Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata consisting of a zone of steeper dip within an otherwise horizontal or gently-dipping sequence. Monoclines may be formed in several different ways By differential compaction over an underlying structure a large fault at the edge of a basin due to the greater compactibility of the basin fill, the amplitude of the fold will die out upwards. By mild reactivation of an earlier extensional fault during a phase of inversion causing folding in the overlying sequence; as a form of fault propagation fold during upward propagation of an extensional fault in basement into an overlying cover sequence. As a form of fault propagation fold during upward propagation of a reverse fault in basement into an overlying cover sequence. Waterpocket Fold in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah Grandview-Phantom Monocline in Grand Canyon, Arizona Grand Hogback in Colorado Lebombo Mountains in Southern Africa Lapstone Monocline in the Blue Mountains Beaumaris Monocline in Victoria Purbeck Monocline on the Isle of Purbeck, England Fore-Sudetic Monocline, Poland Sindh Monocline, Pakistan Torres Flexure, southern Brazil Anticline Syncline Homocline http://bio-geo-terms.blogspot.com/2006_12_01_bio-geo-terms_archive.html
Israel Railways corporation Ltd. dba Israel Railways, is the state-owned principal railway company responsible for all inter-city and freight rail transport in Israel. All its lines are standard gauge; the network is centered in Israel's densely populated coastal plain, from which lines radiate out in many directions. In 2017, the Israel Railways carried 65 million passengers. Unlike road vehicles and city trams, Israeli railway trains run on the left hand tracks, matching neighboring Egypt and other Middle Eastern countries, whose connected rail networks were constructed by British engineers; until 1980, the company's head office was located at the Haifa Center HaShmona railway station. Tzvi Tzafriri, the general manager of Israel Railways, decided to move the head office to the Tel Aviv Savidor Central Railway Station. In 2017, the company's head office was moved to a new campus built on the grounds of the Lod railway station. There are sixty-two stations with three under construction on the Israel railways network, with all of the stations equipped with accessibility help for disabled, audio system, vending machines and parking.
Bicycles are permitted on board the train in designated coaches. The Israeli train support people to use bicycle by building a double-deck parking for bicycle in every train station and by allowing people to take the bike with them on the train to minimize the need of private cars In Israel, smoking is prohibited in public enclosed places or commercial areas via several laws: since 1983, the "Israel Clean Air Act"; the law was amended in 2007 so that owners are held accountable for smoking in premises under their responsibility. The second means by which smoking is regulated in Israel is via the environmental hazard law, via criminal law smoking may be considered an assault. Although smoking in railway stations is allowed at designated zones of the station, the sale of tobacco from automated vending machines is prohibited. Israel Railways' passenger routes are divided into ten operational lines and three lines under construction: The flagship project of Israel Railways is the construction of an improved rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
The line will begin as an extension of the current railway to Ben Gurion Airport and Modi'in, will terminate in a new underground station beside the Jerusalem Central Bus Station. An additional proposal will connect Modi'in to Jerusalem if built by connecting to the aforementioned line. A 23.5 kilometres line from the city of Acre, on the Mediterranean coast, to Karmiel was completed in March 2017, with service expected to begin summer 2017. This line will be electrified. In 2011 the reconstruction and expansion of the 60 kilometres long abandoned Jezreel Valley railway line connecting Haifa and Beit Shean started; this was completed in 2016. There has been talk of further extending the line to Irbid, in Jordan, however no decision has yet been made on this matter. Another proposed extension under discussion would connect the reconstructed Jezreel Valley railway at Afula to Tiberias. In May 2017, an extension of the railway from Arad via Kuseife was approved; the line would connect to the existing Beersheba–Dimona rail line at the proposed new station at Nevatim.
In 2017, Israel Railways founded a Tunnels Unit, responsible for the daily operation of railway tunnels, including lighting, air circulation, etc. and managing emergencies. On 26 December 1963 two passenger trains on the single-track main line linking Tel Aviv and Haifa collided head-on at Bet Yehoshua just south of Netanya; the northbound train had passed a red signal and its locomotive rode over and crushed the locomotive of the southbound train. None of the coaches was derailed but a coupler broke in the northbound train detaching the rear three coaches; the continuous train brake should have automatically stopped the detached coaches but it had not been connected properly so they started to roll back southwards. 55 people were injured but only three enough to be detained in hospital. The two head-end crews survived but their locomotives, EMD G12s 105 and 118, were destroyed. HaBonim disaster: On 11 June 1985 a train collided with a bus carrying school children, killing 19 children and 3 adults, near moshav HaBonim.
On 21 June 2005 an IC3 train crashed into a freight truck near kibbutz Revadim, killing 8 and injuring 198. 8 July 2005, a train collided with a truck between Kiryat Gat and Ahuzam, resulting the death of the train driver and 38 injuries. On February 2012 a plea bargain had been set for the Revadim crash. On 12 June 2006 a train crashed into a truck near Beit Yehoshua, killing 5 and injuring from 77 to over 80. On 27 December 2009 a train crashed into a car near Kiryat Gat; the driver proceeded without regard to the train checkpoint on the road. The train struck his car and he was killed. On 5 August 2010 a train crashed into a minibus near Kiryat Gat, killing 7 and injuring 6; the minibus was hit at 19:05 GMT+3 on Route 353 as it tried to pass over a level crossing. On 28 December 2010 a fire started in a train near kibbutz Yakum because of a short circuit, injuring 116. On 7 April 2011 two trains collided frontally near Netanya, injuring 59. On 4 October 2013, two men walking along railroad tracks in the Emek Hefer valley industrial zone were killed by a train.
On 18 December 2013, a Beershe
In structural geology, geological fold occurs when one or a stack of flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation. Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds, they occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes, on a variety of scales. Folds form under varied conditions of stress, hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure, temperature gradient, as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments, the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks, as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks. A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt, a common feature of orogenic zones. Folds are formed by shortening of existing layers, but may be formed as a result of displacement on a non-planar fault, at the tip of a propagating fault, by differential compaction or due to the effects of a high-level igneous intrusion e.g. above a laccolith.
Folds are classified by their size, fold shape and dip of the axial plane. A fold surface seen in profile can be divided into limb portions; the limbs are the flanks of the fold and the hinge is where the flanks join together. The hinge point is the point of minimum radius of curvature for a fold; the crest of the fold is the highest point of the fold surface, the trough is the lowest point. The inflection point of a fold is the point on a limb; the hinge points along an entire folded surface form a hinge line, which can be either a crest line or a trough line. The trend and plunge of a linear hinge line gives you information about the orientation of the fold. To more describe the orientation of a fold, one must describe the axial surface; the axial surface is the surface defined by connecting all the hinge lines of stacked folding surfaces. If the axial surface is a planar surface it is called the axial plane and can be described by the strike and dip of the plane. An axial trace is the line of intersection of the axial surface with any other surface.
Folds can have, but don't have a fold axis. A fold axis, “is the closest approximation to a straight line that when moved parallel to itself, generates the form of the fold.”. A fold that can be generated by a fold axis is called a cylindrical fold; this term has been broadened to include near-cylindrical folds. The fold axis is the same as the hinge line. A fold can be shaped as a chevron, with planar limbs meeting at an angular axis, as cuspate with curved limbs, as circular with a curved axis, or as elliptical with unequal wavelength. Fold tightness is defined by the size of the angle between the fold's limbs, called the interlimb angle. Gentle folds have an interlimb angle of between 180° and 120°, open folds range from 120° to 70°, close folds from 70° to 30°, tight folds from 30° to 0°. Isoclines, or isoclinal folds, have an interlimb angle of between 10° and zero, with parallel limbs. Not all folds are equal on both sides of the axis of the fold; those with limbs of equal length are termed symmetrical, those with unequal limbs are asymmetrical.
Asymmetrical folds have an axis at an angle to the original unfolded surface they formed on. Folds that maintain uniform layer thickness are classed as concentric folds; those that do not are called similar folds. Similar folds tend to display thickening of the hinge zone. Concentric folds are caused by warping from active buckling of the layers, whereas similar folds form by some form of shear flow where the layers are not mechanically active. Ramsay has proposed a classification scheme for folds, used to describe folds in profile based upon curvature of the inner and outer lines of a fold, the behavior of dip isogons. that is, lines connecting points of equal dip on adjacent folded surfaces: Anticline: linear, strata dip away from axial center, oldest strata in center irrespective of orientation. Syncline: linear, strata dip toward axial center, youngest strata in center irrespective of orientation. Antiform: linear, strata dip away from axial center, age unknown, or inverted. Synform: linear, strata dip toward axial center, age unknown, or inverted.
Dome: nonlinear, strata dip away from center in all directions, oldest strata in center. Basin: nonlinear, strata dip toward center in all directions, youngest strata in center. Monocline: linear, strata dip in one direction between horizontal layers on each side. Chevron: angular fold with straight limbs and small hinges Recumbent: linear, fold axial plane oriented at low angle resulting in overturned strata in one limb of the fold. Slump: monoclinal, result of differential compaction or dissolution during sedimentation and lithification. Ptygmatic: Folds are chaotic and disconnected. Typical of sedimentary slump folding and decollement detachment zones. Parasitic: short wavelength folds formed within a larger wavelength fold structure - associated with differences in bed thickness Disharmonic: Folds in adjacent layers with different wavelengths and shapes Folds appear on all scales, in all rock types, at all levels in the crust, they arise from a variety of causes. When a sequence of l
Israeli coastal plain
Israel's Coastal Plain is the coastal plain along Israel's Mediterranean Sea coast, extending 187 kilometres north to south. It is a geographical region defined morphologically by the sea, in terms of topography and soil, in its climate and fauna, it is narrow in the north and broadens towards the south, is continuous with the exception of the short section where Mount Carmel reaches all the way to the sea. The Coastal Plain is bordered to the east by - north to south - the topographically higher regions of the Galilee, the low and flat Jezreel Valley, the Carmel range, the mountains of Samaria, the hill country of Judea known as the Shephelah, the Negev Mountains in the south. To the north it is separated from the coastal plain of Lebanon by the cliffs of Rosh HaNikra, which jut out into the sea from the Galille mountains, but to the south it continues into the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula; the plain can be conventionally divided into a number of areas: the Northern Coastal Plain borders Western Galilee in its northern part, the Jezreel Valley in its southern part between Akko and Haifa, where it is called the Plain of Zebulon.
For its entire length, the plain has a Mediterranean climate. The area was fertile in Biblical times, some of it being continually farmed since, although much turned over time into swampland, having to be converted back by Zionist pioneers. Today, the area is the center of the country's citrus farms, contains some of the country's most successful agricultural settlements; the plain has soils made of two sorts of thick river deposits. Despite its length, the plain is only crossed by two significant rivers. About 57% of Israel's population lives in the coastal plain, much of them in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area and Haifa metropolitan area, it is the most predominantly Jewish geographical region of Israel and accordingly the most predominantly Jewish region in the world, as Jews make up over 96% of the population in this region compared to 75% in the Negev, 70% in the Israeli portion of the Judean Mountains, only 50% in the Galilee, the Golan Heights. About 4,320,000 people live on the Israeli Coastal Plain.
4,200,000 million of them are Jews, 120,000 are Israeli Arabs. This accounts for one-third of the world Jewish population, three-quarters of Israeli Jews; the Israeli Coastal Plain has been populated for thousands of years, with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B village of Atlit-Yam dating back some 9000 years. The PPNB village was swallowed by the sea due to a rise in sea level caused by the melting glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age. Recent research has concluded that 5,500 years ago, during the Bronze Age, the Coastal Plain was a populated commercial and settlement center, it is thought that at this time climate change led to the flooding of the area and the creation of many swamps, forcing a shift in human settlement patterns. Settlements are thought to have been spread across the plain, from Gaza up to the Galilee, with the land being an important trade route for the Egyptians; the coastal plain includes the following geographical regions: The Northern Coastal Plain or Plain of Asher stretches from Israel's third-largest city, northwards to Rosh HaNikra on the Israel-Lebanon border.
It separates the Jezreel Valley from the Mediterranean. Its southern segment borders the Jezreel Valley and is - rather unfittingly - known as the Plain of Zebulun, it is a fertile region containing the city of many moshavim and kibbutzim. There islets off the coast in this region. Regarded as a separate region is the Acre coastal plain, crowded with urban areas including Acre and the northern suburbs of Haifa, known as the Krayot, as well as more agricultural areas; the Hof HaCarmel region is the Coastal Plain section stretching along the Mount Carmel range, from Haifa, down to Nahal Taninim south of Zikhron Ya'akov. The soil of the Hof HaCarmel plain is rich and apart from the main city of Haifa in the north, most settlement here is made up of farming communities; the Hof HaCarmel Regional Council is an administrative unit which but not corresponds to the Hof HaCarmel geographic region. The Sharon plain is the next stage down the Coastal Plain, running from Nahal Taninim to Tel Aviv's Yarkon River.
This area is Israel's most densely populated, containing a number of large towns and cities including Netanya and Herzliya as well as smaller communities inland. The Israel's Central Coastal Plain known as Judean Coastal Plain, is running from northern Tel Aviv's Yarkon River to the northern tip of the Gaza Strip marked by Nahal Shikma, the Central Coastal Plain contains cities such as Bat Yam, Rishon LeZion, Ashdod and
Ramallah is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 km north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of 880 meters above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority. Ramallah was an Arab Christian town. Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority. "Ramallah" is composed of "Ram", meaning the Arabic word for God. Ancient rock-cut tombs have been found near Ramallah. Potsherds from the Crusader/Ayyubid and early Ottoman period have been found there. Ramallah has been identified with the Crusader place called Ramalie. Remains of a building with an arched doorway from the Crusader era, called al-Burj, have been identified, but the original use of the building is undetermined. Ramallah was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine. In 1596 it was listed in the tax registers as being in the nahiya of part of the Liwa of Quds.
It had a population of 9 Muslim households. It paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on wheat, olives, vines or fruit trees, goats or beehives. All of the revenue went to a waqf. Modern Ramallah was founded in the mid-1500s by the Haddadins, a clan of brothers descended from Ghassanid Christians; the Haddadins, their leader Rashid El-Haddadin, arrived from east of the Jordan River from the areas of Karak and Shoubak. The Haddadin migration is attributed to unrest among clans in that area. Rashid and his brothers were blacksmiths; the Haddadin name comes from the old word Haddad. Haddadin was attracted to the mountainous site of Ramallah because it was similar to the other mountainous areas he came from. In addition, the forested area could supply him with plenty of fuel for his forges. In 1838 American biblical scholar Edward Robinson visited the area, noting that the inhabitants were Christian "of the Greek rite". There were 200 taxable men; the village "belonged" to the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem, to which it paid an annual tax of 350 Mids of grain.
In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Ramallah as A large Christian village, of well-built stone houses, standing on a high ridge, with a view on the west extending to the sea. It stands amongst gardens and olive-yards, has three springs to the south and one on the west. On the east there is a well. There are rock-cut tombs to the north-east with well-cut entrances, but blocked with rubbish. In the village is a Greek church, on the east a Latin convent and a Protestant schoolhouse, all modern buildings; the village lands are ecclesiastical property, belonging to the Haram of Jerusalem. About a quarter of the inhabitants are the rest Orthodox Greeks. In the 21st century, a large community of people with direct descent from the Haddadins who founded Ramallah live in the United States; the town still contains a Christian minority. The change in demographics is due to new migration of Muslims to the area, emigration of Christians from the area. Ramallah grew throughout the 17th and 18th centuries as an agricultural village.
In 1700, Yacoub Elias was the first Ramallah native to be ordained by the Eastern Greek Melkite Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, the Christian denomination that prevailed in the Holy Land at the time. In the early 19th century, the first Greek Melkite Jerusalemite Orthodox Christian church was built. In the 1850s, "The Church of Transfiguration", was built to replace it. During that same decade, the Latin Church established its presence in Ramallah, constituting the second largest Christian denomination in the city; the Roman Catholic Church established the St. Joseph's Girls' School run by St. Joseph sisters, as well as the co-educational Al-Ahliyyah College high school runs by Rosary sisters. With the influx of Muslim and Christian refugees and internal migration, new mosques and churches were built. In the 19th century, the Religious Society of Friends established a presence in Ramallah and built the Ramallah Friends Schools, one for girls and a boys' school, to alleviate the dearth of education for women and girls.
Eli and Sybil Jones opened "The Girls Training Home of Ramallah" in 1869. A medical clinic was established in 1883, with Dr. George Hassenauer serving as the first doctor in Ramallah. In 1889, the girls academy became the Friends Girls School; as the FGS was a boarding school, it attracted a number of girls from surrounding communities, including Jerusalem, Lydda and Beirut. The Friends Boys School was founded in 1901 and opened in 1918; the Quakers opened a Friends Meeting House for worship in the city center in 1910. According to the school's official website, most high school students choose to take the International Baccalaureate exams instead of the traditional "Tawjihi" university exams; the activity of foreign churches in Palestine in the late 19th century increased awareness of prosperity in the West. In Ramallah and Bethlehem, a few miles south, local residents began to seek economic opportunity overseas. In 1901, merchants from Ramallah emigrated to the United States and established import-export businesses, selling handm
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com