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Massachusetts Comprehensive Permit Act: Chapter 40B

The Comprehensive Permit Act is a Massachusetts law which allows developers of affordable housing to override certain aspects of municipal zoning bylaws and other requirements. It consists of Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 40B, Sections 20 through 23, along with associated regulations issued and administered by the Massachusetts Department of Housing and Community Development. Chapter 40B was enacted in 1969 to address the shortage of affordable housing statewide by reducing barriers created by local municipal building permit approval processes, local zoning, other restrictions, its goal is to encourage the production of affordable housing in all communities throughout the Commonwealth. For the purposes of this statute, affordable housing is defined as a unit which could be purchased or rented by a household making up to 80% of the median income of the area; such housing must be subject to affordable housing restrictions to preserve affordability in the long term. Under Chapter 40B, in any municipality where less than 10% of its housing qualifies as affordable under the law, a developer can build more densely than the municipal zoning bylaws would permit, allowing more units per acre of land when building a new development, if at least 25% of the new units have long-term affordability restrictions.

Chapter 40B continues to be controversial and it has not overcome the multiple barriers that exist to building affordable housing in the state. A study by the National Low Income Housing Coalition rated Massachusetts as being the least affordable state in which to rent an apartment in 2003. Despite the law, fewer new affordable housing units are built in Massachusetts compared to the state's needs; the state government as a policy works toward increasing the supply of inexpensive housing. The shortage contributes to sprawl as workers move further away from jobs in order obtain affordably priced houses; the high price of housing is one reason. Municipalities have attempted to gain "affordable" classification for existing inexpensive housing units which are not deed restricted to maintain the long-term future affordable status of the units; some municipalities have requested. As of April 2016, state legislators are considering making this change; the goal of the Affordable Housing Law is to make at least 10% of every Massachusetts's community's housing stock affordable for moderate income households.

As of June 30, 2011, 39 communities had met that goal. Details are available on the Department of Housing and Community Development Subsidized Housing Inventory. In addition, 101 communities have developed Affordable Housing Production Plans that have been approved by DHCD. Six of those communities have been certified as meeting the benchmarks in their plans, which entitles them to "safe-harbor" protections from Chapter 40B proposals under 760 CMR 56.03 and 56.03. Over the last decade, the Affordable Housing Law has been directly responsible for 80% of the affordable housing built in Massachusetts outside the major cities. More than 58,000 homes have been created for working families and people with disabilities all across the state because of this law. Nearly half of all of the units were created like Habitat for Humanity; the Massachusetts Office of the Inspector General, from 2005 to 2012, issued several reports criticizing lax enforcement of developers' profit limitations for 40B developments, described subterfuges used by developers to earn more profit on affordable housing than the statute and regulations permit, that the municipalities and the state have inadequate supervision and enforcement of the municipal agreements with developers and developers' reporting of sales and profits under the agreements and law.

In addition, until he left office in 2012, Massachusetts Inspector General Gregory Sullivan criticized Chapter 40B. As a result of recommendations from the Office of the Inspector General, the Department of Housing and Community Development has "taken constructive actions to address the identified weaknesses that will strengthen the overall control process exercised by both Chapter 40B rental development owners and project administrators to ensure that only income-qualified households occupy affordable apartments developed under Chapter 40B." In 2008 the Massachusetts Department of Housing and Community Development issued a comprehensive revision of regulations and guidelines for Chapter 40B. In the same year, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court issued seven decisions on substantive and procedural issues in regard to Chapter 40B law, nearly the number of decisions rendered during the previous decade, and at present, there has been opposition to Chapter 40B, with some claiming that it encourages building unaffordable homes at high densities with few affordable units.

The law is criticized that it gives real-estate developers tremendous abilities to abuse the law and overthrow any municipal rights by building minimum amounts of low-income housing while turning large profits on many high end properties. On November 2, 2010, Massachusetts voters rejected an initiative petition that would have repealed Chapter 40B; the vote was 1,254,759 against repeal to 900,405 in favor of repeal. The Campaign to Protect the Affordable Housing Law, a state ballot committee, had been formed to oppose the elimination of the law; the campaign was a coalition of more than 950 individuals and organizations, including civic, business and academic leaders as well as senior, environmental and civil rights groups. The campaign was supported by all three gubernatorial candidates, Deval Pa

Janelle Saffin

Janelle Anne Saffin is an Australian Labor Party politician. She has been the Member for Lismore in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly since 23 March 2019, she was the Member for Page in the Australian House of Representatives from 2007 to 2013, a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1995 to 2003. Saffin was born into a working-class family in Ipswich in Queensland, she left school at thirteen, worked in a range of unskilled jobs before gaining her Intermediate Certificate at TAFE. She moved to Lismore at the age of 24, began working as the co-ordinator of a women's refuge, she established a domestic violence liaison committee with the local police, the first of its kind outside Sydney. She gained a teaching qualification at the Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education, taught for a period before deciding to retrain as a lawyer and gaining a degree by correspondence from Macquarie University, she ran as the Labor candidate for the seat of Lismore at the 1991 state election, but was defeated by incumbent National Party MP Bill Rixon.

Four years she contested and won preselection for the eighth and last winnable position on the Labor ticket for the Legislative Council at the 1995 state election. Labor's victory at the election thus saw her comfortably elected, albeit on preferences, on election day. Saffin was associated with the Socialist Left faction of the party throughout her term, was involved in advocating for progressive causes both inside and outside of parliament, she took a particular interest in the fate of East Timor and Burma, was an official observer for the International Commission of Jurists at the 1999 independence referendum in East Timor. She was involved in feminist causes, was one of only two Australian representatives at the Global Forum of Women Political Leaders in Manila in 2000, she worked as an anti-nuclear campaigner, being involved in the campaigns against French nuclear testing in the Pacific and uranium mining at Jabiluka. She attempted to gain Labor preselection for a second term before the 2003 state election, but missed out on one of her faction's three winnable positions, forcing her out of politics.

Saffin had met East Timorese foreign minister José Ramos-Horta a number of times as an MP, in 2004, having left politics, she moved to East Timor to take up a position as Ramos-Horta's chief political and legal advisor. She served in the role for three years assisting in the rebuilding of the country, staying with Ramos-Horta through his election first to Prime Minister and President in 2007, she resigned in early 2007, choosing to return to Australia for "family reasons" and contest preselection for the National Party held federal seat of Page, based around her home town of Lismore. She faced a difficult preselection contest against right faction candidate and local mayor Ian Tiley, but emerged successful. Saffin faced a difficult contest in the general election against new National Party candidate Chris Gulaptis, with previous member Ian Causley having decided to retire at the election. Causley had held the seat with a 5.5% margin, which saw the possibility of victory considered unlikely.

However, as Labor continued to poll well in the seat, they began to supply more resources to the campaign, with the party's assistant secretary declaring Page to be a "target seat" in September. She campaigned on industrial relations and housing affordability, received a 2PP swing of 7.8%, beating the Nationals candidate on Greens preferences. This resulted in Page being one of the first seats nationally to be declared on election night. On 21 March 2013 she resigned as Government Whip after an attempt to replace Prime Minister Julia Gillard with the previous Prime Minister Kevin Rudd failed; the attempt foundered. Saffin had indicated support for Rudd. Saffin was defeated at the 2013 election against Nationals candidate Kevin Hogan, she defeated him at the 2010 election. However she suffered a 7.2% swing against her in 2013. At a TAFE rally on 23 September 2015, with Labor's Shadow Minister for Vocational Education, Sharon Bird, Janelle Saffin announced that she would again contest the federal seat of Page at the 2016 election.

She was subsequently defeated by Kevin Hogan. On 22 April 2018 Saffin won preselection to contest the NSW State seat of Lismore, which she won on 23 March 2019. Parliamentary Web Page Australian Labor Party: Ms Janelle Saffin - Candidate for Page Where's Martin? - East Timor with North Coast expat Janelle Saffin

Choi Young-jae

Choi Young-jae, professionally known by the mononym Youngjae, is a South Korean singer and songwriter. He is the main vocal of the Korean boy band Got7. Youngjae started dreaming of becoming a singer in his childhood, when he sang with his older brother; when the latter enlisted, Youngjae joined a practical music academy in his hometown, Mokpo, to learn more professionally. In 2011, he won the Vocal Excellence Award at Mokpo Youth Music Festival. In 2013, JYP Entertainment held a closed audition in the academy and he became a trainee. After one month of training in Seoul, he was chosen as part of JYPE new boy group. After a total of 7 months of training, he subsequently debuted as the main vocalist of the seven member boy group, Got7, with the single "Girls Girls Girls", released on 16 January 2014, from the group's first EP Got It?. In early times after the debut, Youngjae mentioned, he has been writing songs and lyrics under the name Ars since 2016, starting with "REWIND" in Got7's extended play Flight Log: Departure.

Youngjae had a collaboration with Sanjoy and Elliott Yamin in 2017 on the song "Victim of Love", while he recorded "I'm All Ears" with Park Ji-min for the Life Insurance Social Responsibility Foundation's youth suicide prevention campaign in 2018. The song was released on October 15 alongside its music video. Choi graduated from Seoul's Korean Arts High School in February 2015 and got accepted into Seokyeong University's Department of Theater and Film. Ars on JYP Publishing

Serotonergic cell groups

Serotonergic cell groups refer to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain the neurotransmitter serotonin. Since they are for the most part localized to classical brainstem nuclei the raphe nuclei, they are more referred to by the names of those nuclei than by the B1-9 nomenclature; these cells appear to have two main regions in which they develop. Nine serotonergic cell groups have been identified. Cell group B1 occupies the midline nucleus raphes pallidus and adjacent structures in the caudal medulla oblongata of the rodent and the primate. Cell group B2 occupies the midline nucleus raphes obscurus and adjacent structures in the caudal medulla oblongata of the rodent and the primate. Cell group B3 occupies the midline nucleus raphes magnus and adjacent structures in the caudal medulla oblongata of the rodent and the primate, its boundary with the serotonergic group B1 is indistinct. Cell group B4 is located in the floor of the fourth ventricle, in the vicinity of the vestibular nuclei and abducens nucleus in the rat and in the caudal interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus of the mouse.

A comprehensive study of monoaminergic cell groups in the macaque and the squirrel monkey did not identify a B4 cell group distinct from other groups in the region. Cell group B5 is located in the midline pontine raphe nucleus and adjacent areas in the rodent and the primate. Cell group B6 is located in the floor of the fourth ventricle dorsal to, between, the right and left medial longitudinal fasciculus of the pons in the primate and the rodent. and forms the caudal portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. Cell group B7 is a group of cells located in the central gray of the pons, the dorsal raphe nucleus and adjacent structures in the primate and the rodent. Cell group B8 is located in the dorsal part of the median raphe nucleus and adjacent structures of the pontine reticular formation of the rodent and the primate. Cell group B9 is a group of cells located in the pontine tegmentum, ventral to serotonergic group B8. In the nonhuman primate they are found in the ventral part of the superior central nucleus and adjacent structures.

In the rodent they have a more lateral location within the medial lemniscus of the pons and dorsal and medial to it. More information at BrainInfo

John Thomas (American general)

John Thomas was an American doctor and soldier from Massachusetts who became a major general in the Continental Army. He was a leader during the siege of Boston. Thomas commanded the withdrawal from Canada after the unsuccessful invasion by the Continental Army, he died from smallpox during the retreat. Thomas was born in Massachusetts; as a young man he studied medicine with Doctor Tufts in Medford before beginning his own practice in Kingston. He was married to Hannah Thomas with whom he had a daughter. During King George's War in 1746 he was appointed surgeon to a regiment bound for Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia. Liking military service, in 1747 he traded his post as surgeon for that of a lieutenant. In 1755 he served as surgeon in General William Shirley's regiment. By the time of the French and Indian War he had risen to colonel in provincial ranks, he served in Nova Scotia again in 1759. In 1760, General Jeffery Amherst put him at the head of a division during the attack and capture of Montreal.

After the war he returned to his practice at Kingston. He was married to Hannah Thomas with whom he had two sons. In the period leading up to open war, Thomas recruited a regiment of volunteers in Plymouth County and served as their colonel. In February 1775 the state assembly named him a brigadier general, he led his troops to the siege in Boston, in June, the Congress appointed him a brigadier in the Continental Army. General Thomas resigned, disappointed that while four major generals were named, he was not on the list. At the time the Congress was trying to name no more than one major general from each state, Artemas Ward was given preference; when George Washington and Charles Lee both implored him to remain, he returned to service. The Congress did resolve. On the night of March 4, 1776 he led his division to fortify the Dorchester Heights overlooking the south harbor at Boston using cannon that Henry Knox brought from Fort Ticonderoga. From this position he threatened the British fleet and the British were forced to withdraw, evacuating Boston on March 17.

Thomas was named a major general. After General Richard Montgomery was killed, Thomas was assigned to command in Canada and take charge of the Canadian invasion, he joined the army besieging Quebec on May 1, but found a disaster. The forces here numbered less than 1,000. Besides its walls, the city had more defenders than that. Over 300 of his men were overdue for discharge from their enlistment, smallpox was raging through the force, he sent the sick men to Three Rivers. He began a withdrawal with the rest. General Thomas died of smallpox on June 2, 1776 during the retreat up the Richelieu River near Chambly. By June 18 the Continental Army had abandoned Canada. Namesake of Thomaston, Maine Endnotes TextsDiary of John Thomas, surgeon in Winslow's expedition of 1755 against the Acadians John Thomas at Find a Grave – cenotaph at Fort Chambly Military Cemetery Gen John Thomas at Find a Grave – cenotaph at the Old Burial Ground, Plymouth County, Massachusetts