Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, can be in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms and the details of light and colour, but realist or naturalist works of art may, as well or instead of illusionist realism, be "realist" in their subject-matter, emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid. This is typical of the 19th-century Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution, social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism; the Realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. There have been various movements invoking realism in the other arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism, Italian neorealist cinema.
Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the visual appearance of scenes and objects i.e. it is drawn in photographic precision. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism. Realistic art was created in many periods, it is in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization, it becomes marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck and other artists in the 15th century. However such "realism" is used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had seen in real life. 19th-century Realism art movement painters such as Gustave Courbet are by no means noted for precise and careful depiction of visual appearances. It is the choice and treatment of subject matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting, rather than the careful attention to visual appearances. Other terms such as naturalism, naturalistic and "veristic" do not escape the same ambiguity, though the distinction between "realistic" and "realist" is useful, as is the term "illusionistic" for the accurate rendering of visual appearances.
The development of accurate representation of the visual appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the accurate depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance, of detailed effects of light and colour; the Art of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe achieved remarkably lifelike depictions of animals, Ancient Egyptian art developed conventions involving both stylization and idealization that allowed effective depictions to be produced widely and consistently. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy, has remained an influential model since. No original works on panels or walls by the great Greek painters survive, but from literary accounts, the surviving corpus of derivative works it is clear that illusionism was valued in painting. Pliny the Elder's famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, but indicates the aspiration of Greek painting.
As well as accuracy in shape and colour, Roman paintings show an unscientific but effective knowledge of representing distant objects smaller than closer ones, representing regular geometric forms such as the roof and walls of a room with perspective. This progress in illusionistic effects in no way meant a rejection of idealism. Roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects; the art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, a change well underway by the time Christianity began to affect the art of the elite. In the West classical standards of illusionism did not begin to be reached again until the Late medieval and Early Renaissance periods, were helped, first in the Netherlands in the early 15th century, around the 1470s in Italy, by the development of new techniques of oil painting which allowed subtle and precise effects of light to be painted using small brushes and several layers of paint and glaze.
Scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy in the early 15th century and spread across Europe, accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art. As in classical times, idealism remained the norm; the accurate depiction of landscape in painting had been developing in Early Netherlandish/Early Northern Renaissance and Italian Renaissance painting, was brought to a high level in 17th-century Dutch Golden Age painting, with subtle techniques for depicting a range of weather conditions and degrees of natural light. After being another development of Early Netherlandish painting, by 1600 European portraiture could give a good likeness in both painting and sculpture, though the subjects were idealized by smoothing features or giving them an artificial pose. Still life paintings, still life elements in other w
Battin High School
Battin High School was a public high school in Elizabeth, in Union County, New Jersey, United States, which operated as part of the Elizabeth Public Schools. The school opened in 1889 as a coeducational institution. After converting to a girls-only school in 1929, it operated on a single-sex basis for 48 years until the end of the 1976–77 school year, ending its status as one half of the state's only pair of public high schools operated separately for male and female students; the high school dates back to 1889, when it was opened at 300 South Broad Street in a mansion, donated to the city that same year by Joseph Battin, president of the Elizabethtown Water Company, namesake of the school. A building was constructed on the site in 1913. Operated on a coeducational basis, the school became female only starting in 1929, after Thomas Jefferson High School was constructed and dedicated to serve male students. In 1977, district officials stated that the inability to determine attendance zones for the two comprehensive high schools after Thomas Jefferson High School opened in 1929 combined with the expansive shop facilities in the new building, led the district to decide to split students by sex, with girls at Battin and boys at Thomas Jefferson.
On January 22, 1952, a Convair 240 operated as American Airlines Flight 6780 was flying on a route initiating in Buffalo, New York on final approach to runway 6 at Newark Airport in heavy fog conditions and crashed at 3:45 p.m. narrowly missing the high school. All 23 on board the plane and an additional 8 people on the ground, were killed in the crash and ensuing fire, though the plane never hit the school building, as some earlier reports had indicated, there were no students in the building at the time of the crash. By 1972, the school was the only public high school in New Jersey operated for women, despite coeducational programs at both Princeton University and Vassar College. By that time, a policy under which pregnant students had been required to withdraw from school had been eliminated and students were allowed to return to school after giving birth and attending a special off-site program during their pregnancy. Though 40% of graduating students went on to college and district officials insisted that the curriculum was standard across the district's separate high schools, a student criticized the difference in expectations of male and female students, noting that "Boys are expected to be engineers and attorneys.
Girls are supposed to be secretaries and mothers."The school closed at the end of the 1976–77 school year, after the Elizabeth High School complex was completed and all of the district's students and female, were accommodated at the new four-building facility, ending the city's status as "the only community in the state with separate public high schools for boys and girls". The $29.3 million project included renovations to Thomas Jefferson High School, integrated into the new complex. The Battin High School building, together with the four existing junior high schools, was repurposed as a middle school for grades six through eight. Judy Blume, author whose novels for children and young adults have exceeded sales of 80 million. James P. Mitchell, politician who served as United States Secretary of Labor from 1953 to 1961 during the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Fay Gillis Wells, aviator and broadcaster
Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret.
Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret is a 1970 book by Judy Blume categorized as a young adult novel, about a sixth-grade girl who has grown up without a religious affiliation, due to her parents' interfaith marriage; the novel explores her quest for a single religion, while confronting typical issues faced by early adolescent girls going through puberty, such as buying her first bra, having her first period, feeling attracted to certain boys. The novel has been challenged since the 1980s due to its frank discussions of sexual and religious topics. Judy Blume has said that the character of Margaret was inspired by her own experiences in sixth grade. Like Margaret, Blume did not physically mature at the same rate as her classmates, tried exercises to get her bust to grow. Like Margaret, Blume had "a personal relationship with God". However, Blume said that Margaret's family life grew from Blume's imagination, as her own family was different from the one portrayed in the book. Margaret Simon is just eleven going on twelve when her family moves from New York City to Farbrook, New Jersey.
Margaret's mother is Christian and her father is Jewish. Margaret has been raised without an affiliation to either faith, does not practice an organized religion, although she prays to God in her own words, beginning by saying, "Are you there God? It's me, Margaret." She is beginning to feel uncomfortable with her lack of a religious affiliation. For a school assignment, she chooses to study people's religious beliefs, hoping to resolve the question of her own religion in the process. Part of her study involves attending different churches, to better understand religious practice and to see if one of the churches might feel right for her. Margaret befriends Nancy, a neighbor girl her own age who seems confident and knowledgeable about many subjects, including sex. Nancy and two other girls and Janie, form a secret club where they discuss subjects like boys and periods; the girls anxiously await their first periods, prepare in advance by buying belted sanitary napkins, do exercises in hopes of increasing their bust measurements.
Gretchen and Nancy begin to menstruate, causing Margaret to worry that she herself is abnormal for not having started yet. Margaret envies her classmate Laura Danker who, unlike herself has a womanly figure and, according to Nancy, is involved with a handsome older boy. Margaret is attracted to a popular boy in her class named Philip Leroy and kisses him at a party while playing Two Minutes in the Closet. Over time, Margaret discovers that her confident friend Nancy has her own insecurities and doesn't always tell the truth, which puts Margaret in several uncomfortable situations. Margaret's exploration of religion leads to conflict with both sides of her family, she enjoys spending time with her Jewish paternal grandmother. However, when Margaret joins her at a synagogue on Rosh Hashanah in order to see what the Jewish faith entails, her grandmother begins to push Margaret to embrace Judaism, which frustrates Margaret as she feels that religion should not matter if she and her grandmother love each other.
Margaret's fundamentalist Christian maternal grandparents, who have been estranged from her mother for 14 years due to their disapproval of interfaith marriage decide to visit, but a family argument erupts over religion. In frustration, Margaret declares that she doesn't believe in God and rejects both parents' religions, she stops talking to him. At the end of her study project, she has not been able to resolve her religious situation as she had hoped, but has learned about herself and become more comfortable with her lack of affiliation, she gets her first period and and happy, resumes her previous relationship with God, saying, "I know you're there God. I know you wouldn't have missed this for anything! Thank you God. Thanks an awful lot…" Margaret Simon: The protagonist of the book, she is an only child going through puberty and beginning to notice boys, she is uncertain of which religion she prefers to follow. The book ends with Margaret getting her period. Barbara Simon: Margaret's Christian mother, a housewife and likes to paint.
Herbert Simon: Margaret's Jewish father, an insurance salesman. Sylvia Simon: Herbert's mother and Margaret's grandmother, she refers to Margaret as "my Margaret." She wants Margaret to embrace Judaism. Nancy Wheeler: Margaret's neighbor and her first new friend in Farbrook, New Jersey, she is the second of the four to get her period. Gretchen Potter: A friend of Nancy's whose father is a doctor, and, a member of the Four PTS's, she is the first of the four to get her period. Janie Loomis: Another girl in the Four PTS's with Nancy and Margaret, she is the last of the four to get her period. Evan Wheeler: Nancy's older brother. Moose Freed: Evan's friend, in whom Margaret takes a great interest. Miles J. Benedict Jr.: Margaret's sixth-grade teacher, in his first teaching job. Laura Danker: A classmate of Margaret's, tall and developed for her age. Phillip Leroy: A classmate of Margaret's whom she likes. Mary and Paul Hutchins: Barbara's fundamentalist Christian parents, who disown her for her interfaith marriage.
They want Margaret to embrace Christianity. In 2010, the book was placed on Time's list of the top 100 fiction books written in English since 1923; the magazine wrote, "Blume turned millions of pre-teens into readers
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Key West is an island and city in the Straits of Florida on the North American continent. The city lies at the southernmost end of U. S. Route 1, the longest north-south road in the United States. Key West is the southernmost city in the contiguous United States and the westernmost island connected by highway in the Florida Keys; the island is 1 mile wide, with a total land mass of 4.2 square miles. Duval Street, its main street, is 1.1 miles in length in its 14-block-long crossing from the Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida and the Atlantic Ocean. Key West is about 95 miles north of Cuba at their closest points; the city is the county seat of Monroe County. The city boundaries include the island of Key West and all or part of several nearby islands: Sigsbee Park, Fleming Key, Sunset Key, the northern part of Stock Island; the total land area of the city is 5.6 square miles. Key West is the southern terminus of U. S. Route 1, State Road A1A, the East Coast Greenway and, before 1935, the Florida East Coast Railway.
Key West is 129 miles southwest of Miami by air, about 160 miles by car, 106 miles north-northeast of Havana. Key West is a port of call for many passenger cruise ships; the Key West International Airport provides airline service. Naval Air Station Key West is an important year round training site for naval aviation due to the tropical weather, the reason Key West was chosen as the Winter White House of President Harry S. Truman; the central business district is located along Duval Street and includes much of the northwestern corner of the island. The official city motto is "One Human Family". Prior to the 19th century Key West was inhabited at various times by people who were related or subject to the Calusa and the Tequesta; the last Native American residents of Key West were Calusa refugees who were taken to Cuba when Florida was transferred from Spain to Great Britain in 1763. Cayo Hueso is the original Spanish name for the island of Key West. Spanish-speaking people today use the term when referring to Key West.
It means "bone cay", cay referring to a low island or reef. It is said that the island was littered with the remains of prior native inhabitants, who used the isle as a communal graveyard; this island was the westernmost Key with a reliable supply of water. Between 1763, when Great Britain took control of Florida from Spain, 1821, when the United States took possession of Florida from Spain, there few or no permanent inhabitants anywhere in the Florida Keys. Cubans and Bahamians visited the Keys, the Cubans to fish, while the Bahamians fished, caught turtles, cut hardwood timber, salvaged wrecks. Smugglers and privateers used the Keys for concealment. In 1766 the British governor of East Florida recommended that a post be set up on Key West to improve control of the area, but nothing came of it. During both the British and Spanish periods no nation exercised de facto control over the Keys; the Bahamians set up camps in the Keys that were occupied for months at a time, there were rumors of permanent settlements in the Keys by 1806 or 1807, but the locations are not known.
Fishermen from New England started visiting the Keys after the end of the War of 1812, may have settled on Key Vaca in 1818. In 1815, the Spanish governor of Cuba in Havana deeded the island of Key West to Juan Pablo Salas, an officer of the Royal Spanish Navy Artillery posted in Saint Augustine, Florida. After Florida was transferred to the United States in 1821, Salas was so eager to sell the island that he sold it twice – first for a sloop valued at $575 to a General John Geddes, a former governor of South Carolina, to a U. S. businessman John W. Simonton, during a meeting in a Havana café on January 19, 1822, for the equivalent of $2,000 in pesos in 1821. Geddes tried in vain to secure his rights to the property before Simonton who, with the aid of some influential friends in Washington, was able to gain clear title to the island. Simonton had wide-ranging business interests in Alabama, he bought the island because a friend, John Whitehead, had drawn his attention to the opportunities presented by the island's strategic location.
John Whitehead had been stranded in Key West after a shipwreck in 1819 and he had been impressed by the potential offered by the deep harbor of the island. The island was indeed considered the "Gibraltar of the West" because of its strategic location on the 90-mile –wide deep shipping lane, the Straits of Florida, between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. On March 25, 1822, Lt. Commander Matthew C. Perry sailed the schooner Shark to Key West and planted the U. S. flag. No protests were made over the American claim on Key West, so the Florida Keys became the property of the United States. After claiming the Florida Keys for the United States, Perry renamed Cayo Hueso to Thompson's Island for Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson, the harbor Port Rodgers in honor of War of 1812 hero and President of the Navy Supervisors Board John Rodgers. In 1823, Commodore David Porter of the United States Navy West Indies Anti-Pirate Squadron took charge of Key West, which he ruled as military dictator under martial law.
Porter was tasked by the American Navy to end acts of piracy in the Key West area including slave ships. Soon after his purchase, John Simonton subdivided the island into plots and sold three undivided quarters of each plot to: John Mountain and U. S. Consul John Warner, who resold their quarter to Pardon C. Greene, who took up residence on the is
Amy Jo Johnson
Amy Jo Johnson is an American-Canadian actress, singer-songwriter, director. Johnson began her acting career in her early twenties, in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, after she left the series, went onto star in Felicity, The Division, Flashpoint while pursuing a career as a musician and a filmmaker. Amy Jo Johnson was born on October 6, 1970 in Hyannis, the daughter of Greig Johnson, Sr. a car salesman, Christine Johnson, a clothing store manager. She has Greig Johnson, Jr. and Julie Johnson-Clary. Though born in Hyannis, Johnson grew up in Dennis and attended Dennis-Yarmouth Regional High School; as a child, she studied gymnastics. Johnson is married to Olivier Giner; the two live in Toronto and have one child together, a daughter born in 2008. She became a Canadian citizen on June 23, 2015, making her a dual-citizen of the United States and Canada. Johnson moved to New York City at 18 to pursue an acting career, she attended the American Musical and Dramatic Academy. She moved to Los Angeles to audition for her first part.
Johnson's breakthrough role came less than a month after she moved to Los Angeles, when she was selected to portray Kimberly Hart, the Pink Ranger, in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, the first installment of the Power Rangers franchise. Despite the series being a huge success and brought Johnson international recognition as an actress, the show brought her little financial security, as she and the others were paid only $600 a week for their work on the show, which included stunt work and public appearances; as a non-union show, physical danger on set presented a real threat to Johnson. Johnson made the decision to leave the show in 1995, passing the role of the Pink Ranger to Australian actress Catherine Sutherland. In an appearance on I Love the'90s, Johnson jokingly stated that having been the Pink Power Ranger was something she would "never live down." In years, Johnson stated that becoming famous from the show was at times overwhelming and had given her nightmares, but that overall, she learned many things and is grateful to the show and her fans.
In all, Johnson's character appeared in 137 episodes in the franchise, her final TV appearance being in a 2014 episode of Power Rangers Super Megaforce. She, alongside former co-star Jason David Frank, made a cameo appearance in the 2017 film Power Rangers, though not as Power Rangers. After she left the series in 1995, Johnson went on to star in Disney Channel's Susie Q and in the Saved by the Bell: The New Class episode "Backstage Pass." In 1997, she starred in NBC's adaptation of Lois Duncan's novel Killing Mr. Griffin and played a gymnast with an eating disorder in Perfect Body. Johnson participated in the film Without Limits, she reprised her role as Kimberly Hart in Turbo: A Power Rangers Movie. In 1998, Johnson was invited to play Julie Emrick in The WB series Felicity, she held a main role on Felicity for three seasons and was a special guest in its fourth and final season. In the early 2000s, Johnson had roles in Interstate 60, Pursuit of Happiness, Infested, as well as television film Hard Ground.
She had guest starring roles on Spin City and ER. In 2004, she starred as Stacy Reynolds in the fourth season of The Division. In the latter half of the decade, she had recurring roles in Wildfire and What About Brian, she starred in television films Magma: Volcanic Disaster on Syfy and Fatal Trust on Lifetime. In addition, Johnson took parts in a few independent films: Prince of Truth and Islander. Beginning in 2008, Johnson became a series regular on Flashpoint as Constable Jules Callaghan, a member of the fictional Strategic Response Unit of the Toronto Police service, she was nominated for a Gemini Award for her performance. The show aired new episodes through 2012. Since 2012, Johnson has had guest roles on a few shows including a recurring role on USA's Covert Affairs. Johnson has produced two acclaimed short films: Bent and Lines, she went on to direct the feature film The Space Between. In 2018, she began working on Tammy's Always Dying, she is a member of Film Fatales. Johnson is a singer-songwriter and has released three albums: The Trans-American Treatment and Never Broken.
She has performed in the Los Angeles area with The Amy Jo Johnson Band. In December 2007, she contributed guest vocals to Koishii & Hush's cover of The Cars track "Since You're Gone", released as a single; some of Johnson's music has been featured on television shows. Johnson's character in Felicity was described as a dancer, but with Johnson's input, the producers rewrote the character as a singer and guitarist; as a result, Johnson was able to perform her own song, "Puddle of Grace," on the show. In Flashpoint, her songs "Dancing In-Between" and "Goodbye" were featured. In 2013, she had performed the song "God" from her movie Bent. In 2014, her song "Lines" had featured in her movie Lines. In 2017, her song "Cracker Jacks" is the theme song from the movie The Space Between. Among other notable recognitions, Johnson received a nomination for Best Performance by an Actress in a Continuing Leading Dramatic Role at the 24th Annual Gemini Awards in 2009, she received two nominations as Best Actress for her role in Flashpoint at the Monte Carlo TV Festival.
The Trans-American Treatment Imperfect Never Broken "Clear Blue Day", "Puddle of Grace" from the serie
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources