A dagger is a knife with a sharp point and two sharp edges designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon. Daggers have been used throughout human experience for close combat confrontations, many cultures have used adorned daggers in ritual and ceremonial contexts; the distinctive shape and historic usage of the dagger have made it symbolic. A dagger in the modern sense is a weapon designed for close-proximity self-defense. Double-edged knives, play different sorts of roles in different social contexts. In some cultures, they are neither a potent symbol of manhood. A wide variety of thrusting knives have been described as daggers, including knives that feature only a single cutting edge, such as the European rondel dagger or the Persian pesh-kabz, or, in some instances, no cutting edge at all, such as the stiletto of the Renaissance. However, in the last hundred years or so, in most contexts, a dagger has certain definable characteristics, including a short blade with a tapered point, a central spine or fuller, two cutting edges sharpened the full length of the blade, or nearly so.
Most daggers feature a full crossguard to keep the hand from riding forwards onto the sharpened blade edges. Daggers are weapons, so knife legislation in many places restricts their manufacture, possession, transport, or use; the earliest daggers were made of materials such as ivory or bone in Neolithic times. Copper daggers appeared first in the early Bronze Age, in the 3rd millennium BC, copper daggers of Early Minoan III were recovered at Knossos. In ancient Egypt, daggers were made of copper or bronze, while royalty had gold weapons. At least since pre-dynastic Egypt, daggers were adorned as ceremonial objects with golden hilts and even more ornate and varied construction. One early silver dagger was recovered with midrib design; the 1924 opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun revealed two daggers, one with a gold blade, one of smelted iron. It is held. Circa B. C. 1600. As late as Mene-ptah II. of the Nineteenth Dynasty, we read it in the list of his loot, after the Prosopis battle, of bronze armour and daggers.
Iron production did not begin until 1200 BC, iron ore was not found in Egypt, making the iron dagger rare, the context suggests that the iron dagger was valued on a level equal to that of its ceremonial gold counterpart. These facts, the composition of the dagger had long suggested a meteoritic origin, evidence for its meteoritic origin was not conclusive until June 2016 when researchers using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry confirmed similar proportions of metals in a meteorite discovered in the area, deposited by an ancient meteor shower. One of the earliest objects made of smelted iron is a dagger dating to before 2000 BC, found in a context that suggests it was treated as an ornamental object of great value. Found in a Hattic royal tomb dated about 2500 BC, at Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia, the dagger has a smelted iron blade and a gold handle; the artisans and blacksmiths of Iberia in what is now southern Spain and southwestern France produced various iron daggers and swords of high quality from the 5th to the 3rd century BC, in ornamentation and patterns influenced by Greek and Phoenician culture.
The exceptional purity of Iberian iron and the sophisticated method of forging, which included cold hammering, produced double-edged weapons of excellent quality. One can find technologically advanced designs such as folding knives rusted among the artifacts of many Second Iberian Iron Age cremation burials or in Roman Empire excavations all around Spain and the Mediterranean. Iberian infantrymen carried several types of iron daggers, most of them based on shortened versions of double-edged swords, but the true Iberian dagger had a triangular-shaped blade. Iberian daggers and swords were adopted by Hannibal and his Carthaginian armies; the Lusitanii, a pre-Celtic people dominating the lands west of Iberia held off the Roman Empire for many years with a variety of innovative tactics and light weapons, including iron-bladed short spears and daggers modeled after Iberian patterns. During the Roman Empire, legionaries were issued a pugio, a double-edged iron thrusting dagger with a blade of 7–12 inches.
The design and fabrication of the pugio was taken directly from short swords. Like the gladius, the pugio was most used as a thrusting; as an extreme close-quarter combat weapon, the pugio was the Roman soldier's last line of defense. When not in battle, the pugio served as a convenient utility knife; the term dagger appears only in the Late Middle Ages, reflecting the fact that while the dagger had been known in antiquity, it had disappeared during the Early Middle Ages, replaced by the hewing knife or seax. The dagger reappeared in the 12th century as the "knightly dagger", or more properly cross-hilt or quillon dagger, was developed into a common arm and tool for civilian use by the late medieval period; the earliest known depiction of a cross-hilt dagger is the so-called "Guido relief" inside the Grossmünster of Zürich. A number of depictio
Qijin District, Kaohsiung
Qijin District is a district of Kaohsiung City, covering Qijin Island. It is the second smallest district in Kaohsiung City after Yancheng District. Qijin forms the original core of the Kaohsiung, established by the fisherman Hsu Ah-hua in the mid-17th century, he realized the attractiveness of the location when he was forced to seek shelter from a typhoon in the Taiwan Strait and returned with settlers from the Hung, Cai, Li, Pan families and an idol of the Chinese sea goddess Mazu. This was housed in a thatch structure that formed the first Chi Jin Mazu Temple; the town grew up around the temple grounds. Qijin Island was once connected to the mainland at the southern tip, but in 1967, this link was severed to create a second entry point to the Port of Kaohsiung. Two islands and one reef in the South China Sea are administered by Kaohsiung City as parts of Cijin District: Pratas Islands Taiping Island Zhongzhou Reef The district consists of Qixia, Zhenxing, Fuxing, Shijian, Nanshan, Zhongzhou and Zhongxing Village.
The representative for Qijin on the city council is Lee Chiao-Ju. Most of its residents are employed by the shipping industry. There is a park on the north western shore. National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology Kaohsiung Municipal Cijin Junior High School Kaohsiung Municipal Cijin Elementary School Kaohsiung Municipal Dashan Elementary School Kaohsiung Municipal Zhongzhou Elementary School Chi Jin Mazu Temple Cihou Fort Cijin Shell Museum Cijin Wind Turbine Park Kaohsiung Lighthouse Rainbow Church War and Peace Memorial Park and Theme Hall YM Museum of Marine Exploration Kaohsiung The "Cross Harbor Tunnel" connects Cijin Island at the EBC tip to the rest of Kaohsiung on mainland Taiwan. Cijin District is accessible by two ferry piers, the Cijin Ferry Pier at the northern tip of the island and the Zhongzhou Ferry Pier at the middle of the island. Cijin District Office, Kaohsiung City
Republic of China Armed Forces
The Republic of China Armed Forces known as the Taiwanese Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Air Force and Military Police Force. It is a military establishment, which accounted for 16.8% of the central budget in the fiscal year of 2003. Since 2002, the military comes under the full civilian control of the Ministry of National Defense and oversight by the Legislative Yuan, it was the National Revolutionary Army before being renamed as the Republic of China Armed Forces in 1947 due to the implementation of the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China. It was historically known as Chinese National Armed Forces; until the 1970s, the military's primary mission was to retake mainland China from the communist People's Republic of China through the Project National Glory. The military's current foremost mission is the defense of the islands of Taiwan, Kinmen and other ROC's islands against a possible military invasion by the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China, seen as the predominant threat to the Republic of China in the ongoing dispute over the political status of Taiwan.
The Republic of China Armed Forces is the national military of the ROC. It is known as "Guojun 國軍", which means "National Army"; when the ROC was in power in mainland China, its army was the National Revolutionary Army until 1928. Other names during the period included the "Chinese Nationalist Army" or the "KMT Army"; the nationalization of the armed forces in 1947 detached the Kuomintang's direct control of the armed forces, it became a national defense force. Due to the institution of civilian control of the military and the 1947 constitution, it was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces. Two years in 1949, The ROC government was forced into exile on the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China Armed Forces continues to be called the Chinese National Armed Forces in connection with the continuing state of unresolved exile; the earliest use of the name "Republic of China Armed Forces" can be found in the first Constitution of the Republic of China in the Beiyang Government in 1923. The Republic of China's army was known as the National Revolutionary Army, founded on mainland China in 1925.
The National Revolutionary Army was the military arm of Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It become the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928. However, with the promulgation of the second Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, while the bulk of its forces formed the Republic of China Army; the army was nationalized and thus no longer belonged to the KMT. The ROC Armed Force relocated to the island of Taiwan after the end of the second phase of the Chinese Civil War in 1949; the Land force was established in 1924. It can be traced back to the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy in Canton by 1911 revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen and built as the National Revolutionary Army, the military arm of KMT. Whampoa Military Academy was relocated to Fengshan District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan after 1949.
It was re-established as the Republic of China Military Academy, modeled after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. The Navy of the Qing dynasty was first exposed to Western influence. With the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, many former Qing-naval officer agreed with the revolutionary ideal of Xinhai and joined the ROC Navy. However, with warlordism continuing to plague the territory of the Republic of China, the development of the Republican navy was somewhat slow. Furthermore, there were internal conflicts during its development. During the 2nd Sino-Japanese war, most of the ROC Navy was destroyed by the Imperial Japanese Navy. In 1946 the Republic of China Naval Academy was established in Shanghai; the ROC Marine Corps was formed from the former Navy Sentry Corps in December 1914, it used to have two divisions, 66th and 99th divisions, in size, when its doctrine focused on retaking mainland China. Since its transition to a defensive posture, the ROCMC has been downsized from about 38,000 active personnel to only 9,000.
In 2004, the ROCMC redeployed a brigade near the Taipei area to defend against a possible PLA decapitation strike. The ROC Marine Corps' official motto is "永遠忠誠", modeled after the US Marine Corps's "Semper Fidelis". In 1920 Sun Yat-sen established the Aviation Ministry in Canton, but due to the division of the Southern Warlords, it was dismantled. In 1929, Chiang Kai-shek established the Aviation Class in the ROC Military Academy, it was relocated to Hangzhou in 1931. Following the outbreak of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, the ROC Air Force was responsible for shooting down many Japanese Air force fighters. After 1949 the ROC Air Force Academy was relocated to Taiwan island; the ROC Military Police was established in 1914. It was established as a police guard. In 1932 the nationalist government established the "Command Work of Military Police" and the Service Procedure for the Military Police, which established the military police system. In 1936, the Military police Academy was founded in Nanjing.
The school relocated to Taiwan after 1949. In the 21st century as the PRC vastly increased its defense spending, Taiwan registered the lowest growth in defense spending of the major Asia-Pac
Water supply and sanitation in Taiwan
Water supply and sanitation in Taiwan is characterized by uneven distribution of precipitation and a dense population. The Central Mountain Range is the main mountain range running from north to south of the island. Most of the rivers on the island flow from east to west following the contour of the mountains. Although the annual rainfall is up to 2,510 mm, 2.5 times higher than the world's average, the distribution of the rainfall is not due to the geographical condition of Taiwan. Despite its high annual rainfall, Taiwan is only able to use 20% of it as water resource, making it in the 18th place under the United Nations global ranking in terms of being water resource poor region. In Kinmen, water supply has been scarce over the past decades due to its shallow lakes, lack of rainfall and geographical constraints which makes building reservoirs and dams unfeasible. Water from reservoirs is enough to meet the demand during dry seasons. Therefore, Kinmen overuse its groundwater for up to 8,000 tonnes per day, causing rising tidal flood and soil salinity.
In early September 2013 after Kinmen Deputy Commissioner Wu You-qin led a delegation to visit Mainland China, the Chinese Mainland government agreed to supply Kinmen with water from Jinjiang City in Fujian. An undersea 16.7 km water pipeline will be built to carry water from the Shanmei Reservoir in Jinjiang city to coastal area of Kinmen. The pipeline is expected to deliver a maximum amount of 30,000 tonnes of water each day to Kinmen. A further 300 meter of water pipe will be constructed to a water treatment plant. On 23–24 May 2015, Head of Taiwan Affairs Office Zhang Zhijun visited Kinmen to discuss the water supply plan from Fujian to Kinmen; the initial stage is to supply 15,000 m3 of fresh water a day, to be increased to 34,000 m3 a day in the medium-term and to 55,000 m3 in the long-term. The water company in Fujian will build a pumping station and pipeline to the coastal town of Bingzhou and the pipeline will be connected to a 17-km underground water pipeline to Tianpu in Kinmen which will cost NT$1.35 billion.
The annual per capita water allowance is 4,000 m3 and the current average water consumption per capita in Taiwan is 271 liter per day. In 2001, the annual water usage for Taiwan was 18,600 million tons, divided into agriculture, domestic and conservation. Taiwan Water Corporation is the state-owned water utility providing water supply to Taiwan. Taiwan Water Corporation Water pollution Water security Energy security Energy in Taiwan Transportation in Taiwan Why water supply is so troublesome in Taiwan - Taipei Times Pollution, water supply need action - Taipei Times Can Taiwan Solve its Water Problem? - Taiwan Business TOPICS
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march and independent kingdom. Its capital was Yingqiu, located within present-day Linzi in Shandong. Qi was founded shortly after the Zhou overthrow of Shang in the 11th century BC, its first marquis was minister of King Wen and a legendary figure in Chinese culture. His family ruled Qi for several centuries before it was replaced by the Tian family in 386 BC. In 221 BC, Qi was the final major state annexed by Qin during its unification of China. During the Zhou conquest of Shang, Jiang Ziya served as the chief minister to King Wu. After Wu's death, Jiang remained loyal to the Duke of Zhou during the Three Guards' failed rebellion against his regency; the Shang prince Wu Geng had joined the revolt along with the Dongyi states of Yan, Xu, Pugu. These were suppressed by 1039 BC and Jiang was given the Pugu lands in what is now western Shandong as the march of Qi. Little information survives from this period, but the Bamboo Annals suggest that the native people of Pugu continued to revolt for about another decade before being destroyed a second time c. 1026.
In the mid-9th century BC, King Yi boiled Duke Ai to death. Under the reign of King Xuan, there was a local succession struggle. During this time, many of the native Dongyi peoples were absorbed into the Qi state. In 706 BC, Qi was attacked by the Shan Rong. Qi rose to prominence under Duke Huan of Qi, he and his minister Guan Zhong strengthened the state by centralizing it. He brought others into submission. In 667 BC, Duke Huan met with the rulers of Lu, Song and Zheng and was elected leader. Subsequently, King Hui of Zhou made him the first Hegemon, he intervened in the affairs of Lu. In 664 BC, he protected Yan from the Rong. In 659 BC, he protected Xing and in 660, from the Red Di. In 656 he blocked the northward expansion of Chu. After his death, a war of succession broke out among his sons weakening Qi; the hegemony passed to Jin. In 632 BC, Qi helped Jin defeat Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. In 589 BC, Qi was defeated by Jin. In 579 BC, the four great powers of Qin, Chu and Qi met to declare a truce and limit their military strength.
In 546 BC, a similar four-power conference recognized several smaller states as satellites of Qi, Jin and Qin. Early in the period, Qi annexed a number of smaller states. Qi was one of the first states to patronize scholars. In 532 BC, the Tian clan came to dominate the state. In 485 BC, the Tian fought several rival clans. In 481 BC, the Tian chief killed a puppet duke, most of the ruler's family, a number of rival chiefs, he took control of most of the state and left the Duke with only the capital of Linzi and the area around Mount Tai. In 386 BC, the House of Tian replaced the House of Jiang as rulers of Qi. In 221 BC, Qi was the last of the warring states to be conquered by Qin, thereby putting an end to the wars and uniting China under the Qin Dynasty. Before Qin unified China, each state had its own customs and culture. According to the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu, composed in the 4th or 5th century BC and included in the Book of Documents, there were nine distinct cultural regions of China, which are described in detail in this book.
The work focuses on the travels of Yu the Great, throughout each of the regions. Other texts, predominantly military discussed these cultural variations. One of these texts was The Book of Master Wu, written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi, the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were reflective of the terrain of the environment in which they inhabited. Of Qi, he said: Although Qi's troops are numerous, their organization is unstable... The people of Qi are by nature unyielding and their country prosperous, but the ruler and officials are arrogant and care nothing for the people; the state's policies are not uniform and not enforced. Salaries and wages are unfair and unevenly distributed, causing disunity. Qi's army is arrayed with their heaviest hitters at the front while the rest follow behind, so that when their forces appear mighty, they are in reality fragile. To defeat them, we should divide our army into three columns and have two attack the left and right flanks of Qi's army.
Once their battle formations are thrown into disarray, the central column should be in position to attack and victory will follow. While visiting Qi, Confucius was impressed with perfection of performance of Shao music 韶 therein. During the Warring States period, Qi was famous for its capital's academy Jixia, renowned scholars of the era from all over China visited the academy; the state of Qi was known for having well organized cities that were nearly rectangular in shape, with roads that were neatly knit into a grid-like pattern. The palace was strategically positioned facing the south. To the left of the palace resided the ancestral temple, to its right the temple of the gods, both one hundred paces away; this ensured. In front of the palace was the court one hundred paces away and to the back of the palace was the city; this type of layout influenced the way cities were designed in subsequent generations. Smaller cities known as chengyi were abundant throughout Qi, they stretched 450 meters from south to north and 395 meters from east to west.
The perimeter was surrounded by a wall with the living headquarters situated within and a near
The Dongquan Lighthouse or Dongju Island Lighthouse is a lighthouse on Dongju Island, Juguang Township, Lienchiang County, Fujian Province, Republic of China. The lighthouse was built by the British Empire in 1872 to guide ships to Fuzhou during the Qing Dynasty when they were forced to open up along with four other treaty ports for trading, it was designated as a second-grade historic site in 1988 by the Ministry of the Interior. Until 2013, the lighthouse came under the administration of Customs Administration of the Ministry of Finance before it was changed to Maritime and Port Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications; the lighthouse is connected to the office annex building via a 30-meter long windbreak wall. The lighthouse features the Lighthouse Museum, opened in the English-style building in June 2008, it can cast a beam of light. List of lighthouses in Taiwan List of tourist attractions in Taiwan Maritime and Port Bureau MOTC
Changle is a district located in eastern Fujian province, China. Administered by Fuzhou, it occupies a land area of 648 square kilometres and a sea area of 1,327 square kilometres. Changle was established in the sixth year of Emperor Wu-De during the Tang Dynasty, it became a county-level city on February 18, 1994; the district is connected to Mawei district by the Min River. Due to an increase in businesses, the province is now one of the richest provinces in China; the city was upgraded to a district on August 2017 by a government proposal. Located 30 kilometres outside urban Fuzhou, Changle has a total population of 680,000 and is the hometown of more than 700,000 overseas Chinese; the Fuzhou Changle International Airport is a major airport located in the Zhanggang Subdistrict of Changle. This airport services the entire northern Fujian area, it has regular scheduled flights to many domestic and international destinations. Airport Express Way, Shenghai Express Way and Fujian Provincial Highways S201 and S203 Presently, there are no railways in Changle..
The closest railway stations are in Fuzhou. However, in November 2012 a plan has been approved for an 88.5-km-long railway from Fuzhou to Pingtan Island. The railway will run across Changle, will have 3 stations within the district, it is expected that the work will start by the end of 2012, would take about five and a half years. Natives of Changle receive large amount of financial support from overseas, due to there being a significant population of immigrants from Changle overseas in the US and Canada; the focal point for the US is in New York City's East Broadway of Manhattan. Fuzhounese is used in a small section of several blocks in Flushing, Queens as well as in 8th Avenue of Sunset Park, Brooklyn. A 2001 study by the Changle government found that about 400,000 people from Changle and their descendants were living abroad; the area has been nicknamed the "Hometown of Overseas Chinese" due to the large number of natives that have moved abroad. One well known Changle native is author Shie Wan Yin, whose pen name is Bing Xin Changle is the ancestral home of Zheng Zhenduo, a master of literature.
Naval explorer, Admiral Zheng He Currently, there are about 200,000 non-native migrant workers working in Changle. Many of them come from Sichuan province. One of the attractions in Changle is the natural environment. Situated on the banks of the Min River, the region is surrounded by hills. There are many trails which are destinations for locals and tourists alike. However, industrialization of the region has impacted these areas; some of the tourist attractions include Xiasha Seaside Vocational Center, Jingang Leg, Bing Xing Literacy Archives, Nanshan Park. A number of overseas remittances from the US, has been used to construct some of these areas the parks, over the last few years; because of this, many of these areas are new and attract a considerable number of visitors. Some attractions are: Zheng He Museum and Park Jin Gang Tui Park Bin Xin Museum Qinjiang Manzu Jie Xiasha Beach Resort Xianyin Palace Tianfei Palace Hexia Street Most locals are capable of speaking both Mandarin Chinese and the Fuzhou dialect, though Mandarin is spoken in more formal settings such as schools.
Everyone has a high degree of education. At home, Fuzhou dialect is the norm. Older generations have a strong accent when speaking in Mandarin due to their mother tongue being the Fuzhou dialect, which does not distinguish between z and zh, c and ch, s and sh initials or n and ng finals; the Fuzhou dialect faces a high risk of lingual extinction due to the government policy that intends to push for the common use of Mandarin Chinese. Some locals are concerned that this will lead to the gradual disappearance of their cultural identity. Though the dialect is expected to remain one of the most spoken languages in the Changle area, it is spoken by the older generation. Though the younger generations are fluent to a degree because of their environment and family, generational attrition of the language will cause a continual drop in the number of capable speakers; the areas where the local dialect is the strongest are in the surrounding towns and areas, which are less economically developed than Changle.
The younger Generation prefer pop culture, arts and other forms of entertainment from Hong Kong and the West. The older generation of Changleners enjoy a form of Chinese opera. International fast food chains have been present for along time and high end brands are trying to get in to the Fuzhounese market, with their high disposable income and expensive tastes. Due to geographic location, Changle cuisine consists of a lot of seafood, such as clams, conch, sea snails, etc. Fish balls A ball-shaped food made from minced fish meat, egg whites, sweet potato starch, it is known for its chewy umami taste. Some fish balls contain no fillings, while others contain a filling made from minced pork and scallions. Fish Noodles（鱼面) A noodle made from fish and starch. Bian Rou (扁肉）Literally means "ground meat." It is Fujian style wonton soup. It features a pork filling. Rou Yan It translates to “Meat Swallow”, as in the passerine bi