Judy Garland was an American actress and dancer. During a career that spanned 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist, on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she received an Academy Juvenile Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Special Tony Award, was the first woman to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for her 1961 live recording Judy at Carnegie Hall. Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two older sisters and was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager, she appeared in more than two dozen films for MGM and is best remembered for her portrayal of Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz. Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly and collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli. Other notable film appearances during this period include roles in Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls, Easter Parade, Summer Stock. Garland was released from MGM in 1950, after 15 years with the studio, amid a series of personal struggles that prevented her from fulfilling the terms of her contract.
Although her film career became intermittent thereafter, two of Garland's most critically acclaimed performances came in her career: she received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in A Star Is Born and a nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg. She made record-breaking concert appearances, released eight studio albums, hosted her own Emmy-nominated television series, The Judy Garland Show. At age 39, Garland became the youngest and first female recipient of the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, in 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Garland struggled in her personal life from an early age; the pressures of early stardom affected her physical and mental health from the time she was a teenager.
Throughout her adulthood she was plagued by alcohol and substance use disorder as well as financial instability owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes. Her lifelong struggle with substance use disorder led to her death in London from an accidental barbiturate overdose at age 47. Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10, 1922, in Minnesota, she was the youngest child of Francis Avent "Frank" Gumm. Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a movie theater that featured vaudeville acts, she was of Irish and Scottish ancestry, named after both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church."Baby" shared her family's flair for song and dance. Her first appearance came at the age of three, when she joined her elder sisters Mary Jane "Suzy/Suzanne" Gumm and Dorothy Virginia "Jimmie" Gumm on the stage of her father's movie theater during a Christmas show and sang a chorus of "Jingle Bells"; the Gumm Sisters performed there for the next few years, accompanied by their mother on piano.
The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, following rumors that her father had homosexual inclinations. Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into motion pictures. In 1928, the Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe, they appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show. Through the Meglin Kiddies, they made their film debut in a short subject called The Big Revue, where they performed a song-and-dance number called "That's the Good Old Sunny South"; this was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year: A Holiday in Storyland and The Wedding of Jack and Jill. They next appeared together in Bubbles, their final on-screen appearance was in an MGM Technicolor short entitled La Fiesta de Santa Barbara. The trio had toured the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters" for many years when they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel in 1934.
He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience. According to theater legend, their act was once erroneously billed at a Chicago theater as "The Glum Sisters". Several stories persist regarding the origin of their use of the name Garland. One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, playing at the Oriental in Chicago. Garland's daughter Lorna Luft stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that the trio "looked prettier than a garland of flowers". A TV special was filmed in Hollywood at the Pantages Theatre premiere of A Star Is Born on September 29, 1954, in which Jessel stated: I think that I ought to tell the folks that it was I who named Judy Garland, Judy Garland. Not that it would have made any difference – you couldn't have hid that great talent if you'd called her "Tel Aviv Windsor Shell", you know, but her name when I first met her was Frances Gumm and it wa
Spitidiscus is a genus of ammonites placed in the family Holcodiscidae. List of species within Spitidiscus: Spitidiscus hugii Spitidiscus kilapiae Rawson and Aguirre-Urreta, 2012 - Argentina Spitidiscus oregonensis Imlay, 1960 - Oregon Spitidiscus riccardii Leanza, Wiedmann, 1992 - Argentina Spitidiscus rotulia - England Spitidiscus simitiensis Haas, 1960 - Colombia Spitidiscus vandeckii Member species have a rather evolute shell in which the whorl section is more or less circular, venter broadly rounded and dorsum deeply impressed. Close, fine low, single or branching ribs are interspersed by frequent straight or sinuous, moderately deep but wide constrictions; the first appearance of the species Spitidiscus hugii or Spitidiscus vandeckii are proposed to be the marker for the beginning of the Barremian. Spitidiscus has been found in the Lower Cretaceous of Europe, as well as of Morocco, Argentina and Mexico; the type species S. rotulia is from the Hauterivian of England. W. J. Arkell et al..
Paolo Gorini was an Italian scientist. Born in Pavia, Gorini moved to Lodi in 1834 as physics lecturer in the local Lyceum. There he achieved noteworthy discoveries about organic substances. After the Five Days of Milan, he had to flee to Switzerland, where he continued his studies in geology. Back in Lodi, in 1871, he published Sull'origine del vulcani and, in 1872, he became famous for the embalming of the bodies of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Rovani. In 1878, he was commissioned by the Cremation Society of Great Britain to construct the cremator at Woking Crematorium in England. A monument and a museum. Are dedicated to him in Lodi. Cesare Vignati, Sopra alcune divulgatissime mummificazioni e sul nuovo trovato del professore Paolo Gorini, Milano-Lodi, C. Wilmant, 1847. Secondo Cremonesi, Studio su Gorini, sue opere, suoi lavori, Tip. C. Dell'Avo, 1883. Piera Andreoli, Cenni biografici e attività scientifica di Paolo Gorini, Lodi, 1931. Antonio Allegri, Conservazione e dissolvimento della sostanza organica nell'opera goriniana, in "Archivio Storico Lodigiano", 2sem.
XI, 1963, pp. 77–94. Pietro M. Erba, L'opera scientifica di Paolo Gorini, in idem, pp. 95–110. Luigi Samarati, Paolo Gorini: l'uomo e i tempi, in idem, pp. 111–145. Antonio Allegri, Il Museo Paolo Gorini, Lodigraf, 1982. Angelo Stroppa, Statuto e regolamento dell'Associazione di cremazione "Paolo Gorini", La Grafica, Lodi, 1999. AA. VV. Paolo Gorini. Scienziato a Lodi nell'Ottocento, Cd-Rom, a cura di Maria Canella e Giorgia Simonetta, Provincia di Lodi, Lodi, 1999. Sergio Luzzatto, La mummia della Repubblica. Storia di Mazzini imbalsamato, Milano, 2000. Alberto Carli, Carlo Dossi e Paolo Gorini. Letteratura e scienza scapigliata, in "Rendiconti dell'Istituto Lombardo Accademia di Scienze e Lettere", 135, 2001, fasc. II, pp. 327–360. Alberto Carli, Storia di una salma. Giuseppe Rovani, Carlo Dossi e Paolo Gorini, in "Testo. Studi di teoria e storia della letteratura e della critica", 44, XXIII, 2002, pp. 75–86. Alberto Carli, Anatomie scapigliate. L'estetica della morte tra letteratura, arte e scienza, Novara, 2004.
AA. VV. Storia di uno scienziato. La collezione anatomica Paolo Gorini, a cura di Alberto Carli, Azzano San Paolo, 2005. Alberto Carli, I manoscritti di Luigi Rovida e le formule segrete di Paolo Gorini, in "Studi Tanatologici", 1, 1, 2005. Angelo Stroppa, Il mito di Paolo Gorini fra cronaca, storia e attualità, in AA. VV. Storia di uno scienziato... cit. pp. 113–133. Guido Broich, Prefazione, in AA. VV. Storia di uno scienziato... cit. pp. 7–13. Alberto Carli,Guida storica alla Collezione anatomica Paolo Gorini, Comune di Lodi, Lodi, 2009. Alberto Carli, Paolo Gorini. La fiaba del mago di Lodi, a cura di Matteo Schianchi, Novara, 2009. Alberto Carli e Angelo Stroppa, Paolo Gorini, Limina Mantis, Villasanta, 2010