Starve Island

Starve Island is an island of the U. S. state of Ohio located in Lake Erie. The 2-acre island is about a mile south of South Bass Island. In normal weather conditions it is visible for only a mile or two, as some rocks and a few shrubs poking up from the lake, is the second smallest of the Lake Erie Islands; the island can be seen from the top of Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial in Put-in-Bay. It is said. Variant names for the island include Glacial Island; the Starve Island Reef is located one mile further south of Starve Island at 41°36′46″N 82°48′56″W. Island and reef are both located in Put-in-Bay Township, Ottawa County, Ohio

Embodied energy

Embodied energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or'embodied' in the product itself. The concept can be useful in determining the effectiveness of energy-producing or energy saving devices, or the "real" replacement cost of a building, because energy-inputs entail greenhouse gas emissions, in deciding whether a product contributes to or mitigates global warming. One fundamental purpose for measuring this quantity is to compare the amount of energy produced or saved by the product in question to the amount of energy consumed in producing it. Embodied energy is an accounting method which aims to find the sum total of the energy necessary for an entire product lifecycle. Determining what constitutes this lifecycle includes assessing the relevance and extent of energy into raw material extraction, manufacture, installation, deconstruction and/or decomposition as well as human and secondary resources; the history of constructing a system of accounts which records the energy flows through an environment can be traced back to the origins of accounting itself.

As a distinct method, it is associated with the Physiocrat's "substance" theory of value, the agricultural energetics of Sergei Podolinsky, a Ukrainian physician, the ecological energetics of Vladmir Stanchinsky. The main methods of embodied energy accounting as they are used today grew out of Wassily Leontief's input-output model and are called Input-Output Embodied Energy analysis. Leontief's input-output model was in turn an adaptation of the neo-classical theory of general equilibrium with application to "the empirical study of the quantitative interdependence between interrelated economic activities". According to Tennenbaum Leontief's Input-Output method was adapted to embodied energy analysis by Hannon to describe ecosystem energy flows. Hannon's adaptation tabulated the total direct and indirect energy requirements for each output made by the system; the total amount of energies and indirect, for the entire amount of production was called the embodied energy. Embodied energy analysis is interested in what energy goes to supporting a consumer, so all energy depreciation is assigned to the final demand of consumer.

Different methodologies use different scales of data to calculate energy embodied in products and services of nature and human civilization. International consensus on the appropriateness of data scales and methodologies is pending; this difficulty can give a wide range in embodied energy values for any given material. In the absence of a comprehensive global embodied energy public dynamic database, embodied energy calculations may omit important data on, for example, the rural road/highway construction and maintenance needed to move a product, advertising, catering services, non-human services and the like; such omissions can be a source of significant methodological error in embodied energy estimations. Without an estimation and declaration of the embodied energy error, it is difficult to calibrate the sustainability index, so the value of any given material, process or service to environmental and economic processes; the SBTool, UK Code for Sustainable Homes and USA LEED are methods in which the embodied energy of a product or material is rated, along with other factors, to assess a building's environmental impact.

Embodied energy is a concept for which scientists have not yet agreed absolute universal values because there are many variables to take into account, but most agree that products can be compared to each other to see which has more and which has less embodied energy. Comparative lists contain average absolute values, explain the factors which have been taken into account when compiling the lists. Typical embodied energy units used are MJ/kg, tCO2. Converting MJ to tCO2 is not straightforward because different types of energy emit different amounts of carbon dioxide, so the actual amount of carbon dioxide emitted when a product is made will be dependent on the type of energy used in the manufacturing process. For example, the Australian Government gives a global average of 0.098 tCO2 = 1 GJ. This is the same as 1 MJ = 0.098 kgCO2 = 98 gCO2 or 1 kgCO2 = 10.204 MJ. In the 2000s drought conditions in Australia have generated interest in the application of embodied energy analysis methods to water.

This has led to use of the concept of embodied water. A range of databases exist for quantifying the embodied energy of goods and services, including materials and products; these are based on a range of different data sources, with variations in geographic and temporal relevance and system boundary completeness. One such database is the Environmental Performance in Construction Database developed at The University of Melbourne, which includes embodied energy data for over 250 construction materials; this database includes values for embodied water and greenhouse gas emissions. Selected data from the Inventory of Carbon and Energy prepared by the University of Bath Theoretically, embodied energy stands for the energy used to extract materials from mines, to manufacture vehicles, transport, transform them and to transport energy, to recycle these vehicles. Besides, the energy needed to build and maintain transport networks, whether road or rail, should be taken into account as well; the process to be implemented is so complex.

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