Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighbouring Argentine province is Salta to the south. There are three main areas in Jujuy; the Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region; the vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, subtropical Yungas jungle. The terrain of the province is arid and semi-desertic across the different areas, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, precipitation is scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River; the Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca and Sansana Rivers flow to the Pilcomayo River. Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco.
They had huts made of mud, erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress". Omaguacas and Ocloyas were conquered by the Incas during their expansion period. In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew. At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish. During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru; the people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano.
The Spanish surrendered, but the war had affected the economy of the area. After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, at the end of the 19th century the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the 20th century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, La Paz, Bolivia. In 1945, heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF; the Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport has operated since 1967. The Colla people are indigenous people who have been living in Jujuy for centuries, practising subsistent living and farming with llamas and goats. A group of small producers from Suqueños have been fighting in defense of Pachamama and their rights as members of Atacama people.
Thirty-three villages have united to oppose the lithium extraction as it requires much water which the region has little of. As of 2019, at a single salt lake 10 billion liters of water were being pumped up from 450 meter depth into solar ponds, they claim that lithium operations have contaminated the air with residuals of chemicals used to extract lithium like lye, hydrated sodium carbonate and others. The dust can cause blindness. Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet diversified, its 2006 economy was an estimated US$2.998 billion, or, US$4,899 per capita. Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane, its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans and tomatoes, other vegetables for local consumption.
Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale for local dairies, llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool. Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province. Argentina is the world's second largest lithium brine producer, located in Jujuy; the so-called Lithium Triangle, consisting of NW Argentina, Bolivia and NE Chile holds more than half the world's supply. An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists, tourists from other South American countries and Europeans. Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province.
The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, some destinations in Bolivia. Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted by the
Caterina Irene Elena Maria Boyle, Lady Saunders known as Katie Boyle, was a British actress, radio announcer, television personality, game-show panellist and animal rights activist. She became best known for presenting the Eurovision Song Contest on four occasions, in 1960, 1963, 1968 and 1974, she was once an agony aunt, answering problems, posted by readers of the TVTimes. She was born in a royal palace in Florence, Italy, which had once belonged to the Italian royal family, the daughter of an Italian marquis, his English wife, Dorothy Kate Ramsden, she came to the United Kingdom in 1946 and started a modelling career, which included work for such publications as Vogue. She appeared in several 1950s films, the first being Old Mother Riley, Headmistress in which she was billed as Catherine Carleton, followed by I'll Never Forget You, The Diary of Major Thompson, Not Wanted on Voyage, The Truth About Women, Intent to Kill. Boyle was an on-screen continuity announcer for the BBC in the 1950s.
A decade she became a television personality appearing on panel games and programmes such as What's My Line? and Juke Box Jury. Boyle was the presenter for the 1960, 1963, 1968 and 1974 Eurovision Song Contests, all of which were hosted in the UK, she hosted the 1974 contest wearing no underwear. She hosted the UK qualifying heat, A Song for Europe, in 1961. In the 1960s she appeared in a long-running series of television advertisements for Camay soap. Katie Boyle was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1982, when she was surprised by Eamonn Andrews while in Rome; that same year she played herself in the BBC radio play The Competition, which told the story of a fictitious international song contest being staged in Bridlington. Boyle was guest of honour at the Eurovision fan club conventions staged in 1988 and 1992, appeared at the 1998 Eurovision Song Contest held in Birmingham as a special guest of the BBC, her other work has included theatre and radio. In 2004 Boyle was a guest on a special Eurovision-themed celebrity version of The Weakest Link on BBC One, hosted by Anne Robinson.
Boyle became the first, to date the only, contestant to vote herself off the programme. In 1947, she married heir to the 8th Earl of Shannon; that year she married Greville Baylis, a racehorse owner, who died in 1976. In 1979 she married theatre impresario Sir Peter Saunders, who died in 2003. In Queen Elizabeth II: A Woman Who Is Not Amused by Nicholas Davies it is alleged that Boyle had a long-standing relationship with Prince Philip in the 1950s. Boyle told Gyles Brandreth: "It's ludicrous, pure fabrication; when it appears in print, people believe it. You can't take legal action because it fans the flames, so you just have to accept people telling complete lies about you." She was represented for most of her working life by Bunny Lewis and was a committee member of Battersea Dogs Home for more than 25 years. She died at home on Tuesday 20 March 2018, she was credited as Catherine Boyle and Catherine Boyl. She wrote three books: Dear Katie – tips from her days as agony aunt for TV Times, 1975, ISBN 978-0552990783 What This Katie Did – autobiography, 1980, ISBN 978-0297778141 Battersea Tales – stories of rescues from the Battersea Dogs Home, 1997 List of Eurovision Song Contest presenters Katie Boyle at the British Film Institute Katie Boyle on IMDb Katie Boyle's appearance on This Is Your Life
Lilith magazine is an independent, Jewish-American, feminist non-profit publication, issued quarterly since 1976. The magazine features award-winning investigative reports, first-person accounts both contemporary and historical, entertainment reviews and poetry, art and photography. Topics include everything from rabbinic sexual misconduct, to new rituals and celebrations, to deconstructing the JAP stereotype, to understanding the Jewish stake in abortion rights; the magazine was founded in 1976 by Susan Weidman Schneider in order “to foster discussion of Jewish women’s issues and put them on the agenda of the Jewish community, with a view to giving women—who are more than fifty percent of the world’s Jews—greater choice in Jewish life." Amy Stone served as the magazine's first senior editor. Aviva Cantor Zuckoff served as the acquisitions editor; those consulted as part of the creation of the magazine included Sally Priesand, the first female rabbi in the United States, Letty Cottin Pogrebin of Ms. Magazine.
During its early years, Lilith was noted for its work chronicling the fight to have women ordained as rabbis in Conservative Judaism. The publication is named after Lilith, a character said to be Adam's first wife. Though not mentioned in the Bible, Talmudic scholars wrote that Lilith was banished from Eden after refusing to be submissive to Adam. Lilith has been interpreted by modern feminists as a symbol of independence and social activism geared towards women's rights. Susan Weidman Schneider has been Lilith′s editor in chief since 1976, she is the author of the books Jewish and Female and Intermarriage: The Challenge of Living with Differences between Christians and Jews, co-author of Head and Heart, about money in the lives of women. Writers and contributors to Lilith include Cynthia Ozick, Grace Paley, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, Nessa Rapoport, Blu Greenberg, Allegra Goodman, Myla Goldberg, Rabbi Susan Schnur, Naomi Danis, Dara Horn, Jennifer Baumgartner, Marge Piercy, Sarah Blustain, Leela Corman, Liana Finck, Danya Ruttenberg, Shira Spector, Rachel Kadish, Anat Litwin, Ilana Stanger-Ross, Leslea Newman, Yona Zeldis McDonough, Alice Sparberg Alexiou, Amy Stone, Ilana Kurshan, Francine Klagsbrun, Lori Hope Lefkowitz, Tova Hartman, more.