Antônio Hamilton Martins Mourão is a Brazilian politician, the 25th and current Vice President of Brazil, since 1 January 2019. Mourão is a retired Brazilian Army General, the highest rank a Brazilian soldier can reach during peace time, he is a member of the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party. Mourão was born in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, the son of General Antônio Hamilton Mourão and Wanda Coronel Martins, he retired on 28 February 2018. He is of Indigenous Brazilian descent, declares himself Indigenous Brazilian. Hamilton is a practising Roman Catholic. Mourão became a widower in December 2016, he married Paula Mourão in October 2018. Paula is a first lieutenant of the Brazilian Army, they made their relationship public in 2017. The Mourãos own residences in Rio de Janeiro. Mourão joined the Army in February 1972, in the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, in Resende, Rio de Janeiro, where he became on officer on December 12, 1975; as lieutenant, he was instructor at Military Academy and as Captain, he worked with Jair Bolsonaro in the 8th Paratrooper Field Artillery Group, placed in Rio de Janeiro.
He had classes at the Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército where he graduated as Staff Officer and attended classes of Politics and Army High Administration. He trained in Basic Parachuting, Jump Master and Free Jump. During his military career he was an instructor at AMAN, was part of a peace mission in Angola and was the Military Attache for Brazil's Embassy to Venezuela, he commanded the 27th Field Artillery Group in Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul. Mourão gained fame in 2015 during the political crisis in the second term of president Dilma Rousseff, when he was transferred from the Military Command of the South to the Secretary of Economy and Finance, in the Federal District, due to statements made in a speech about the current state of politics. In a public announcement of the Masonic Lodge Grande Oriente in September 2017, in the Federal District, Mourão stated that, "among the duties of the Brazilian Army, there was the guarantee of the operation of the institutions and of the law and order", that, if the judiciary "couldn't be able to heal the existing politics in the country, this would be imposed by the army through a military intervention", which, in his vision, "is provided by the Federal Constitution of 1988".
However, in May 2018, following the truck drivers' strike, Mourão spoke against calls for military intervention in the government, stating that "if the government lacks conditions to govern, resign. Call elections earlier, do whatever, but end its immobilism", that "the country cannot descend to chaos", he called the Unified Federation of Oil Workers' strike, "shameful", said "there are people taking advantage on both sides". Leaving the active service in 2018, Mourão considered running for president of the Military Club. On 8 May 2018, Mourão announced his membership in the Brazilian Labor Renewal Party and his intention to run for President of Brazil, along with Levy Fidelix. However, in August 2018, Mourão became Vice Presidential running mate of right-wing Presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region, it was founded on April 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's 3rd most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita. Brasília was planned and developed by Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and Joaquim Cardozo in 1956 to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location; the landscape architect was Roberto Burle Marx. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector and the Embassy Sector. Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning, it has been named "City of Design" by UNESCO in October 2017 and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. All three branches of Brazil's federal government are centered in the city: executive and judiciary.
Brasília hosts 124 foreign embassies. The city's international airport connects it to all other major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, is the third busiest airport in Brazil. Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city, it was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and hosted some of the football matches during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. Although Brasília is used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of, the area of the planned city called Plano Piloto; the rest of the Federal District is considered by IBGE to make up Brasília's metro area. From 1763 until 1960, Rio de Janeiro was Brazil's capital. At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast region near Rio de Janeiro and most of its population was concentrated near to the Atlantic Coast.
Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally neutral federal capital. An article of the country's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stated the capital should be moved from Rio de Janeiro to a place close to the country's center; the plan was conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazil for a new city called Brasília, with the idea of moving the capital westward from the populated southeastern corridor; the bill was not enacted because Pedro I dissolved the Assembly. According to legend, Italian saint Don Bosco in 1883 had a dream in which he described a futuristic city that fitted Brasília's location. In Brasília today, many references of Bosco, who founded the Salesian order, are found throughout the city and one church parish in the city bears his name. In 1955 Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president of Brazil. Upon taking office in January, 1956, in response to his campaign pledge, he initiated the planning and construction of the new capital.
In 1957 an international jury selected Lúcio Costa's plan to guide the construction of Brazil’s new capital, Brasília. Costa's plan was not as detailed as some of the plans presented by other architects and city planners, it did not include land use schedules, population charts or mechanical drawings, however, it was chosen by five out of six jurors because it had the features required to align the growth of a capital city Even though the initial plan was transformed over time, his plan oriented much of the construction and most of its features survived. Brasília's accession as the new capital and its designation for the development of an extensive interior region inspired the symbolism of the plan. Costa used a cross-axial design indicating the possession and conquest of this new place with a cross described by some as a dragonfly, an airplane or a bird. Costa's plan included the Monumental Axis and the Residential Axis; the Monumental Axis was assigned political and administrative activities and is considered the body of the city with the style and simplicity of its buildings, oversized scales, broad vistas and heights, producing the idea of Monumentality.
This axis includes the various ministries, national congress, presidential palace, supreme court building and the television and radio tower. The Residential Axis was intended to contain areas with intimate character and is considered the most important achievement of the plan; the urban design of the communal apartment blocks was based on Le Corbusier's Ville Radieuse of 1935 and the superblocks on the North American Radburn layout from 1929. Visually, the blocks were intended to appear absorbed by the landscape because they were isolated by a belt of tall trees and lower vegetation. Costa attempted to introduce a Brazil, more equitable, he designed housing for the working classes, separated from the upper and middle-class housing and was visually different, with the intention of avoiding slums (f
2016 Brazilian municipal elections
The Brazilian municipal elections of 2016 took place on 2 October 2016 and on 30 October 2016. Electors chose vice-mayors and city councillors of all 5,568 cities of the country; the partisan conventions took place between 5 August. The party political broadcast ended in 29 September; until 2012, on Mondays and Fridays there was the broadcast for candidates to city halls, 30 minutes long. The broadcasts for candidates for city councils were broadcast on Tuesdays and Saturdays 30 minutes long. At least 97 cities had only one candidate for mayor in these elections. Besides that, 48.8% of the cities of the country didn't have more than two candidates. These were the first elections in which registered parties Partido da Mulher Brasileira, Rede Sustentabilidade and Partido Novo participated; some of the most highlighted elected candidates include liberal businessman João Doria in São Paulo and licensed bishop Marcelo Crivella in Rio de Janeiro. The elections took place after the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff and during the investigations of Operation Car Wash.
However, it only affected the left-wing Workers' Party, with its reduction of elected mayors, while the centre-right Brazilian Democratic Movement Party and Progressive Party, with the most of its members investigated, had an increase of elected candidates
Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)
The Chamber of Deputies is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms; the current President of the Chamber is the deputy Rodrigo Maia, elected in July 14, 2016 to serve for the remainder of the 2015–2016 term. The legislatures are counted from the first meeting of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, on 6 May 1826, in the imperial era; the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were created by Brazil's first Constitution, the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, adopted in 1824. The numbering of the legislatures is continuous and counts all bicameral legislatures elected since the adoption of the 1824 Constitution including the imperial General Assembly and the republican National Congress; the previous constituent and legislative assembly of the Empire of Brazil, a unicameral national assembly convened in 1823 and dissolved by Emperor Pedro I before the Constitution was adopted, is not counted.
The inauguration of a new composition of Chamber of Deputies for a four-year term of office marks the start of a new Legislature. In the imperial era the national legislature was named General Assembly, it was made up of the Chamber of the Senate. Senators were elected for life and the Senate was a permanent institution, whereas the Chamber of Deputies, unless dissolved earlier, was elected every four years; when Brazil became a republic and a federal state the model of a bicameral Legislature was retained at the federal level, but the parliament was renamed National Congress. The National Congress is made up of the Chamber of the Federal Senate. Both houses can not be dissolved earlier. Under Brazil's present Constitution, adopted in 1988, senators are elected to eight-year terms and deputies are elected every four years; each Brazilian state is represented in the Senate by three senators. Elections to the Senate are held every four years, with either a third or two thirds of the seats up for election.
The number of deputies elected is proportional to the size of the population of the respective state as of 1994. However, no delegation can be made up of less than eight or more than seventy seats, thus the least populous state elects the most populous elects seventy. These restrictions favour the smaller states at the expense of the more populous states and so the size of the delegations is not proportional to population. Elections to the Chamber of Deputies are held every four years, with all seats up for election. Empire of Brazil 1st Legislature 2nd Legislature 3rd Legislature 4th Legislature 5th Legislature 6th Legislature 7th Legislature 8th Legislature 9th Legislature 10th Legislature 11th Legislature 12th Legislature 13th Legislature 14th Legislature 15th Legislature 16th Legislature 17th Legislature 18th Legislature 19th Legislature 20th Legislature, dissolved by the 15 November 1889 military coup that proclaimed Brazil a Republic 21st Legislature: had been elected to succeed the 20th legislature, but was not installed due to the proclamation of the Republic.
New elections were summoned by the provisional government of the Republic in 1890. Old Republic 21st Legislature, discharged the role of Constituent Congress; the act that summoned the elections for the Constituent Congress and that empowered it to draft a Constitution established that the Congress would be made up of two Houses, an elected Senate with equal representation for the Brazilian States, a Chamber of Deputies, each State having a number of Deputies proportional to the size of its population. During the drafting of the Constitution, the Congress was to meet in joint session; the Congress was required to adopt a Constitution that conformed to the republican form of government, that preserved the declared Federal model of the State. 22nd Legislature 23rd Legislature 24th Legislature 25th Legislature 26th Legislature 27th Legislature 28th Legislature 29th Legislature 30th Legislature 31st Legislature 32nd Legislature 33rd Legislature 34th Legislature 35th Legislature: dissolved by the provisional government after the 1930 Revolution.
Vargas Era 36th Legislature, discharged the role of Constituent Assembly 37th Legislature, dissolved by the Estado Novo coup d'état. Legislatures elected under the Republic of 46 38th Legislature, discharged the role of National Constituent Assembly. 39th Legislature 40th Legislature 41st Legislature 42nd Legislature under the Military Regime instituted by the 1964 military coup, the legislature discharged the role of Constituent Congress, under a decree of the military government, that commissioned the drafting of a new Constitution. The Constitution was voted under duress. Legislatures elected under the Military Regime 43rd Legislature 44th Legislature 45th Legislature 46th Legislature 47th Legislature; the Chamber of Deputies wa
Federal government of Brazil
The Federal Government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district. The Brazilian federal government is divided in three branches: the executive, headed by the President and the cabinet; the seat of the federal government is located in Brasília. This has led to "Brasília" being used as a metonym for the federal government of Brazil. Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on a representative democracy; the federal government has three independent branches: executive and judicial. The Federal Constitution is the supreme law of Brazil, it is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government. It provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, to all people within Brazil. Executive power is exercised by the executive, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet of Ministers.
The President is both the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the regional federal courts; the bicameral National Congress consists of: The Federal Senate, which has 81 seats — three members from each States and the Federal District, elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms. One-third are elected after a four-year period, two-thirds are elected after the next four-year period. Federal deputies are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. There are no limits on the number of terms; the seats are allotted proportionally to each state's population, but each state is eligible for a minimum of eight seats and a maximum of 70 seats. The result is a system weighted in favor of smaller states that are part of the Brazilian federation.
15 political parties are represented in Congress. Since it is common for politicians to switch parties, the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. To avoid that, the Supreme Federal Court ruled in 2007 that the term belongs to the parties, not to the representatives. Brazilian courts function under civil law adversarial system; the Judicial branch is organized in federal systems with different jurisdictions. The judges of the courts of first instance take office after public competitive examination; the second instance judges are promoted among the first instance judges. The Justices of the superior courts are appointed by the President for life and approved by the Senate. All the judges and justices must be graduated in law. Brazilian judges must retire at the age of 70; the national territory is divided into five Regions. Each region is divided in Judiciary Sections, coterminous with the territory of each state, subdivided in Judiciary Subsections, each with a territory that may not correspond to the states' comarcas.
The Judiciary subsections have federal courts of first instance and each Region has a Federal Regional Tribunal as a court of second instance. There are special federal court systems, such as Labour Court for labor or employment-related matters and disputes, Election Justice for electoral matters, Military Justice for martial criminal cases, each of them with its own courts. There are two national superior courts that grant writs of certiorari in civil and criminal cases: the Superior Justice Tribunal and the federal supreme court, called the Supreme Federal Court; the STJ grants a Special Appeal when a judgement of a court of second instance offends a federal statute disposition or when two or more second instance courts make different rulings on the same federal statute. There are parallel courts for electoral law and military law; the STF grants Extraordinary Appeals when judgments of second instance courts violate the constitution. The STF is the last instance for the writ of habeas corpus and for reviews of judgments from the STJ.
The superior courts do not analyze any factual questions in their judgments, but only the application of the law and the constitution. Facts and evidences are judged by the courts of second instance, except in specific cases such as writs of habeas corpus. Politics of Brazil Official website of the Presidency of Brazil
Visa requirements for Brazilian citizens
Visa requirements for Brazilian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Brazil. As of 26 March 2019, Brazilian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 171 countries and territories, ranking the Brazilian passport 17th in terms of travel freedom, according to the Henley Passport Index; the Mercosur member states of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, together with most other South American countries do not require a Brazilian passport. The identity card must be in good condition, must not have expired, the holder must be recognizable in the photograph. Brazilians within Mercosur have unlimited access to any of the full members and associated members with the right to residence and work, with no requirement other than nationality. Citizens of these nine countries may apply for the grant of "temporary residence" for up to two years in another country of the bloc, they may apply for "permanent residence" just before the term of their "temporary residence" expires.
Australia. Ashmore and Cartier Islands - Special authorisation required. Crimea. Visa not required. Territory accessed under Russian visa policy. China. Hainan - 30 days. Visa-free for Brazilian nationals as from May 1, 2018. China. Tibet Autonomous Region - Tibet Travel Permit required. Colombia. San Andrés and Leticia - Visitors arriving at Gustavo Rojas Pinilla International Airport and Alfredo Vásquez Cobo International Airport must buy tourist cards on arrival. Ecuador. Galápagos - Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must be obtained at the airport prior to departure. Eritrea outside Asmara - To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required. Fiji. Lau Province - Special permission required. Greece Mount Athos - Special permit required. There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed. India. Protected Area Permit required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh.
Restricted Area Permit required for parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are lifted for a year. Iraqi Kurdistan. Visa on arrival for 15 days is available at Sulaymaniyah airports. Iran. Kish Island - Visa not required. Kazakhstan. Closed cities - Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty. North Korea outside Pyongyang - Special permit required. People are not allowed to leave the capital city, tourists can only leave the capital with a governmental tourist guide. Malaysia. Sabah and Sarawak - Visa not required; these states have their own immigration authorities and passport is required to travel to them, however the same visa applies. Maldives outside Malé - Permission required. Tourists are prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives. Russia. Special authorization required for several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.
Saudi Arabia Mecca and Medina - Special access required. Non-Muslims and those following the Ahmadiyya religious movement are prohibited from entry. Sudan. Darfur - Separate travel permit is required. Sudan outside Khartoum - All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit. Tajikistan. Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province - OIVR permit required and another special permit is required for Lake Sarez. Turkmenistan. Closed cities - A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Dashoguz and Serhetabat. United States. Closed city of Mercury, United States - Special authorization is required for entry into Mercury. United States. United States Minor Outlying Islands - Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island. Venezuela. Margarita Island - Visa not required. All visitors are fingerprinted.
Vietnam. Phú Quốc - Visa not required for 30 days. Yemen outside Sana’a or Aden - Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden. UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus - Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas. Korean Demilitarized Zone - Restricted area. UNDOF Zone and Ghajar - Restricted area. Visas for Cambodia, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sri Lanka and Turkey are obtainable online. In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Anguilla, Bhutan, British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Madagascar, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Samoa
Constitution of Brazil
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil is the supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government of Brazil, it provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, to all people within Brazil. The current Brazilian Constitution is the seventh enacted since the country's independence in 1822, the sixth since the proclamation of the republic in 1889, it was promulgated on 5 October 1988, after a two-year process. The current Constitution of Brazil was drafted as a reaction to the period of military dictatorship, sought to guarantee individual rights and restrict the state's ability to limit freedom, to punish offences and to regulate individual life. Among the new constitutional guarantees are the errand of the habeas data, it anticipated the existence of a Consumers' Defence Code, of a Children's and Youth Code and of a new Civil Code.
It was the first constitution to demand severe punishment for breaches of civil liberties and rights. Brazil approved a law making the propagation of prejudice against any minority or ethnic group an unbailable crime; this law provided legal remedy against those who spread hate speech or those who do not treat all citizens equally. This second aspect helped disabled people to have a reserved percentage of jobs in the public service and large companies, Afro-Brazilians to seek reparation for racism in court. Breaking with the authoritarian logic of the previous Constitution, it made unbailable crimes those of torture and of actions directed against the democratic state and the constitutional order, thus creating constitutional devices to block coups d'état of any kind; the Constitution established many forms of direct popular participation besides regular voting, such as plebiscite and the possibility of ordinary citizens proposing new laws. Examples of these democratic mechanisms were the 1993 plebiscite concerning the form of government, where the presidential system was confirmed, the firearms and ammunition referendum, 2005.
The mention of God in the preamble of the Constitution was opposed by most leftists as incompatible with freedom of religion because it does not recognise the rights of polytheists such as some indigenous peoples or of atheists. The Supreme Federal Court has ruled that this commission of the protection of God was not unconstitutional since the preamble of the constitution is an indication of principles that serves as an introduction to the constitutional text and reflects the ideological conceptions of the legislator, falling within the scope of political ideology and not of the Law; the Constitution of Brazil is composed of nine titles, subsequently divided into chapters and articles. The articles are in turn divided into short clauses called parágrafos; the Constitution refers to the country as "the Union". The preamble to the Federal Constitution is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document; the text reads: We, the representatives of the Brazilian People, assembled in the National Constituent Assembly to institute a Democratic State for the purpose of ensuring the exercise of social and individual rights, security, well being, development and justice as supreme values of a fraternal and unprejudiced society, based on social harmony and committed, in the internal and international spheres, to the peaceful solution of disputes, under the protection of God, this Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
Title 1 is devoted to the fundamental principles of the Union. It describes the States, the municipalities and the Federal District as the indissoluble constituents of the Union, it establishes three independent, harmonic government branches: the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary, lists the nation's main goals. One of the most important excerpts from this title is in Article 1, single paragraph, stating: All power emanates from the People, who exercise it through elected representatives or directly, under this Constitution. Title 2 states the Fundamental Safeguards, it ensures basic rights to all citizens and foreigners residing in the Country, prohibits capital punishment, defines citizenship requirements, political rights, among other regulations. Title 3 regulates the state organization, it establishes Brasília as the nation's capital, describes the rights and duties of the states, the municipalities, as well rules for the public staff. Title 4 is about the branches of government.
It describes the attributes for every government branch, the rules for amendments to the Constitution as well. Title 5 regulates the defense of its democratic institutions, it rules the deployment of the armed forces, the national security baselines, declaration of state of emergency. Title 6 comprises the nation's budget, it disposes on budget distribution among the Union's components and their competencies, the nation's budget. Title 7 rules the economic activities in the country, the agricultural and urban policies, as well the state monopolies; the Constitution allows the Brazilian government to "expropriate, for the purpose of agrarian reform, rural property, not performing its social function." According to Article 186, the social function is performed when rural property meets the following requirements: rational and adequa