Judd (engine)

Judd is a name brand of engines produced by Engine Developments Ltd. a company founded in 1971 by John Judd and Jack Brabham in Rugby, England. Engine Developments was intended to build engines for Brabham's racing efforts, became one of the first firms authorised by Cosworth to maintain and rebuild its DFV engines, but has since expanded into various areas of motorsport. Judd has provided engines for many major series, including Formula One and other smaller formula series, sports car racing, touring car racing, they have been associated with manufacturers such as Yamaha, MG, Honda, although they have been a privateer-engine supplier. As a result of Jack Brabham's long standing relationship with Honda, Judd was hired by them to develop an engine for the company's return to Formula Two in association with Ron Tauranac's Ralt team. After the demise of Formula Two at the end of the 1984 season, Judd continued to develop new engines for Honda; the first was a turbocharged V8 engine built for Honda's CART campaign.

It was first used on the CART circuit midway through the 1986 season, fielded by Galles Racing and driver Geoff Brabham. It was badged as the Brabham-Honda, scored a fourth-place finish at the 1986 Michigan 500. In 1987, the engine was used for the first time at the Indianapolis 500. Brabham scored second-place finishes in 1987 at Pocono and Road America, as well as a third at the season finale at Miami; the engine became known for its superior fuel mileage. However, it was at a decided power disadvantage compared to the top engine of the time, the Ilmor Chevrolet. In 1988, Truesports with driver Bobby Rahal took over as the primary team, the "Honda" name was dropped from the powerplant. During the 1988 season, Rahal took advantage of the engine's reliability in the 500-mile races, finishing fourth at Indy and second at the Michigan 500, he scored the first and only Indycar victory for the Judd engine, at the Pocono 500. His ten top-10 finishes led to a third-place finish in the season points standings.

Judd continued to build upgrades to the AV into the early 1990s after Honda had stopped badging the engines. When Honda moved into the new Formula 3000 series, Judd again developed the company's engine. Based on the architecture of the AV, the new BV V8 was a aspirated variant, would form the basis for the Judd CV Formula One engine. After the company's departure from Formula One, Judd returned to Formula 3000 in 1995 with the development of the 3-litre KV V8 engine. Judd built the engines that every Formula 3000 team used, although Zytek was tasked with maintaining the over 80 engines after they were built. Judd stopped production of the KV and the Formula 3000 series ended in 2004. In 1988, in conjunction with March Engineering, Judd made the move into the reintroduced aspirated variant of Formula One, which would replace turbocharged cars in 1989. By using the existing BV V8 as the starting point for their new F1 engine, Judd saved cost while at the same time producing a customer engine that could compete on track and in the marketplace with the Ford-Cosworth V8s that were standard equipment for the teams competing to the new rules.

The first Formula One engine developed by Judd, the CV, was built to the 3.5 litre engine formula for aspirated engines. The engine was expanded to 3.5 litres. March Engineering were the first team who signed to use the Judd CV. Reigning World Constructors' champion Williams was forced to turn to Judd, after they lost their supply of Honda engines for 1988. In addition, Ligier bought CVs for use in the 1988 season. Judd powered cars finished in podium positions four times during their debut season, with Williams' lead driver, Nigel Mansell, scoring Judd's first podium when he finished second at the 1988 British Grand Prix. During the 1988 season the 600 bhp Judd V8 was the fastest of the non-turbo engines, the Marches of Ivan Capelli and Maurício Gugelmin recorded higher speeds through the speed trap than the Cosworth DFR- and DFZ-powered cars with Gugelmin recording the fastest'atmo' speed trap of the season when he hit 312 km/h during qualifying for the German Grand Prix at Hockenheim. At the 1988 Japanese Grand Prix Capelli's Judd powered March 881 became the first aspirated car to lead a lap of a Grand Prix since 1983, when he passed the McLaren of two time World Drivers' champion Alain Prost for the lead on lap 16 of the 51 lap race.

For the 1989 season, Judd developed the all-new narrow-angle Judd EV, with a more compact, 76 degree, vee angle, rather than the more conventional 90 degrees of the Judd AV/BV/CV, the Cosworth DFV series. Construction of the CV continued as a cheaper alternative for smaller teams, however. Team Lotus and EuroBrun were the only CV customers, with Lotus finishing sixth in the Constructors' Championship. EuroBrun was the only team to continue with the CV unit into 1990, but Life bought CV units to replace their failed in-house W12 engine design; the previous Judd CV was designed with a conventional 90-degree engine block. Following the 1988 season it was decided that a narrower vee-angle would be adopted to give a more compact engine.

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder was a Dutch admiral. Cornelis Evertsen the Elder was the son of Maayken Jans; when his father was killed in battle in 1617, the Admiralty of Zealand appointed all five of his sons as Lieutenant, including Cornelis and his oldest brother Johan, despite their young age. This exceptional favour was granted in recognition of the great merits of the father and of course prevented his family from becoming destitute. In 1626 Cornelis is first mentioned as serving on sea, during a privateering raid. On 25 August 1636 he was appointed captain. In the Battle of the Downs in 1639 he captured a galleon. During the First Anglo-Dutch War Cornelis functioned as a Vice-Commodore in the Zealandic navy. In the Battle of Scheveningen his ship sank and he, was prisoner of the English for three months. On 14 March 1654 he was appointed Rear-Admiral. During the Northern Wars he was in 1659 subcommander of the fleet of Michiel de Ruyter and liberated Nyborg from the Swedish. In 1661 he was third in command of the Dutch Mediterranean fleet under De Ruyter, executing punitive actions against the corsairs of Algiers.

He and De Ruyter were close personal friends. When the Second Anglo-Dutch War threatened, he was made Vice-Admiral of Zealand, while his brother Johan Evertsen was promoted to the first Lieutenant-Admiral that province had. Cornelis Evertsen took part in the Battle of Lowestoft. Cornelis was now promoted to Lieutenant-Admiral so that for a time the Dutch navy had seven officers of this rank; when the next major naval battle was fought with England in June 1666, the Four Days Battle, Cornelis the Elder was killed on the first day on the Walcheren, cut in two by the parting shot of the escaping Henry. His brother Johan Evertsen decided first to stay ashore, but when Cornelis was killed, he joined as yet the fleet and took command of the vanguard of De Ruyter, he was killed on the first day of the St. James's Day Battle, in August 1666. Both brothers were, after much conflict between the Admiralty and the family over the costs, in 1681 buried in the Abbey of Middelburg, where their shared grave memorial is still to be seen.

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder got blessed with fourteen children from his first marriage in 1640 with Johanna van Gorcum, five of which died as infants. Two of them would become flag officers as well: his second child, named after him, Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and the tenth son Lieutenant-Admiral Geleyn Evertsen. Both would be supreme commanders of the confederate Dutch fleet. All three men shared the same cantankerous character. After the death of his first wife in 1657 Cornelis remarried in 1659. On his death he left a heritage worth 45,000 guilders. Jonge, J. C. de, Levens-beschrijving van Johan en Cornelis Evertsen, Luitenant-Admiralen van Zeeland, ’s Gravenhage, Weduwe J. Allart & Comp. 1820


Ibycus was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, a citizen of Rhegium in Magna Graecia active at Samos during the reign of the tyrant Polycrates and numbered by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. He was remembered in antiquity for pederastic verses, but he composed lyrical narratives on mythological themes in the manner of Stesichorus, his work survives today only as quotations by ancient scholars or recorded on fragments of papyrus recovered from archaeological sites in Egypt, yet his extant verses include what are considered some of the finest examples of Greek poetry. The following lines, dedicated to a lover, were recorded by Athenaeus as a famous example of amorous praise: Εὐρύαλε Γλαυκέων Χαρίτων θάλος, Ὡρᾶν καλλικόμων μελέδημα, σὲ μὲν Κύπρις ἅ τ' ἀγανοβλέφαρος Πει- θὼ ῥοδέοισιν ἐν θρέψαν; the rich language of these lines, in particular the accumulation of epithets, typical of Ibycus, is shown in the following translation: Euryalus, offshoot of the blue-eyed Graces, darling of the lovely-haired Seasons, the Cyprian and soft-lidded Persuasion nursed you among rose-blossoms.

This mythological account of his lover recalls Hesiod's account of Pandora, decked out by the same goddesses so as to be a bane to mankind—an allusion consistent with Ibycus's view of love as unavoidable turmoil. As is the case with many other major poets of ancient Greece, Ibycus became famous not just for his poetry but for events in his life the stuff of legend: the testimonia are difficult to interpret and few biographical facts are known; the Byzantine encyclopaedia Suda represents a good example of a problematic biography, here translated by David Campbell: Ibycus: son of Phytius. From there he went to Samos; this was in the 54th Olympiad. He was crazed with love for boys, he was the inventor of the so-called sambyke, a kind of triangular cithara, his works are in seven books in the Doric dialect. Captured by bandits in a deserted place he declared that the cranes which happened to be flying overhead would be his avengers. Someone overheard and followed up his words: the crime was confessed and the bandits paid the penalty.

Suda's chronology has been dismissed as "muddled" since it makes Ibycus about a generation older than Anacreon, another poet known to have flourished at the court of Polycrates, it is inconsistent with what we know of the Samian tyrant from Herodotus. Eusebius recorded the poet's first experience of fame somewhere between 542 and 537 BC and this better fits the period of Polycrates' reign. Suda's account seems to be corroborated by a papyrus fragment ascribed to Ibycus, glorifying a youthful Polycrates, but this was unlikely to have been the Polycrates of Samos and might instead have been his son, mentioned in a different context by Himerius as Polycrates, governor of Rhodes. Suda's list of fathers of Ibycus presents problems: there were no historians in the early 6th century and Cerdas looks like an invention of the comic stage. There was a Pythagorean lawgiver of Rhegium known as Phytius, but the early 6th century is too early for this candidate also. Ibycus gives no indication of being a Pythagorean himself, except in one poem he identifies the Morning Star with the Evening Star, an identity first popularized by Pythagoras.

Suda's extraordinary account of the poet's death is found in other sources, such as Plutarch and Antipater of Sidon and it inspired Friedrich Schiller to write a ballad called "The Cranes of Ibycus" yet the legend might be derived from a play upon the poet's name and the Greek word for the bird ἶβυξ or ibyx—it might have been told of somebody else originally. Another proverb associated with Ibycus was recorded by Diogenianus: "more antiquated than Ibycus" or "more silly than Ibycus"; the proverb was based on an anecdote about Ibycus stupidly or nobly turning down an opportunity to become tyrant of Rhegium in order to pursue a poetic career instead There is no other information about Ibycus' activities in the West, apart from an account by Himerius, that he fell from his chariot while travelling between Catana and Himera and injured his hand badly enough to give up playing the lyre "for some considerable time."Some modern scholars have found in the surviving poetry evidence that Ibycus might have spent time at Sicyon before journeying to Samos—mythological references indicate local knowledge of Sicyon and could point to the town's alliance with Sparta against Argos and Athens.

His depiction of the women of Sparta as "thigh-showing" is vivid enough to suggest that he might have composed some verses in Sparta also. It is possible that he left Samos at the same time as Anacreon, on the death of Polycrates, there is an anonymous poem in the Palatine Anthology celebrating Rhegium as his final resting place, describing a tomb located under an elm, covered in ivy and white reeds. Ibycus' role in the development of Greek lyric poetry was as a mediator b