer at the firm of Hamlin, Hamlin & McGill, where Jimmy and she were once employed in the mailroom.
Partners at HHM include Jimmy's nemesis, Howard Hamlin, brother, Chuck McGill. Mike conducts illegal drug-related activity with Nacho Varga in addition to becoming right-hand man for drug lord Gus Fring who runs a fast food restaurant as a business front. Odenkirk and Esposito are all reprising their roles from Breaking Bad. Like its predecessor, Better Call Saul has received critical acclaim, with particular praise for its acting and cinematography; some have deemed it superior to its predecessor. It has garnered many nominations, including a Peabody Award, 23 Primetime Emmy Awards, seven Writers Guild of America Awards, five Critics' Choice Television Awards, a Screen Actors Guild Award, two Golden Globe Awards; the series premiere held the record for the highest-rated scripted series premiere in basic cable history at the time of its airing. Better Call Saul follows the life of the character Saul Goodman beginning about six years prior to the events of Breaking Bad. In 2002, born as James "Jimmy" McGill, is a former con artist trying to follow a legitimate career as an aspiring lawyer in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
He seeks to become a partner in the law firm in which his older brother Charles "Chuck" McGill is a senior partner. However, Jimmy's work is overshadowed by Chuck's past reputation, he struggles to find a way to prove himself with the help of another associate in the firm, Kim Wexler, with whom he becomes romantically involved. At the same time, Jimmy takes care of Chuck, who claims to have electromagnetic hypersensitivity, a condition that makes him physically ill in the presence of anything with an electrical component and has caused him to take an extended leave from his firm and regular law work. Interspersed among Jimmy's activities are the prior histories of other Breaking Bad characters, including Mike Ehrmantraut, a former police officer who becomes involved in illegal drug trafficking schemes, drug kingpins Hector Salamanca and Gus Fring, who help distribute drugs illegally brought to the area from Mexico; the series provides brief glimpses of Saul's fate some time after the events of "Granite State", the penultimate episode of Breaking Bad, in which Saul fears for his own safety and takes on a new identity in Omaha, Nebraska as Gene, the manager of a Cinnabon store.
He remains paranoid that someone might discover his true identity. The fourth season features scenes taking place closer to the timeframe of Breaking Bad, set in 2008. In "Quite a Ride", the cold open takes place concurrent to events near the end of Breaking Bad, with Jimmy as Saul destroying documents and taking money from the Saul Goodman office made memorable in that series. In July 2012, Breaking Bad creator Vince Gilligan hinted at a possible spin-off about Saul Goodman. In a July 2012 interview, Gilligan said he liked "the idea of a lawyer show in which the main lawyer will do anything it takes to stay out of a court of law", including settling on the courthouse steps. Gilligan noted that over the course of Breaking Bad, there were a lot of "what if"s their team considered, such as if the show won a Primetime Emmy Award, or if people would buy "Los Pollos Hermanos" T-shirts; the staff did not expect these events to come to fruition, but after they did, they started considering a spin-off featuring Saul as a thought experiment.
Further, Saul's character on Breaking Bad became much more developed than the staff had planned, as he was slated to appear in only three episodes. In April 2013, Better Call Saul was confirmed to be in development by Gould. Bob Odenkirk stars as lawyer Jimmy McGill. In January 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Banks would reprise his Breaking Bad role as Mike Ehrmantraut and be a series regular. New cast members include Michael McKean as McGill's elder brother Chuck. McKean guest-starred in an episode of Odenkirk's Mr. Show and Gilligan's X-Files episode "Dreamland"; the cast includes Patrick Fabian as Howard Hamlin, Rhea Seehorn as Kimberly "Kim" Wexler, Michael Mando as Ignacio "Nacho" Varga. In October 2014, Kerry Condon was cast as Stacey Ehrm
Francis Albert Sinatra was an American actor and singer, one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Born to Italian immigrants in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers", he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack, his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin' Lovers!, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice'n' Easy.
Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. After releasing Sinatra at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim, it was followed by 1968's Francis Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor.
After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm, received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate. He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town and Dolls, High Society, Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome. Sinatra would receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra was heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. In crime, the FBI investigated his alleged relationship with the Mafia. While Sinatra never learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, he worked hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.
A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra led a colorful personal life, was involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner, he married Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra had several violent confrontations with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements, he was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, he was collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century", he continues to be seen as an iconic figure.
Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra. Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek and ear, perforated his eardrum—damage that remained for life. Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916. A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that further scarred his face and neck. Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic. Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven, biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence. Sinatra's fourth wife Barbara would claim that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, "knocked him around a lot".
Dolly became influential in local Democratic Party circles. She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly", she had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter. Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Mar
Steel guitar is a type of guitar or the method of playing the instrument. Developed in Hawaii by Joseph Kekuku in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a steel guitar is positioned horizontally; the earliest use of an electrified steel guitar was first made in the early 1930s by Bob Dunn of Milton Brown and His Brownies, a western swing band from Fort Worth, Texas. Nashville picked up the use of the steel guitar in the early days of the late 1940s and early 1950s "Honky Tonk" country & western music with a number of fine steel guitarists backing names like Hank Williams, Lefty Frizzell and Webb Pierce; the term steel guitar is mistakenly used to describe any metal body resophonic guitar. Steel guitar can describe: The slide technique of playing slide guitar is by using a steel bar. Resonator guitars, including round necked varieties, are suitable for this style, yet are referred to as "steel guitars", but rather referred to as a Dobro, acoustic slide guitar, or square neck resonator guitars.
Dobro is a brand name of one of the leading manufacturers of resonator guitars. A specialized instrument built for playing in steel guitar fashion; these are of several types: Lap steel guitar, which may be: Lap slide guitar, with a conventional wooden guitar box. The square-necked variety of resonator guitar. Electric lap steel guitar. Electric console steel guitar. Electric pedal steel guitar. Steel guitar refers to a method of playing on a guitar held horizontally, with the treble strings uppermost and the bass strings towards the player, using a type of slide called a steel above the fingerboard rather than fretting the strings with the fingers; this may be done with any guitar, but is most common on instruments designed and produced for this style of play with painted lines instead of frets, since the strings are much too high to be fretted. Playing a steel guitar with a steel can be quite challenging, great steel players are few and far between, because of some of the techniques involved such as slanting the bar, palm damping, thumb damping, unique styles of picking are not mastered.
The technique popularized in Hawaii. Thus, the lap steel guitar is sometimes known as the Hawaiian guitar in documents from the early 20th century, today any steel guitar is called a Hawaiian steel guitar. However, Hawaiian guitar refers to slack key guitar, played in the conventional or Spanish position, using a conventional fretted guitar in various open tunings with the strings tuned lower than usual. Steel guitar tunings tend to feature close intervals whereas slack key tunings more contain 4ths and 5ths. Dobro is a brand of resonator guitars, but the word is most used to describe bluegrass instruments of several different brands. Tunings and techniques are similar to acoustic Hawaiian steel guitar playing, but have evolved somewhat differently in the bluegrass idiom, which involves faster picking and changes than Hawaiian music does. Bottleneck guitar may have developed from Steel guitar technique, it is similar, with the exception that the guitar is held in the conventional position, a different, tubular form of slide is slipped over the middle or ring finger or pinky to accommodate this playing position.
The slide is never slanted. Common bottleneck tunings are open E chords. A steel guitar is one designed to be played in steel-guitar fashion; these have been of many types, but two dominate: Resonator guitars the square-necked variety which can be played only in steel guitar fashion. Electric instruments, starting with electric lap steel guitars and developing through the console steel guitar to the pedal steel guitar; the lap steel guitar has 6 strings and may have various tunings. The'standard' EBGDAE tuning was changed to allow'open' i.e. major chord tunings to accommodate using the straight steel bar and not require changing string gauges. A new generation of musicians use open tunings, but Hawaiian music for the last 100 years has used more complex tunings once musicians could manipulate bars to execute diagonal barrings, both forward and back. Hawaiian tunings evolved from A Major and E Major to E7, C sharp Minor, C sharp Minor 9th, F sharp Minor 9th, B11th and the popular E 13th. Jerry Byrd is credibly the originator of the C6+A7 tuning ECAGEC sharp which allows a wider ranging of chording for Hawaiian and many other forms of modern music.
It differs from a conventional or Spanish guitar in having a higher action and a neck, square in cross section. The frets, unused in steel style playing, may be replaced by markers. There are three main types: Lap slide guitars, which are acoustic instruments but may have electric pickups for amplification in addition. Resonator guitars, which are acoustic instruments but may have pickups for amplification in addition. Electric lap steel guitars, which are solid body. Early lap steel guitars were Spanish guitars modified by raising both the head nut; the string height at the head nut was raised to about half an inch by using a head nut converter or converter nut. This type of guitar is claimed to have been invented in about 1889 by Joseph Kekuku in Hawaii; some lap slide guitars, particularl