Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman and one of the canonical figures of Roman history. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman, he was awarded the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senate's oligarchy, the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the eastern army command, Sulla marched on Rome in an unprecedented act and defeated Marius in battle. In 81 BC, after his second march on Rome, he revived the office of dictator, inactive since the Second Punic War over a century before, used his powers to enact a series of reforms to the Roman Constitution, meant to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes.
Sulla's ascension was marked by political purges in proscriptions. After seeking election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after. Sulla's decision to seize power – enabled by his rival's military reforms that bound the army's loyalty with the general rather than to Rome – permanently destabilized the Roman power structure. Leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force. Sulla's life was habitually included in the ancient biographical collections of leading generals and politicians, originating in the biographical compendium of famous Romans published by Marcus Terentius Varro. In Plutarch's Parallel Lives Sulla is paired with the Spartan strategist Lysander. In older sources, his name may be found as Sylla; this is a Hellenism, like sylva for classical Latin silva, reinforced by the fact that two major ancient sources and Appian, wrote in Greek, call him Σύλλα. Sulla, the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the grandson of Publius Cornelius Sulla, was born into a branch of the patrician gens Cornelia, but his family had fallen to an impoverished condition at the time of his birth.
Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth amongst Rome’s comics, lute-players, dancers. He retained an attachment to the debauched nature of his youth until the end of his life, it seems certain. Sallust declares him well-read and intelligent, he was fluent in Greek, a sign of education in Rome; the means by which Sulla attained the fortune which would enable him to ascend the ladder of Roman politics, the Cursus honorum, are not clear, although Plutarch refers to two inheritances. The Jugurthine War had started in 112 BC when Jugurtha, grandson of Massinissa of Numidia, claimed the entire kingdom of Numidia in defiance of Roman decrees that divided it between several members of the royal family. Rome declared war on Jugurtha in 111 BC, but for five years Roman legions under Quintus Caecilius Metellus were unsuccessful. Gaius Marius, a lieutenant of Metellus, saw an opportunity to usurp his commander and fed rumors of incompetence and delay to the publicani in the region; these machinations caused calls for Metellus's removal.
Marius took over the campaign while Sulla was nominated quaestor to him. Under Marius, the Roman forces followed a similar plan as under Metellus and defeated the Numidians in 106 BC, thanks in large part to Sulla's initiative in capturing the Numidian king, he had persuaded Jugurtha's father-in-law, King Bocchus I of Mauretania, to betray Jugurtha who had fled to Mauretania for refuge. It was a dangerous operation from the first, with King Bocchus weighing up the advantages of handing Jugurtha over to Sulla or Sulla over to Jugurtha; the publicity attracted by this feat boosted Sulla's political career. A gilded equestrian statue of Sulla donated by King Bocchus was erected in the Forum to commemorate his accomplishment. Although Sulla had engineered this move, as Sulla was serving under Marius at the time, Marius took credit for this feat. In 104 BC, the migrating Germanic-Celtic alliance headed by the Cimbri and the Teutones seemed to be heading for Italy; as Marius was the best general Rome had, the Senate allowed him to lead the campaign against them.
Sulla served on Marius' staff as tribunus militum during the first half of this campaign. With those of his colleague, proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Marius' forces faced the enemy tribes at the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. Sulla had by this time transferred to the army of Catulus to serve as his legatus, is credited as being the prime mover in the defeat of the tribes. Victorious at Vercellae and Catulus were both granted triumphs as the co-commanding generals. Returning to Rome, Sulla was Praetor urbanus for 97 BC. In c. 95 BC he was appointed pro consule to the province of Cilicia. While in the East, Sulla was the first Roman magistrate to meet a Parthian ambassador, by taking the seat between the Parthian ambassador and the ambassador from Cappadocia he unintentionally, slighted the Parthian
Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi
The denarius was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III, when it was replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in small quantities for ceremonial purposes and through the tetrarchy; the word dēnārius is derived from the Latin dēnī "containing ten", as its value was of 10 assēs. The word for "money" descends from it in Italian, Slovene and Spanish, its name survives in the dinar currency. Its symbol is represented in Unicode as, however it can be represented as X̶. A predecessor of the denarius was first struck in 267 BC, five years before the First Punic War, with an average weight of 6.81 grams, or 1⁄48 of a Roman pound. Contact with the Greeks prompted a need for silver coinage in addition to the bronze currency that the Romans were using at that time; the predecessor of the denarius was a Greek-styled silver coin called the didrachm, struck in Neapolis and other Greek cities in southern Italy. These coins were inscribed for Rome but resemble their Greek counterparts.
They were most used for trade purposes and were used in Rome. The first distinctively Roman silver coin appeared around 226 BC. Classic historians sometimes called these coins denarii, but they are classified by modern numismatists as quadrigati, derived from the quadriga, or four-horse chariot, on the reverse, which with a two-horse chariot or biga was the prototype for the most common designs used on Roman silver coins for the next 150 years. Rome overhauled its coinage around 211 BC and introduced the denarius alongside a short-lived denomination called the victoriatus; this denarius contained 1⁄72 of a Roman pound, of silver. It formed the backbone of Roman currency throughout the Roman republic; the denarius began to undergo slow debasement toward the end of the republican period. Under the rule of Augustus its silver content fell to 3.9 grams. It remained at nearly this weight until the time of Nero, when it was reduced to 1⁄96 of a pound, or 3.4 grams. Debasement of the coin's silver content continued after Nero.
Roman emperors reduced its content to 3 grams around the late 3rd century. The value at its introduction was 10 asses, giving the denarius its name, which translates as "containing ten". In about 141 BC, it was re-tariffed at 16 asses; the denarius continued to be the main coin of the Roman Empire until it was replaced by the antoninianus in the middle of the 3rd century. The coin was last issued, in bronze, under Aurelian between AD 270 and 275, in the first years of the reign of Diocletian.. It is difficult to give rough comparative values for money from before the 20th century, as the range of products and services available for purchase was so different. Classical historians say that in the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire the daily wage for an unskilled laborer and common soldier was 1 denarius or about US$2.80 in bread. During the republic, legionary pay was 112.5 denarii per year doubled by Julius Caesar to 225 denarii, with soldiers having to pay for their own food and arms.
Centurions received higher pay: under Augustus, the lowest rank of centurion was paid 3,750 denarii per year, the highest rank, 15,000 denarii. The silver content of the denarius under the Roman Empire was about 50 grains, 3.24 grams, or 1⁄10 troy ounce. On June 6, 2011, this was about US$3.62 in value. The fineness of the silver content varied with economic circumstances. From a purity of greater than 90% silver in the 1st century AD, the denarius fell to under 60% purity by the year 200, plummeted to 5% purity by the year 300. By the reign of Gallienus, the antoninianus was a copper coin with a thin silver wash. By comparison, a laborer earning the minimum wage in the United States in January 2014 made US$58 for an 8-hour day, before taxes and an employee earning the minimum wage in the United Kingdom in 2014 made £52 for an 8-hour day, before taxes. In the final years of the 1st century BC Tincomarus, a local ruler in southern Britain, started issuing coins that appear to have been made from melted down denarii.
The coins of Eppillus, issued around Calleva Atrebatum around the same time, appear to have derived design elements from various denarii such as those of Augustus and M. Volteius. After the denarius was no longer issued, it continued to be used as a unit of account, the name was applied to Roman coins in a way, not understood; the Arabs who conquered large parts of the land that once belonged to the Eastern Roman Empire issued their own gold dinar. The lasting legacy of the denarius can be seen in the use of "d" as the abbreviation for the British penny until 1971, it survived in France as the name of a coin, the denier. The denarius survives in the common Arabic name for a currency unit, the dinar used from pre-Islamic times, still used in several modern Arab nations; the major currency unit in former Principality of Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia and former Yugoslavia was dinar, it is still used in present-day Serbia. The Macedonian currency denar is derived from the Roman denarius; the Italian word
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica, in modern scholarship referred to as Metellus Scipio, was a Roman consul and military commander in the Late Republic. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and the senatorial faction led by Pompeius Magnus, he remained a staunch optimate, he led troops against Caesar's forces in the battles of Pharsalus and Thapsus, where he was defeated. He committed suicide. Ronald Syme called him "the last Scipio of any consequence in Roman history." Metellus Scipio was born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. His grandfather was the Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio, consul in 111 BCE. Metellus Scipio's father died not long after his praetorship, was survived by two sons and two daughters; the brother left little mark on history. Publius Scipio, as he was referred to in contemporary sources early in his life, was adopted in adulthood through the testament of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, consul in 80 BCE and pontifex maximus, he retained his patrician status: "Scipio's ancestry," notes Syme, "was unmatched for splendour."
As Jerzy Linderski has shown at length, this legal process constitutes adoption only in a loose sense. He was called "Metellus Scipio" but sometimes just "Scipio" after his adoption; the official form of his name as evidenced in a decree of the senate was "Q. Caecilius Q. f. Fab. Metellus Scipio."Scipio married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, but was not without rival in seeking to marry Aemilia Lepida. The virginal Cato had wanted to marry Aemilia but lost out: When thought that he was old enough to marry, up to that time he had consorted with no woman, he engaged himself to Lepida, betrothed to Metellus Scipio, but was now free, since Scipio had rejected her and the betrothal had been broken. However, before the marriage Scipio changed his mind again, by dint of every effort got the maid. Cato was exasperated and inflamed by this, attempted to go to law about it; the couple had one son, a Metellus Scipio who seems to have died when he was only 18. Another son may have been born around 70.
The couple's much more famous daughter was born around that time as well. Scipio first married off the celebrated Cornelia Metella to Publius Crassus, the son of Marcus Licinius Crassus. After Publius's premature death at Carrhae, Scipio decided to succeed Caesar as the father-in-law of Pompeius, at least thirty years older than Cornelia; the marriage is one of the acts by which Pompeius severed his alliance to Caesar and declared himself the champion of the optimates. He and Scipio were consuls together in 52. Cicero names "P. Scipio" among the young nobiles on his defence team when Sextus Roscius was prosecuted in 80 BCE, he is placed in Metellus Celer, both future consuls. Metellus Scipio has been listed as tribune of the plebs in 59 BCE, but his patrician status argues against his holding the office, it is possible that Scipio's'adoption' into a plebeian gens may have qualified him for a tribunate on a technicality. He was curule aedile in 57 BCE, when he presented funeral games in honour of his adopted father's death six years earlier.
He was praetor, most in 55 BCE, during the second joint consulship of Pompeius and Marcus Crassus. In 53 BCE, he was interrex with Marcus Valerius Messalla, he became consul with Pompeius in 52 BCE, the year he arranged the marriage of his newly widowed daughter to him. Indisputably aristocratic and conservative, Metellus Scipio had been at least symbolically a counterweight to the power of the so-called triumvirate before the death of Crassus in 53 BCE. "Opportune deaths," notes Syme, "had enhanced his value, none remaining now of the Metellan consuls."He is known to have been a member of the College of Pontiffs by 57 BCE, was nominated upon the death of his adoptive father in 63 BCE and subsequently elected. In January 49 BCE, Metellus Scipio persuaded the senate to issue the ultimatum to Caesar that made war inevitable; that same year, he became proconsul of the province of Syria. In Syria and in the province of Asia, where he took up winter quarters, he used oppressive means to gather ships and money: He put a per capita tax on slaves and children.
Scipio put to death Alexander of Judaea, was acclaimed Imperator for "alleged" victories in the Amanus Mountains — as noted disparagingly by Caesar. In 48 BCE, he brought his forces from Asia to Greece, where he manoeuvred against Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus and Lucius Cassius until the arrival of Pompeius. At the Battle of Pharsalus, he commanded the centre. After the optimates' defeat by Caesar, Metellus fled to Africa. With the support of his former rival-in-romance Cato, he wrested the chief command of Pompeius's forces from the loyal Attius Varus in early 47 BCE. In 46 BCE, he held command at the Battle of Thapsus "without skill or success," and was defeated along with Cato. After the defeat, he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula to continue the fight, bu
Juba II or Juba II of Mauretania was the son of Juba I and King of Numidia and Mauretania. His first wife was Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of the Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony. Juba II was a Berber prince from Numidia, he was born in Hippo Regius, he was the only heir of King Juba I of Numidia. In 46 BC, his father was defeated by Julius Caesar. Numidia became a Roman Province, his father had been an ally of the Roman General Pompey. Juba II was brought to Rome by Julius Caesar and he took part in Caesar's triumphal procession. In Rome he became romanized and was granted Roman citizenship. Through dedication to his studies, he is said to have become one of Rome's best educated citizens, by age 20 he wrote one of his first works entitled Roman Archaeology, he was raised by Julius Caesar and by his great-nephew Octavian. While growing up, Juba II accompanied Octavian on military campaigns, gaining valuable experience as a leader, he fought alongside Octavian in the battle of Actium in 31 BC.
They became longtime friends. In 30 BC, Augustus restored Juba II as king of Numidia. Juba II established Numidia as an ally of Rome. Juba II would become one of the most loyal client kings; as a result of his services to Augustus in a campaign in present-day Spain, between 26 BC and 20 BC the Emperor arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II, giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. In 25 BC, Numidia became Juba II received Mauretania as his kingdom; when Juba II and Cleopatra Selene moved to Mauretania, they renamed their new capital Caesaria, in honor of Augustus. The construction and sculpture projects at Caesaria and another city, display a rich mixture of Egyptian and Roman architectural styles. Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II supported Mauretanian trade; the Kingdom of Mauretania was of great importance to the Roman Empire.
Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean with Spain and Italy. Mauretania exported fish, pearls, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process. Tingis, a town at the Pillars of Hercules became a major trade centre. In Gades, Carthago Nova Spain, Juba II was appointed by Augustus as an honorary Duovir involving trade, was a Patronus Colonaie; the value and quality of Mauretanian coins became distinguished. The Greek historian Plutarch describes him as'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC – AD 2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar, as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler and Juba II died in 23. Juba II was buried alongside his first wife in the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania. Ptolemy became the sole ruler of Mauretania.
First marriage to Greek Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene II. Their children were: Ptolemy of Mauretania born in ca 10 BC – 5 BC A daughter of Cleopatra and Juba, whose name has not been recorded, is mentioned in an inscription, it has been suggested that Drusilla of Mauretania was that daughter, but she may have been a granddaughter instead. Drusilla is described as a granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra, or may have been a daughter of Ptolemy of Mauretania. Second marriage to Glaphyra, a princess of Cappadocia, widow of Alexander, son of Herod the Great. Alexander was executed in 7 BC for conspiracy against his father. Glaphyra married Juba II in 6 AD or 7 AD, she fell in love with Herod Archelaus, another son of Herod the Great and Ethnarch of Judea. Glaphyra divorced Juba to marry him in 7 AD. Juba had no children with Glaphyra. Juba wrote a number of books in Greek and Latin on history, natural history, grammar and theatre, he compiled a comparison of Greek and Roman institutions known as Όμοιότητες.
His guide to Arabia became a bestseller in Rome. Only fragments of his work survived, he collected a substantial library on a wide variety of topics, which no doubt complemented his own prolific output. Pliny the Elder refers to him as an authority 65 times in the Natural History and in Athens, a monument was built in recognition of his writings, his extant writings are translated in Roller: Scholarly Kings. Juba II was a noted patron of the arts and sciences and sponsored several expeditions and biological research, he was a notable author, writing several scholarly and popular scientific works such as treatises on natural history. According to Pliny the Younger, Juba II sent an expedition to the Canary Islands and Madeira. Juba II had given the Canary Islands that name because he found ferocious dogs on the island. Juba's Greek physician Euphorbus wrote that a succulent spurge found in the High Atlas was a powerful laxative. In 12 BC, Juba named this plant Euphorbia after Euphorbus, in response to Augustus dedicating a statue to Antonius Musa, Augustus's own personal physician and Euphorbus' brother.
Botanist and taxonomist Carl
Battle of Thapsus
The Battle of Thapsus was an engagement in Caesar's Civil War that took place on April 6, 46 BC near Thapsus. The Republican forces of the Optimates, led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Scipio, were decisively defeated by the veteran forces loyal to Julius Caesar, it was followed shortly by his ally, Cato the Younger. In 49 BC, the last Republican civil war was initiated after Julius Caesar defied senatorial orders to disband his army following the conclusion of hostilities in Gaul, he crossed over the Rubicon river with the 13th Legion, a clear violation of Roman Law, marched to Rome. The Optimates fled to Greece under the command of Pompey since they were incapable of defending the city of Rome itself against Caesar. Led by Caesar, the Populares followed, but were outnumbered and defeated in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. Still outnumbered, Caesar recovered and went on to decisively defeat the Optimates under Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey fled to Egypt, where to Caesar's consternation, Pompey was assassinated.
The remaining Optimates, not ready to give up fighting, regrouped in the African provinces. Their leaders were Caecilius Metellus Scipio. Other key figures in the resistance were Titus Labienus, Publius Attius Varus, Lucius Afranius, Marcus Petreius and the brothers Sextus and Gnaeus Pompeius. King Juba I of Numidia was a valuable local ally. After the pacification of the Eastern provinces, a short visit to Rome, Caesar followed his opponents to Africa and landed in Hadrumetum on December 28, 47 BC. After landing, Caesar's forces were engaged by the Optimates led by Petreius and Labienus, Scipio being absent; the result was indecisive and both sides retreated. The Optimates gathered their forces to oppose Caesar with astonishing speed, their army included 40,000 men, a powerful cavalry force led by Caesar's former right-hand man, the talented Titus Labienus, forces of allied local kings and 60 war elephants. The two armies engaged in small skirmishes to gauge the strength of the opposing force, during which two legions switched to Caesar's side.
Meanwhile, Caesar expected reinforcements from Sicily. In the beginning of February, Caesar arrived in Thapsus and besieged the city, blocking the southern entrance with three lines of fortifications; the Optimates, led by Metellus Scipio, could not risk the loss of this position and were forced to accept battle. Metellus Scipio's army circled Thapsus. Anticipating Caesar's approach, it remained in tight battle order flanked by its elephant cavalry. Caesar's position was typical of his style, with him commanding the right side and the cavalry and archers flanked; the threat of the elephants led to the additional precaution of reinforcing the cavalry with five cohorts. One of Caesar's trumpeters sounded the battle. Caesar's archers attacked the elephants, causing them to trample their own men; the elephants on the left flank charged against Caesar's center. This legion sustained the charge with such bravery that afterwards they wore an elephant as a symbol. After the loss of the elephants, Metellus Scipio started to lose ground.
Caesar's cavalry outmaneuvered its enemy, destroyed the fortified camp, forced its enemy into retreat. King Juba's allied troops abandoned the battle was decided. Around ten thousand enemies were killed, those surviving the battle being put to the sword by the furious soldiers in spite of Caesar's plea to spare them. Plutarch reports. Scipio himself escaped, only to commit suicide months in a naval battle near Hippo Regius. Following the battle, Caesar renewed the siege of Thapsus, which fell. Caesar proceeded to Utica. On the news of the defeat of his allies, Cato committed suicide. Caesar was upset by this and is reported by Plutarch to have said: "Cato, I must grudge you your death, as you grudged me the honour of saving your life." The battle preceded peace in Africa—Caesar pulled out and returned to Rome on July 25 of the same year. Opposition, would rise again. Titus Labienus, the Pompeian brothers and others had managed to escape to the Hispania provinces; the civil war was not finished, the Battle of Munda would soon follow.
The Battle of Thapsus is regarded as marking the last large scale use of war elephants in the West
Glaphyra was an Anatolian princess from Cappadocia and through marriage was related to the Herodian Dynasty. Glaphyra was a royal princess of Greek and Persian descent, her father was the Roman ally king Archelaus of Cappadocia, her only natural sibling was her younger brother Archelaus of Cilicia. Her paternal grandfather was a Roman ally and priest-king Archelaus of the temple state of Comana, while her paternal grandmother, for whom she was named, was the hetaera Glaphyra; the priest-kings of Comana were descended from Archelaus, the favorite high-ranking general of Mithridates VI of Pontus, who may have married a daughter of Mithridates VI. Glaphyra's mother, the first wife of Archelaus, was an Armenian Princess whose name is unknown and who died by 8 BCE, she may have been a daughter of King Artavasdes II of Armenia, son of Tigranes the Great and Cleopatra of Pontus, a daughter of Mithridates VI from his first wife his sister Laodice. If so, Glaphyra’s parents may have been distant relatives.
She was raised in Cappadocia. In 25 BCE, the Emperor Augustus gave Archelaus extra territories to govern, including the port of Elaiussa Sebaste, which Archelaus renamed in honor of Augustus; the royal family settled there, Archelaus built a royal residence and a palace on the island in the harbor. Glaphyra held the high ranking title of ‘king’s daughter’, reflective of her descent and high birth, she was an attractive and dynamic woman, reputed charming, a force to be reckoned with. Augustus encouraged intermarriage among the families of Roman ally kings. King Herod the Great of Judaea married his children to relatives or to his subjects. However, Herod wanted his son Alexander to marry a foreign princess. Herod negotiated a marriage alliance with Archelaus. Either in 18 BCE or 17 BCE, in Herod’s court in Jerusalem, Glaphyra married Alexander. Archelaus provided Glaphyra with a dowry, which Herod returned to her; the union of Alexander and Glaphyra is described as happy. Glaphyra became a Jew upon her marriage and she did adopt Judaism though no mention of conversion was made in the account of her first marriage.
Glaphyra bore Alexander three children: two sons and Alexander, an unnamed daughter. The names of Glaphyra and Alexander's children reflect their cultural royal descent. At the court of Jerusalem, Glaphyra made a nuisance of herself by genealogical pretentiousness, citing her paternal descent from the kings of Macedonia, her maternal descent from the rulers of Persia, she taunted Herod's wives about their low birth. Glaphyra sneered at Salome's daughter Berenice, regarding her ‘with indignation’, though they were of equal rank, her attitude caused Berenice's husband, prince Aristobulus IV to describe Berenice as a commoner, a ‘woman of the people’. Salome in turn spread a rumor that Herod was "smitten with love for Glaphyra and that his passion was difficult to assuage"; this alienated him from his father. The women in Herod's court grew to hate Alexander. Glaphyra’s unpopularity led to rumors about Alexander and Aristobulus IV. Herod came to believe. With Augustus’ permission, Herod executed Alexander and Aristobulus in 7 BCE.
Herod questioned Glaphyra to confirm her loyalty to him. Herod sent Glaphyra back to Cappadocia, but kept custody of her children; the return of Glaphyra didn’t rupture the friendly relations between the two client kingdoms. Herod died in 4 BCE in Jericho. After the death of Herod, Glaphyra's children came to live in Cappadocia with her, they renounced Judaism and embraced their Greek heritage, including the religion, but their family connections with the Herodian Dynasty were not wholly broken. In 2 BCE-2 CE, the Roman ally king Juba II of Mauretania toured the Eastern Mediterranean with Augustus’ grandson Gaius Caesar. During this trip Juba II met Glaphyra, they fell in love, were married prior to 6 CE. Juba II's previous consort, Cleopatra Selene II died prior to 6 CE. Glaphyra thus became Queen of Mauretania, her marriage to Juba II was brief: there is no trace of her name in North African inscriptions. However, an honorific inscription to her was made in Athens. Ή βουλή καί ήμος ασίλισσαν βασιλέω Άρχελάου θυρ, βασιλέως Ίόβ γυναίκτής ένκα.
The Boule and Demos honors Queen Glaphyra daughter of King Archelaus and wife of King Juba on the account of her virtue. During her second marriage, she became reacquainted with Herod Archelaus, he was the son of his fourth wife Malthace. They determined to marry. For them to marry, Glaphyra divorced Juba II and Herod Archelaus divorced his first wife, his cousin Mariamne. Glaphyra and Herod Archelaus were married; the marriage of a widow to her former brother-in-law violated Jewish laws of levirate marriage. It caused a major religious scandal in Judaea; the marriage of Glaphyra and Herod Archelaus didn’t have a happy ending. Shortly after the wedding, Glaphyra dreamed that her first husband stood at her side and reproached her for not being faithful to him, she had not only made a second marriage but had come back and married her brother-in-law. In the dream, Alexander said to Glaphyra, she told he