Hernando Arias de Saavedra
Hernando Arias de Saavedra known as Hernandarias, was a soldier and politician of criollo ancestry. He was the first person born in the Americas to become a governor of a European colony in the New World, serving two terms as governor of Governorate of the Río de la Plata, 1597–1599 and 1602–1609, one of the Governorate of Paraguay 1615–1617. Hernandarias was born in Asunción, colonial Paraguay as the second son of María de Sanabria and Martín Suárez, an officer under Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, he had a sister, Juana de Saavedra, who married Juan de Garay, the father of Jerónima de Contreras. His maternal grandparents were Diego de Sanabria and Mencia Calderón de Sanabria, who were wealthy from their holdings in Paraguay, he entered the military at an early age. He participated in the exploration and conquest of the territory of what is now Paraguay and Argentina, his talents as an officer and administrator led to his being named lieutenant-governor of Asunción in 1592 by Juan Ramírez Velasco.
He served three terms. While claiming most officials from Spain or Peru were lazy or corrupt, the new governor Diego Rodríguez Valdés Vanda y Lugarteniente wrote about Hernandarias: In the same period, Hernandarias' half-brother, Hernando de Trejo, was named bishop of the Roman Catholic see of Asunción. In 1596 Hernandarias was elected as Lieutenant-Governor of the Rio de la Plata province, including Buenos Aires. In 1597, upon the death of governor Valdés Vanda, King Phillip II ordered captain Francisco de Barraza to name a new governor of the province of Rio de la Plata. Hernandarias was elected unanimously by the caudillo in Asunción as the governor of Rio de la Plata province, including Buenos Aires. Hernandarias served three terms as governor: 1597–1599, 1602–1609, 1615–1617; as governor, he enacted a number of policies to stimulate the growth of what was at that time a small port town. These included the creation of the first primary schools, kilns for creating bricks and tiles to replace adobe as a construction material, the rebuilding of a fortress to protect the city from pirates.
Following the capture of two anchored ships by English privateers on March 18, 1607, he ordered the construction of a larger fort at the mouth of the Matanza River, in what is now the neighborhood of Vuelta de Rocha. He enacted measures against smuggling caused by prohibitions on import and the African slave trade. During his term as governor of Buenos Aires, Hernandarias started several expeditions, including ones to Uruguay and Brazil to rein in the Portuguese bandeirantes, explore the Patagonia, survey the navigability of rivers and to find the mythical City of the Caesars. In 1604, he was captured by the native Mapuche around 1,000 km south of Buenos Aires, he survived. In 1603, Hernandarias changed the rules on Amerindian workers, ending the mita and encomienda labor systems; the Spanish had depended on native labor in exchange for nominally converting them to Christianity. He gained approval for this reform from King Phillip III. In 1608 he arranged the creation of the Jesuit and Franciscan reductions in the region of Guayrá.
While it relocated many natives, compared to the previous system, it protected them from the ranchers and the encomienda. In 1611, visiting judge Francisco de Alfaro ordered the emancipation of all natives working on encomiendas, converted by the Jesuits, his proclamation is known as the Ordenanzas de Alfaro. As Governor of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata, Hernandarias at the beginning of the 17th century opposed the burgeoning mate industry, he thought it was an unhealthy bad habit, that too much of the Indian workforce was consumed the drink. He ordered an end to the production in the Governorate of the Río de la Plata, while seeking approval from the Crown, it rejected his ban. Hernandarias was directly involved in the relocation of the church in Buenos Aires in 1603. In 1616 craftsmen determined that the church's roof was deteriorating, and, in the course of repairs, the church collapsed. 1618 Hernandarias led the effort to construct the Cathedral of Buenos Aires. Working with carpenter Pascual Ramírez, Hernandarias secured a supply of lumber from Paraguay as well as labor from Spanish colonists and converted natives.
On the construction of the Cathedral, Hernandarias wrote in a letter about the construction of the Cathedral: On September 7, 1614 Hernandarias was named governor of Buenos Aires for his third and final term. He assumed the post on May 29, 1615, he introduced an initiative to split the Río de la Plata district in two: the Province of Buenos Aires, the Province of Paraguay, including the settlements of Asunción, Santiago de Jerez, Villa Rica and Ciudad Real. Though ordered in 1617, the partition needed the approval of the king, granted in 1618; the change was not carried out until 1620. After the expiry of his term in 1617, Hernandarias was succeeded as governor by Diego de Góngora. In his personal life, he was married to Jerónima de Contreras with whom he had three daughters: Gerónima and María Hernandarias retired with his wife to Santa Fe, where he died in 1634 at the age of 72, his remains and those of his wife were interred in Santa Fe. The Hernandarias District of Paraguay was named for him, as were the city of Hernandarias, Argentina in Paraná District, the Hernandarias Subfluvial Tunnel in Argentina.
In 1604 Hernandarias traveled six month along Uruguay and Negro rivers looking for wood and canes supplies on the Uruguay River Eastern Bank. On his return to Buenos Aires he reported to King Felipe III of Spain describing those
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Castile (historical region)
Castile is a historical region of Spain divided between Old Castile and New Castile. The area covers the following modern autonomous communities: the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Community of Madrid as well as Cantabria and La Rioja. Castile's name derives from the Spanish for "land of castles" in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian Reconquest from the Moors. An eastern county of the kingdom of León, in the 11th century Castile became an independent realm with its capital at Burgos; the County of Castile, which included most of Burgos and parts of Vizcaya, Álava, Cantabria and La Rioja. became the leading force in the northern Christian states' 800-year Reconquista of central and southern Spain from the Moorish rulers who had dominated most of the peninsula since the early 8th century. The capture of Toledo in 1085 added New Castile to the crown's territories, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa heralded the Moors' loss of most of southern Spain.
León was reunited with Castile in 1230, the following decades saw the capture of Córdoba and Seville. By the Treaty of Alcaçovas with Portugal on March 6, 1460, the ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile; the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, when Ferdinand II of Aragon wed Isabella I of Castile, would lead to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516 when their grandson Charles V assumed both thrones. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree; the Muslim Kingdom of Granada was conquered in 1492, formally passing to the Crown of Castile in that year. Since it lacks modern day official recognition, Castile no longer has defined borders; the area consisted of the Kingdom of Castile. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre, the definition of what constituted Castile began to change, its historical capital was Burgos.
In modern Spain, it is considered to comprise Castile and León and Castile–La Mancha, with Madrid as its centre. West Castile and León, Cantabria and La Rioja are sometimes included in the definition. Since 1982 there have been two nominally Castilian autonomous communities in Spain, incorporating the toponym in their own official names: Castile and Leon and Castile-La Mancha. A third, the Community of Madrid is regarded as part of Castile, by dint of its geographic enclosure within the entity and, above all, by the statements of its Statute of Autonomy, since its autonomic process originated in national interest and not in popular disaffection with Castile. Other territories in the former Crown of Castile are left out for different reasons. In fact, the territory of the Castilian Crown comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon, Balearic Islands and Catalonia, all belonging to the former Crown of Aragon, Navarre, offshoot of the older Kingdom of the same name.
Castile was divided between Old Castile in the north, so called because it was where the Kingdom of Castile was founded, New Castile, called the Kingdom of Toledo in the Middle Ages. The Leonese region, part of the Crown of Castile from 1230, was from medieval times considered a region in its own right on a par with the two Castiles, appeared on maps alongside Old Castile until the two joined as one region - Castile and Leon - in the 1980s. In 1833, Spain was further subdivided into administrative provinces. Two non-administrative, nominally Castilian regions existed from 1833 to 1982: Old Castile, including Santander, Logroño, Valladolid, Segovia and Ávila, New Castile consisting of Madrid, Cuenca and Ciudad Real; the language of Castile emerged as the primary language of Spain—known to many of its speakers as castellano and in English sometimes as Castilian, but as Spanish. See Names given to the Spanish language; the Castilian Kingdom and people were considered to be the main architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Moors and of marriages, wars and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in 1977, the Castilian language was the only one with official status in the Spanish state. Castilian people Old Castile New Castile Crown of Castile Early history of the Kingdom of León Economic history of Spain Later history of Spain List of Castile Kings Castile soap Heraldry of Castile Music of Castile and Leon Castella, a food whose name originates from Castile. Two places in the United States have been named after this kingdom: Village of Castile and Town of Castile. Both are located in the state of New York
Blasco Núñez Vela
Blasco Núñez Vela y Villalba was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru. Serving from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546, he was charged by Charles V with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws, which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants. Núñez Vela was a native of Ávila, born into an noble family; the Núñez Vela family, lords of Tabadillo, lived in this area from at least 1403. He was a descendant of Don Pedro Nuñez de la Fuente Almexir the loyal, who saved the life of the King of Castile, Alfonso VIII in 1163, he was a knight of the Order of Santiago and corregidor of Málaga and Cuenca and devoted to the service of the king. One of his brothers was lord of the bedchamber to the king, another was archbishop of Burgos. Although honest and courageous, Núñez was very hot headed. In March 1542 he was named viceroy and captain general of Peru and president of the Audiencia, captain general of Chile, with a salary of 5,000 ducats.
He sailed from Sanlucar on November 3, 1542 in command of a fleet, with much pomp, arrived in Lima on May 17, 1544. He was accompanied by the members of the Audiencia and other illustrious personalities, his last instructions from the king were to "show himself to be a severe punisher of infractions." Núñez's adherence to these instructions was to prove costly. The New Laws promulgated by Charles, under the influence of reformers such as Bartolomé de las Casas, had been established to improve the lot of the indigenous peoples of the Americas within the Spanish dominions, they were intended to clarify and enforce provisions of the Laws of Burgos of 1512. The latter had provided many safeguards for the indigenous population, but these had not been enforced; the New Laws became effective November 20, 1542. In order to enforce the New Laws and suppress the insubordination of the conquistadors in New Spain and Peru, representatives of the Crown were provided with the powers and authority of the king.
The new office was designated a viceroyalty at the head of, a viceroy or virrey. Audiencias were appointed to assist the viceroys in the administration of civil and criminal justice; the Audiencias were composed of four oidores. Núñez arrived at Nombre de Dios on January 10, 1544, passed from there to Panama City. Leaving the Audiencia in Panama, he sailed for Peru, arriving at Tumbes on March 14, 1544, he went from there to Trujillo, where he was solemnly received, thence to La Barranca. In La Barranca he may have read on one of the walls, "Whoever comes to take my hacienda, his life will be taken"; the New Laws were not well received by the conquistadors because they provided that what was Indian slavery had to end, that everyone had to pay a fair share of taxes, that all the encomienda rights had to go to the king. The conquistadors would have nothing of this. Núñez arrived in Lima, the capital of the colony, on May 17, 1544, where he was received in royal splendor and sworn into office. News of governmental measures he had taken on the voyage had preceded him, he was met with hostility and resistance from the officials and clergy.
Núñez himself now had doubts about enforcing the New Laws in the current situation. He agreed to join the Spanish landowners in the colony in a petition to the emperor to suspend them, but claiming a lack of authority, he refused to suspend them on his own initiative; the resistance increased the severity of his measures. He imprisoned Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, his predecessor as head of the colonial government, had him sent to Spain. On September 13, 1544, in a late night interview in the viceroy's palace, Núñez accused Juan Suárez de Carbajal of treason; the exchange became heated, Núñez killed Suárez with a dagger. The death of Suárez led the Audiencia to break with the viceroy. Believing they could rely on help from Gonzalo Pizarro, brother of Francisco Pizarro, they determined to remove Núñez from office and send him back to Spain. On September 18, 1544 they ordered his imprisonment; the viceroy was sent a prisoner to the island of San Lorenzo. In Álvarez's custody, Núñez left San Lorenzo for Panama on September 24.
Just out of port, Álvarez told the viceroy he was now free, turned over command of the ship to him. Núñez ordered the ship to sail for Tumbes, he led it south to battle the conquistadors. Pizarro made his solemn entry into Lima on October 28, at the head of 1,200 well-trained and well-armed soldiers, with artillery, under the royal banner of Castile. Both sides claimed to be defenders of the king. Pizarro was sworn in before the Audiencia as interim governor and captain general of Peru, until a replacement could be named by the king. Núñez and his small force left San Miguel just ahead of Pizarro's soldiers; the hope was to link up in the high country with the loyal commander at Popayan. Indecisive skirmishes were fought along the line of march. Núñez, suspecting treachery among his officers, had three of them executed. Núñez arrived in Popayan, Pizarro occupied Quito friendly territory for the viceroy. Pizarro lured Núñez out of Popayan to Quito by a stratagem; the two armies met January 1546 at nearby Añaquito.
Seven hundred soldiers of the army of Pizarro fought Núñez and his smaller army of a few hundred at Añaquito. Núñez fought bravely, in spite of his age, but he was killed in the battle and decapitated, his head was marched about on a pike to d