David Alistair Pearce is an English dance DJ, record producer, EDM producer and broadcaster, who has performed across the United Kingdom and the world. He presented Dance Anthems on BBC Radio 1 for ten years, he is renowned for playing a key role both as a performer and behind the scenes in the development of English dance and club culture. Pearce started on Britain's largest land based pirate station Radio Jackie 227 under the pseudonym Dave Adams, he set up his own FM pirate station, DDP Radio, in Claygate, together with Paul Kent, Graham Stuart and Steve Collins. Dave played his first international DJ job aged 17 playing at Studio 29 in India. On his return to Britain, Pearce started on BBC Radio London, presenting Thursday Night Funk Fantasy from 13 September 1984, he presented. The show featured new imports from the latest club tracks in the United Kingdom; some months Pearce created the BBC's first hip hop show A Fresh Start to the Week airing Monday nights. Pearce introduced a number of early hip hop events in the UK including The Raising Hell Tour with Run-D.
M. C. and Beastie Boys at the Hammersmith Odeon, Mantronix at Town and Country Club and Afrika Bambaataa at Wag Club. He staged his own events including T La Rock, Derek B and Cookie Crew at Camden Palace and most famously introduced Public Enemy on stage at their landmark 1987 Def Jam Tour. Public Enemy used Pearce's introduction on their acclaimed album It Takes A Nation of Millions To Hold Us Back, he created a national hip hop phone line for UK rappers with a weekly MC battle called Hip Hop Connection. This subsequently became the UK's first hip hop magazine, he became manager of UK rapper Overlord X and was executive producer of Streetsounds Hip Hop 20, the first album to merge American hip hop with UK artists. Following the murder of DJ Scott La Rock, Pearce was approached by New York's B-Boy Records to remix KRS-One & Scott La Rock's South Bronx, featured on a tribute album to raise funds for Scott La Rock's family. In 1988 BBC Radio London became GLR Greater London Radio where Pearce started a nightly show focused on a mixture of club music including the emerging house scene, acid house and rap.
House pioneers Frankie Knuckles and Tony Humphries had their first UK radio interviews on Pearce's shows. At this time Pearce became A&R director of Urban Records signing the UK's biggest selling acid house album Urban Acid; this year Pearce played himself in an episode of the BBC drama South of the Border. In 1990 Pearce became part of the original line up of Kiss 100 FM hosting the drivetime show, he performed at live events including Brixton Academy with artists including Ten City and Soul II Soul. He co-promoted a series of raves at the London Astoria, he had a weekly rave at Jazz in Purley, South London and became resident at House of Windsor. Pearce set up an underground rave label, Reachin Records, signing artists including Urban Hype and Boneshakers. Pearce took over the Kiss 100 breakfast show from Craig Charles and co-presented The Dangerous Breakfast Show with Sarah HB, he presented live shows from New York and Chicago. The show was immortalised in a limited edition Marvel comic. Pearce became the music reviewer on ITV's Video View.
Pearce joined BBC Radio 1 in April 1995, taking over the weekday early breakfast show from Bruno Brookes. His first show was sitting in for Pete Tong on the Essential Selection, he became the stand in for Chris Evans on the Radio 1 Breakfast Show. That year he took over the weekend mid-morning slot on Radio 1 and created The Recovery Session – a breakfast show for clubbers. In February 1997 he took over the weekend breakfast show in October became the presenter of drivetime on Radio 1 taking over from Kevin Greening where he introduced a daily mix of dance music – the Mix at Six; that year Pearce devised and created Dance Anthems on Sundays at 7pm which achieved the station's third highest audience share. He presented the show for 10 years, he created and presented the Radio 1 dance parties which were broadcast on beaches across the UK to crowds of up to 25,000 people with guest DJs including Paul van Dyk, Carl Cox and Boy George. He undertook a national tour with Leeds club Up Yer Ronson and launched his own national dance anthems tour.
He achieved his first gold album in 1999 for his compilation Dave Pearce Dance Anthems, released on Universal. In 1998 Pearce started a new late drive show Monday to Thursdays 6-8pm, he became the first main Radio 1 DJ to hold a weekly residency in Ibiza at Eden nightclub which he held for 10 years working with various brands including Euphoria and Gatecrasher. In the remaining years at Radio 1 he toured extensively in Europe with residencies in Ibiza, Tenerife and Zante. Pearce hosted Radio 1's Into The Millennium show live from an outdoor stage in Glasgow and was the first voice on BBC Radio 1 in the new millennium. In 2001 he appeared in the midnight slot at the Millennium Dome in London playing to 45,000 people at Ministry of Sound's party. In 2001 Pearce wrote and presented The Dance Years, a weekly clubbing TV show on ITV, he guest hosted MTV's Dancefloor Chart. Dave became dance music correspondent to The Sun newspaper writing Dance Bizarre moved to his own weekly page in The Daily Star.
Pearce created a new record label in partnership with BMG – NuLife records which scored a string of top 40 hits including a number 1 for Rui da Silva - Touch Me, a number 2 with Victoria Beckham, Truesteppers & Dane Bowers – Out of Your Mind and a number 3 with Ian Van Dahl – Castles in the Sky. Pearce had 10 consecutive top 1
Sant Antoni de Portmany
Sant Antoni de Portmany or San Antonio is a town on the western coast of Ibiza. It is the second-largest municipality in Ibiza; the town is situated on Sant Antoni Bay on the west coast of the island, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. For two thousand years, Sant Antoni was a small fishing village that rose from the Roman natural harbor Portus Magnus, but it began to grow in the late 1950s when many hotels and tourist resorts were built as part of a mass tourism initiative which took place across Spain; as the number of tourists grew, the development of bars and other tourist infrastructure spread right around to the other side of San Antonio bay, as far as Cala de Bou which lies in the adjacent municipality of Sant Josep de sa Talaia. Since the 1980s British tourists have made up the majority of summertime visitors to San Antonio; the Egg is the best known landmark in Sant Antoni, located in the centre of the main roundabout at the entrance to the town. The Egg is a statue erected in the early 1990s to commemorate the local claim of having been the birthplace of Christopher Columbus.
The statue is in the shape of an egg. The choice of an egg comes from a story about Columbus, who when seeking funding for his Western route to the Indies, was told it was impossible, he allegedly asked if standing an egg upright was impossible, when told that it was, he cracked the base of an egg, thus making it possible for it to stand upright. He was granted funding. See Egg of Columbus. Part of Sant Antoni's harbourside promenade, Passeig de ses Fonts, is an area, developed in the early 1990s to improve the appearance of the town. There are many plants, including palm trees and rubber plants, as well as large fountains, which are illuminated by night. Across the square are a host of restaurants and cafés offering a view over Sant Antoni Bay, it is the best place from which to watch the massive fireworks display which celebrates the fiesta of Saint Bartholomew on 24 August. The'West End' is an area of San Antonio. Only a couple of streets wide. PR staff line the street trying to attract tourists into any of the many bars on the strip with special deals on alcohol.
It is the location of the Island's only strip & lap dancing club: Taboo. Bars on the street open as early as 10am for breakfasts and continue to open throughout the day for sports or afternoon entertainment until everything is open by 11pm and everything closes again at 3am; the name "The West End" refers to a night time minibus trip from hotels in Es Cana in the 1970s that would come to San Antonio's bars and the name of this tour package was "The West End Experience". Since the area has become known as "The West End". Along the coast of the natural bay of San Antonio de Portmany in the west is the Sunset Strip - a venue where visitors to the island meet at sunset at various bars including the Cafe del Mar, Café Mambo, where the likes of Swedish House Mafia, Carl Cox, David Guetta and Pete Tong DJ on a regular basis; the west-facing strip of coastline means. Mint Lounge Bar, Café Savannah, Fresh Ibiza and Café del Mar are situated here. Café Del Mar is one of the iconic Ibiza venues that has played an integral part in the evolution of the island over the last four decades.
Among the harbour of San Antonio there are various boats and ferries that have multiple connections to beaches such as Cala Bassa, Cala Compte, Pinet Playa, Es Puet, Cala Grasió, Cala Salada and Port es Torrent. These have daily departures from may until end October. Once a week there is a ferry to Formentera. Sant Antoni is home to two of the main Ibiza nightclubs, Es Paradis, established in 1975, Eden, renamed from Kaos in 1999 and renovated in 2013; the Municipality of Sant Antoni de Portmany The Town Hall website Local government website Google maps of Sant Antoni San Antonio Ibiza Travel Guide
Ibiza is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea off the eastern coast of Spain. It is 150 kilometres from the city of Valencia, it is the third largest of an autonomous community of Spain. Its largest settlements are Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària des Riu, Sant Antoni de Portmany, its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa, is 475 metres above sea level. Ibiza has become well known for its association with nightlife, electronic dance music that originated on the island, for the summer club scene, all of which attract large numbers of tourists drawn to that type of holiday. Several years before 2010, the island's government and the Spanish Tourist Office had been working to promote more family-oriented tourism, with the police closing down clubs that played music at late night hours, but by 2010 this policy was reversed. Around 2015 it was resumed. Ibiza is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ibiza and the nearby island of Formentera to its south are called the Pine Islands, or "Pityuses"; the official Catalan name is Eivissa.
Its name in Spanish is Ibiza. In British English, the name is pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish, whereas in American English the pronunciation is closer to Latin American Spanish. Phoenician colonists called the island Iboshim, it was known to Romans as Ebusus. The Greeks called the two islands of Formentera the Pityoûssai. In the 18th and 19th centuries the island was known to the British and to the Royal Navy as Ivica. In 654 BC, Phoenician settlers founded a port on Ibiza. With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage a former Phoenician colony; the island produced dye, fish sauce, wool. A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca, such as Na Guardis, "Na Galera" where numerous Balearic mercenaries hired on, no doubt as slingers, to fight for Carthage.
During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 217 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With the Carthaginian military failing on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used, 205 B. C, by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Menorca and to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions and coinage well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and a brief period of first Vandal and Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors in 902, the few remaining locals converted to Islam and Berber settlers came in. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza came in close contact with the city of Dénia—the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Valencian Community—and the two areas were administered jointly by the Taifa of Dénia during some time.
Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Menorca were invaded by the Norwegian King Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem. The king had conquered the cities of Sintra and Alcácer do Sal and given them over to Christian rulers, in an effort to weaken the Muslim grip on the Iberian peninsula. King Sigurd continued to Sicily; the island was conquered by Aragonese King James I in 1235. The local Muslim population got deported as was the case with neighboring Majorca and elsewhere, Christians arrived from Girona; the island maintained its own self-government in several forms until 1715, when King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today, the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca and Formentera. Though known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities.
A notable example includes the Renaissance walls of the old town of Ibiza City which were awarded UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1999, they are one of the few world's Renaissance walls that were not demolished, part of the medieval wall is still visible. At "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay there are some of the more traditional Ibizan cultural sites such as the remains of the first Phoenician settlement at Sa Caleta. Other sites are still under threat from the developers, such as Ses Feixes Wetlands, but this site has now been recognised as a threatened environment, it is expected that steps will be taken to preserve this wetland. Ibiza is a rock island covering an area of 572.56 square kilometres six times smaller than Majorca, but over five times larger than Mykonos or 10 times larger than Manhattan in New York City. Ibiza is the larger of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the "Pitiusas" or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera; the Balearic island chain includes over 50 islands.
The highest point of the island is Sa Talaiassa known as Sa Talaia or Sa Talaia de Sant Josep at 475 metres. Ibiza is adm
Trance is a genre of electronic music that emerged from the British new-age music scene and the early 1990s German techno and hardcore scenes. At the same time trance music was developing in Europe. Trance music is characterized by a tempo lying between 110–150 bpm, repeating melodic phrases, a musical form that distinctly builds tension and elements throughout a track culminating in 1 to 2 "peaks" or "drops". Although trance is a genre of its own, it liberally incorporates influences from other musical styles such as techno, pop, chill-out, classical music, tech house and film music. A trance is a state of hypnotism and heightened consciousness; this is portrayed in trance music by the mixing of layers with distinctly foreshadowed build-up and release. A common characteristic of trance music is a mid-song climax followed by a soft breakdown disposing of beats and percussion leaving the melody or atmospherics to stand alone for an extended period before building up again. Trance tracks are lengthy to allow for such progression and have sufficiently sparse opening and closing sections to facilitate mixing by DJs.
Trance is instrumental, although vocals can be mixed in: they are performed by mezzo-soprano to soprano female soloists without a traditional verse/chorus structure. Structured vocal form in trance music forms the basis of the vocal trance subgenre, described as "grand and operatic" and "ethereal female leads floating amongst the synths". However, male singers, such as Jonathan Mendelsohn, are featured; the "Trance" name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush that listeners claim to experience, or it may indicate an actual trance-like state the earliest forms of this music attempted to emulate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed. Another possible antecedent is Yuzo Koshiro and Motohiro Kawashima's electronic soundtracks for the Streets of Rage series of video games from 1991 to 1994, it was promoted by the well-known UK club-night "Megatripolis" whose scene catapulted it to international fame. Examples of early trance releases include but are not limited to KLF's 1988 release'What Time Is Love', German duo Jam & Spoon's 1992 12" Single remix of the 1990 song "The Age Of Love", German duo Dance 2 Trance's 1990 track "We Came in Peace".
The writer Bom Coen traces the roots of trance to Paul van Dyk's 1993 remix of Humate's "Love Stimulation". However, Van Dyk's trance origins can be traced further back to his work with Visions of Shiva, being the first tracks he released In subsequent years, one genre, vocal trance, arose as the combination of progressive elements and pop music, the development of another subgenre, epic trance, finds some of its origins in classical music, with film music being influential. Trance was arguably at its commercial peak in the second part of 1990s and early 2000s. Classic trance employs a 4/4 time signature, a tempo of 125 to 150 BPM, 32 beat phrases and is somewhat faster than house music. A kick drum is placed on every downbeat and a regular open hi-hat is placed on the upbeat or every 1/8th division of the bar. Extra percussive elements are added, major transitions, builds or climaxes are foreshadowed by lengthy "snare rolls"—a quick succession of snare drum hits that build in velocity and volume towards the end of a measure or phrase.
Rapid arpeggios and minor keys are common features of Trance, the latter being universal. Trance tracks use one central "hook", or melody, which runs through the entire song, repeating at intervals anywhere between 2 beats and 32 bars, in addition to harmonies and motifs in different timbres from the central melody. Instruments are removed every 4, 8, 16, or 32 bars. In the section before the breakdown, the lead motif is introduced in a sliced up and simplified form, to give the audience a "taste" of what they will hear after the breakdown; the final climax is "a culmination of the first part of the track mixed with the main melodic reprise". As is the case with many dance music tracks, trance tracks are built with sparser intros and outros in order to enable DJs to blend them together immediately. More recent forms of trance music incorporate other styles and elements of electronic music such as electro and progressive house into its production, it emphasizes harsher basslines and drum beats which decrease the importance of offbeats and focus on a four on the floor stylistic house drum pattern.
The bpm of more recent styles tends to be on par with house music at 120 to 135 beats per minute. However, unlike house music, recent forms of trance stay true to their melodic breakdowns and longer transitions. Trance music is broken into a number of subgenres including acid trance, classic trance, hard trance, progressive trance, uplifting trance. Uplifting trance is known as "anthem trance", "epic trance", "commercial trance", "stadium trance", or "euphoric trance", has been influenced by classical music in the 1990s and 2000s by leading artists such as Ferry Corsten, Armin Van Buuren, Tiësto, Rank 1 and at present with the development of the subgenre "orchestral uplifting trance" or "uplifting trance with symphonic orchestra" by such artists as Andy Blueman, Ciro Visone, Arctic Moon, Sergey Nevone & Simon O'Shine, among others. Related to Uplifting Trance is Euro-trance, which has become a general term for a wide variety of commercialized European dance music. Several subgenres are crossovers with other major genres of electronic music.
For instance, Tech trance is a mixture of trance and tech
University College School
University College School known as UCS Hampstead, is an independent day school in Frognal, northwest London, England. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institution's progressive and secular views; the UCS Hampstead Foundation is composed of four main entities: "The UCS Pre-Prep" or "The Phoenix" as it was known, co-educational for ages 3 to 7 on the Finchley Road site. This was acquired by UCS in 2003. "The Junior Branch", for boys aged 7 to 11 on the Holly Hill site in the heart of Hampstead. "The Senior School", for boys aged 11 to 16 and co-educational for ages 16 to 18 on the Frognal site, the largest school site. The main campus and the Great Hall are noted examples of Edwardian architecture. Inside the hall is a Walker pipe organ, used for school concerts, professional recordings and other festivities, in 2015 the school raised funding for a new Steinway piano. "The Playing Fields" are situated in Ranulf Road in West Hampstead. UCS is a member of the Eton Group of twelve independent schools, the Haileybury Group of 26 independent schools, the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference.
It is well known for its established Bursary Programme and Music Scholarships, as well as its outreach work with a number of other schools in North and West London, including Westminster Academy, the London Academy of Excellence and UCL Academy. It has strong ties with the Equatorial College School in Uganda, charitable work in Romania and India. University College School was founded in 1830 as part of University College London and moved to its current location in Hampstead in 1907. Continuing on the long tradition of dissenting academies, the University of London had been inspired by the work of Jeremy Bentham and others to provide opportunities for higher education regardless of religious beliefs. At the time, only members of the established Church could study at Cambridge and Oxford while similar religious tests were imposed at the other universities dating from the medieval and renaissance periods present in the rest of the British Isles, namely St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dublin. Furthermore, the subjects taught at these Ancient Universities during this period at Cambridge and Oxford, were narrow, with classical subjects and divinity dominating.
Several of the founders of the University of London are directly associated with the founding of the school. C. L. M. P. John Smith M. P. and Henry Waymouth. The first headmaster was The Reverend Henry Browne, who caused controversy, by publishing a prospectus for the School which appeared to include some type of communal worship; this was replaced with a new version which stated that the School would not use corporal punishment. The School opened at 16 Gower Street on 1 November 1830 under the name'The London University School'. Browne soon was replaced by John Walker. By February 1831 it had outgrown its quarters, in October 1831, the Council of UCL agreed to formally take over the school and it was brought within the walls of the College in 1832, with a joint headmastership of Professors Thomas Hewitt Key and Henry Malden; the School was original – it was never a boarding school, it was one of the first schools to teach modern languages, sciences, it was one of the first to abolish corporal punishment.
It has been noted that, in fact, UCS had a gymnasium before the school, credited with having the first gym. There were no compulsory subjects and no rigid form system. Most boys learnt Latin and French, many learnt German. Mathematics, Classical Greek and English were taught. There was no religious teaching. Under the University College London Act 1905, University College London became part of the federal University of London, the School was created as a separate corporation. UCS moved away to new purpose-built buildings in Frognal in Hampstead in 1907, which were opened by HM King Edward VII with the Archbishop of Canterbury in attendance on 27 July. Kikuchi Dairoku was invited to the first annual prize giving at Frognal where he represented those who had received their prizes at Gower Street; the new school buildings were built by the Dove Brothers. The main school block has been Grade II listed on the National Heritage List for England since May 1974. In 1974 the Sixth Form Centre, which houses the Lund Theatre, was opened by HRH The Duke of Kent.
In 1980 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II visited the school to celebrate its 150th Anniversary and to inaugurate the rebuilt hall, destroyed by fire in 1978. In 1993 a new library, music school, lecture theatre, computer laboratory, sports hall, geography block, mathematics School and further classrooms were added to the senior school site; the Junior Branch buildings were refurbished, with the addition of an Art & Technology Centre. In 2005 UCS announced a four-year £12 million development programme. In 2006 the Sir Roger Bannister Sports Centre was opened by Sir Roger
BBC Radio 1
BBC Radio 1 is a British radio station operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation which broadcasts internationally, specialising in modern popular music and current chart hits throughout the day. Radio 1 provides alternative genres after 7 pm, including electronica, hip hop and indie; the choice of music and presenting style is that of programme hosts, however those who present in the daytime have to rotate a number of songs a specific number of times per week. It was launched in 1967 to meet the demand for music generated by pirate radio stations, when the average age of the UK population was 27; the BBC claim that they target the 15–29 age group, the average age of its UK audience since 2009 is 30. BBC Radio 1 started 24-hour broadcasting on 1 May 1991. Radio 1 was established in 1967 as a successor to the BBC Light Programme, which had broadcast popular music and other entertainment since 1945. Radio 1 was conceived as a direct response to the popularity of offshore pirate radio stations such as Radio Caroline and Radio London, outlawed by Act of Parliament.
Radio 1 was launched at 6:55 am on Saturday 30 September 1967. Broadcasts were on 247 metres high wave, using a network of transmitters which had carried the Light Programme. Most were of comparatively low power, at less than 50 kilowatts, leading to patchy coverage of the country; the first disc jockey to broadcast on the new station was Tony Blackburn, whose cheery style, first heard on Radio Caroline and Radio London, won him the prime slot on what became known as the "Radio 1 Breakfast Show". The first words on Radio 1 – after a countdown by the Controller of Radios 1 and 2, Robin Scott, a jingle, recorded at PAMS in Dallas, beginning "The voice of Radio 1" – were: And, good morning everyone. Welcome to the exciting new sound of Radio 1; this was the first use of US-style jingles on BBC radio, but the style was familiar to listeners who were acquainted with Blackburn and other DJs from their days on pirate radio. The reason jingles from PAMS were used was that the Musicians' Union would not agree to a single fee for the singers and musicians if the jingles were made "in-house" by the BBC.
The first music to be heard on the station was "Theme One", specially composed for the launch by George Martin. It was followed by an extract from "Beefeaters" by Johnny Dankworth; the first complete record played on Radio 1 was "Flowers in the Rain" by The Move, the number 2 record in that week's Top 20. The second single was "Massachusetts" by The Bee Gees; the breakfast show remains the most prized slot in the Radio 1 schedule, with every change of breakfast show presenter exciting considerable media interest. The initial rota of staff included John Peel and a gaggle of others, some transferred from pirate stations, such as Keith Skues, Ed Stewart, Mike Raven, David Ryder, Jim Fisher, Jimmy Young, Dave Cash, Kenny Everett, Simon Dee, Terry Wogan, Duncan Johnson, Doug Crawford, Tommy Vance, Chris Denning, Emperor Rosko, Pete Murray, Bob Holness. Many of the most popular pirate radio voices, such as Simon Dee, had only a one-hour slot per week Initially, the station was unpopular with some of its target audience who, it is claimed, disliked the fact that much of its airtime was shared with Radio 2 and that it was less unequivocally aimed at a young audience than the offshore stations, with some DJs such as Jimmy Young being in their 40s.
The fact that it was part of an "establishment" institution such as the BBC was a turn-off for some, needle time restrictions prevented it from playing as many records as offshore stations had. It had limited finances and as in January 1975, suffered disproportionately when the BBC had to make financial cutbacks, strengthening an impression that it was regarded as a lower priority by senior BBC executives. Despite this, it gained massive audiences, becoming the most listened-to station in the world with audiences of over 10 million claimed for some of its shows. In the early-mid-1970s Radio 1 presenters were out of the British tabloids, thanks to the Publicity Department's high-profile work; the touring summer live broadcasts called the Radio 1 Roadshow – as part of the BBC'Radio Weeks' promotions that took Radio 1, 2 and 4 shows on the road – drew some of the largest crowds of the decade. The station undoubtedly played a role in maintaining the high sales of 45 rpm single records although it benefited from a lack of competition, apart from Radio Luxembourg and Manx Radio in the Isle of Man..
Alan Freeman's'Saturday Rock Show' was voted'Best Radio Show' five years running by readers of a national music publication, was axed by controller Derek Chinnery. Annie Nightingale, who joined in 1970, was Britain's first female DJ and is now the longest serving presenter, having evolved her musical tastes with the times. On Thursday 23 November 1978 the station moved to two new medium wave frequencies which allowed a major increase in transmitter powers and improved coverage of the UK. 247 metres was passed to Radio 3. The station was on medium wave only until the early 80s, when it took over the Radio 2 FM frequency for a number of hours on weekend afternoons and late weekday evenings; the BBC set up an FM channel specifically
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro