Juba is the capital and largest city of South Sudan. The city is situated on the White Nile and serves as the capital of Central Equatoria State. Under the Khedivate of Egypt, Juba served as the southernmost garrison of the Egyptian army, quartering only a handful of soldiers. Disease was common. Explorers and campaigners Samuel and Florence Baker used the nearby island of Gondokoro as a base during their expeditions to what is now South Sudan and northern Uganda from 1863 to 1865 and 1871 to 1873; the present city of Juba was established on the site of a small Bari village called Juba, where the Church Missionary Society had established a mission and the Nugent Memorial Intermediate School in 1920-21. In the late 1920s, Anglo-Egyptian officials ordered Bari residents to relocate so that a new town could be constructed to serve as the capital of Mongalla Province; the site was chosen by Anglo-Egyptian officials in part because of the presence of the CMS Nugent Memorial Intermediate School there.
Major construction of the new city of Juba was underway by 1927. Traders from Rejaf relocated to the new city in 1929, the Governor's office of Mongalla was moved there in 1930. Greek merchants supplying the British Army played an early and central role in the establishment of Juba in the early 1920s, their number never exceeded 2,000, but because of their excellent relationship with the native Bari people and the large amount of resulting assistance they received, they built many structures in the downtown Juba Market area as well as in the area which the contemporary British soldiers called the Greek Quarter, today the small suburb of Hai Jalaba. Many of these structures are still standing today. Public buildings such as the Ivory Bank, Notos Lounge, the old Sudan Airways Building, Paradise Hotel, the Nile Commercial Bank and Buffalo Commercial Bank were all built by Greeks. Greek merchants were responsible for the construction of the Central Bank building in the mid 1940s, as well as the Juba Hotel in the mid 1930s.
Until 1956, Juba was in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, jointly administered by the United Kingdom and the Egypt. British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan with Uganda were dashed in 1947 during the Juba Conference, which resulted in an agreement to unify northern and southern Sudan. In 1955, a mutiny of southern soldiers in Torit sparked the First Sudanese Civil War, which did not end until 1972. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, Juba was a strategic location, the focus of much fighting. In 2005, Juba became the interim seat and the capital of the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. With the advent of peace, the United Nations increased its presence in Juba, shifting its management of operations in Southern Sudan from its previous location in Kenya. Under the leadership of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the United Nations established a camp known as "OCHA Camp", which served as a base for many United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations.
Juba became the world's newest national capital on 9 July 2011, when South Sudan formally declared its independence from the Republic of the Sudan. However, influential parties including the South Sudanese government expressed dissatisfaction with the city's suitability as a national capital, the government proposed that a new planned city be built as a replacement capital elsewhere, most Ramciel in Lakes. On 5 September 2011, the government announced the capital of South Sudan would move some 250 km away from Juba to Ramciel, located in the middle of South Sudan about 60 km from Yirol West County of Lakes state; as of November 2018, the move has yet to occur. Juba is led by a city council headed by Mayor Stephen Wani Michael; this post-independence council was formed in March 2011 and Baballa appointed to lead it by Governor Clement Wani Konga. Former Yei County Commissioner David Lokonga Moses was appointed as deputy mayor. A ministerial committee to keep Juba clean and sanitary was created by gubernatorial decree at the same time.
Prior to March 2011, the area now administered by Juba City Council was divided into Juba and Muniki payams. It is now a standalone subdivision of Juba County; the city is a river port and the southern terminus of traffic along the Nile, properly called the Bahr al Jabal section of the White Nile. Before the civil war, Juba was a transport hub, with highways connecting it to Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After the war, Juba has no longer been a significant trade city. Roads and the river harbour are not in use due to disrepair; the United Nations and the South Sudanese government are repairing the roads, but full repair is expected to take many years. In 2003, the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action started to clear the roads leading from Juba to Uganda and Kenya, it was expected that these roads would be de-mined and rebuilt in the course of 2006–2008. The rebuilding of the roads, which are un-paved, takes a tremendous amount of effort and time because of the limited work season due to the lengthy rainy season, which lasts from March until October.
The roads are important for the peace process in Sudan as people need them to return to their homes and to regain what they feel is a normal life. The first road that has started to be rebuilt is the road to Uganda; this road is important, as many of the original inhabitants of Juba fled to Uganda during the war. As of 2009, there are three paved roads in Juba, one, re-surfaced in July. The
Nokesville Truss Bridge is a historic Pratt truss bridge spanning the Norfolk Southern Railway near Nokesville, Prince William County, Virginia. It was built in 1882 by the Keystone Bridge Company; the single-span bridge measures 73 feet 11.5 inches long, is constructed of wrought iron. The bridge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Virginia List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Virginia Historic American Engineering Record No. VA-109, "Virginia Department of Transportation Bridge No. 6023, Spanning Norfolk Southern tracks at State Route 646, Prince William County, VA", 22 photos, 21 data pages, 4 photo caption pages
Vortex Software was a video game developer founded by Costa Panayi and Paul Canter in the early 1980s to sell the game Cosmos which Panayi had developed for the Sinclair ZX81. They converted the game to the ZX Spectrum, but due to the low sales of the ZX81 version they licensed the game to Abbex. Luke Andrews, Costa's brother-in-law, Crete Panayi, Costa's brother, became involved to handle the business affairs and advertising respectively; the company was based at 280 Brooklands Road, Manchester, M23 9HD. In the summer of 1984, Mark Haigh-Hutchinson was offered a position and ported several of the games to the Amstrad CPC in addition to writing Alien Highway for the ZX Spectrum. Chris Wood and David Aubrey-Jones were associated with Vortex as outside contractors; the company produced several notable games for the 8-bit home computers of the period. Deflektor was ported to the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST. After the production of Hostile All Terrain Encounter in 1988, Costa spent the next two years deciding where he wanted to go.
In 1990 Vortex was reborn with Costa and Luke and the intention to develop a game for the Amiga and Atari ST. They developed a much enhanced version of Highway Encounter in just three months, but failed to find a software publisher for the game, so it remained unpublished. Several games achieved critical success. ZX81 Othello Word Mastermind Pontoon Crash Astral Convoy Serpent's Tomb Cosmos, Abbex Electronics Gun Law Android One: The Reactor Run, Vortex Software Android Two, Vortex Software Tornado Low Level, Vortex Software Cyclone, Vortex Software Highway Encounter, Vortex Software Alien Highway, Vortex Software Revolution, U. S. Gold Deflektor, Gremlin Graphics Hostile All Terrain Encounter, Gremlin Graphics Android One: The Reactor Run Android Two Highway Encounter Tornado Low Level Alien Highway Revolution Deflektor Hostile All Terrain Encounter Highway Encounter Highway Encounter Deflektor Hostile All Terrain Encounter History of Vortex Software by Mark Haigh-Hutchinson Costa Panayi at World of Spectrum