Léon Cogniet was a French history and portrait painter. He is best remembered as a teacher, with over one hundred well-known students, he was born in Paris. His father was a wallpaper designer. In 1812, he enrolled at the École des Beaux-arts, he worked in the studios of Jean-Victor Bertin. After failing an attempt to win the Prix de Rome in 1816, he won the following year with his depiction of "Helen Rescued by Castor and Pollux" and received a stipend to study at the French Academy in Rome until 1822. Before leaving, he had his first exhibition at the Salon. In 1827, he created a series of murals on the life of Saint Stephen for the church of Saint-Nicholas-des-Champs. From 1833 to 1835, he painted a scene from Napoleon's expedition to Egypt on one of the ceilings at the Louvre. Between 1840 and 1860, he operated a popular painting workshop for women, directed by his sister Marie Amélie and one of his students, Catherine Caroline Thévenin, who became his wife. After 1843, he concentrated entirely on teaching, with an occasional portrait.
After 1855, he gave up painting. After 1831, he taught design at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, he taught at the École polytechnique from 1847 to 1861. In 1851, he was appointed a Professor at the École des Beaux-arts, a position he held until 1863, when he retired giving up his private students and becoming more reclusive, he is interred at Père-Lachaise. His sister was the painter Marie Amélie Cogniet. History paintings: La Garde nationale de Paris part pour l’armée, Septembre 1792 Tintoretto painting his dead daughter Scenes of July 1830Portraits: Maréchal Maison Louis Philippe M. de Crillon Jean-François Champollion Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Cogniet, Leon". Encyclopedia Americana; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Media related to Léon Cogniet at Wikimedia Commons
Jules Benoit-Lévy was a French painter and printmaker. Jules Benoit-Lévy is the son of Julie Strasburger. At the Paris School of Decorative Arts, he studied under Gustave Boulanger and Henri Lucien Doucet entered the Jules Joseph Lefebvre workshop at the School of Fine Arts in Paris. History and sea painter, he worked on paintings featuring cardinals in anecdotal everyday situations theme in vogue at the time. Benoit-Lévy exhibited his paintings at 23 rue Drouot in Paris. After trying himself in various genres, Jules Benoit-Levy went to the Netherlands, stayed at the island of Marken, he created fifty paintings that show specific nature of these places. More than his finished paintings, where result sometimes betrayed the effort, his precise observations are interesting: sometimes clear, beautiful brightened colours, green or orange, sometimes grey and veiled in mist. In 1902 he exhibited in Paris fifty paintings he made during a stay in the Netherlands, on the theme of everyday life and typical interiors.
Benoit-Lévy exhibited his paintings at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris and received a third medal in 1895, honorable mention in 1901, a third class medal in 1911. In 1911 and 1912, Jules Benoit-Lévy exhibited in Monte-Carlo in Palais des Beaux-Arts at the Exposition Internationale. In 1911 to 1930, he exhibited at the Salon D'Hiver in Grand Palais, he was awarded the Golden Ordre des Palmes Académiques Bénézit, p. 631. Jules Martin, Nos peintres et sculpteurs, Flammarion, 1898, volume 2, p. 25. Les Parisiens de Paris, 1901, p. 275 Album "Jules BENOIT-LÉVY", Pictify Famille Benoit-Lévy, par Muriel Lévy Le Figaro, 1904/08/12 Le Figaro, 1914/06/17, p.5 Jules BENOIT-LÉVY president des Amis de Paris. Les Amis de Paris: revue mensuelle illustrée, 1914/01 -1923/06, p. 374.
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was a French sculptor, best known for designing Liberty Enlightening the World known as the Statue of Liberty. Bartholdi was born in Colmar, France, 2 August 1834, he was born to a family of German Protestant heritage, with his family name Romanticized from Barthold. Jean Charles Bartholdi and Augusta Charlotte Bartholdi, Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was the youngest of their four children, one of only two to survive infancy, along with the oldest brother, Jean-Charles, who became a lawyer and editor. Bartholdi's father, a property owner and counselor to the prefecture, died when Bartholdi was two years old. Afterwards, Bartholdi moved with his mother and his older brother Jean-Charles to Paris, where another branch of their family resided. With the family returning to spend long periods of time in Colmar, the family maintained ownership and visited their house in Alsace, which became the Bartholdi Museum. While in Colmar, Bartholdi took drawing lessons from Martin Rossbach.
In Paris, he studied sculpture with Antoine Etex. He studied architecture under Henri Labrouste and Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. Bartholdi attended the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris, received a baccalaureat in 1852, he went on to study architecture at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts as well as painting under Ary Scheffer in his studio in the Rue Chaptal, now the Musée de la Vie Romantique. Bartholdi turned his attention to sculpture, which afterward occupied him. In 1853, Bartholdi submitted a Good Samaritan-themed sculptural group to the Paris Salon of 1853; the statue was recreated in bronze. Within two years of his Salon debut, Bartholdi was commissioned by his hometown of Colmar to sculpt a bronze memorial of Jean Rapp, a Napoleonic General. In 1855 and 1856 Bartholdi traveled in Yemen and Egypt with travel companions such as Jean-Léon Gérôme and other "orientalist" painters; the trip sparked Bartholdi's interest in colossal sculpture. In 1869, Bartholdi returned to Egypt to propose a new lighthouse to be built at the entrance of the Suez Canal, newly completed.
The lighthouse, to be called Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia and shaped as a massive draped figure holding a torch, was not commissioned. Both the khedive and Lessups declined the proposed statue from Bartholdi; the Port Said Lighthouse was built instead, by François Coignet in 1869. Bartholdi served in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 as a squadron leader of the National Guard, as a liaison officer to Italian General Giuseppe Garibaldi, representing the French government and the Army of the Vosges; as an officer, he took part in the defense of Colmar from Germany. Distraught over his region's defeat, over the following years he constructed a number of monuments celebrating French heroism in the defense against Germany. Among these projects was the Lion of Belfort, which he started working on in 1871, not finishing the massive sandstone statue until 1880. In 1871, he made his first trip to the United States, where he pitched the idea of a massive statue gifted from the French to the Americans in honor of the centennial of American independence.
The idea, which had first been broached to him in 1865 by his friend Édouard René de Laboulaye, resulted in the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. After years of work and fundraising, the statue was inaugurated in 1886. During this period, Bartholdi sculpted a number of monuments for American cities, such as a cast-iron fountain in Washington, DC completed in 1878. In 1875, he joined the Freemasons Lodge Alsace-Lorraine in Paris. In 1876, Bartholdi was one of the French commissioners in 1876 to the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. There he exhibited bronze statues of The Young Vine-Grower, Génie Funèbre and Genius in the Grasp of Misery, receiving a bronze medal for the latter, his 1878 statue Gribeauval became the property of the French state. A prolific creator of statues and portraits, Bartholdi exhibited at the Paris Salons until the year of his death in 1904, he remained active with diverse mediums, including oil painting, watercolor and drawing. Bartholdi, who received the rank of Commander of the Legion of Honor in 1886, died of tuberculosis in Paris on 4 October 1904, aged 70.
In 1876, he married Jeanne-Emile Baheux in Rhode Island. Throughout his life Bartholdi maintained his childhood family home in Colmar and after his death in 1904, in 1922 it was made into the Bartholdi Museum; the work for which Bartholdi is most famous is Liberty Enlightening the World, better known as the Statue of Liberty. Soon after the establishment of the French Third Republic, the project of building some suitable memorial to show the fraternal feeling existing between the republics of the United States and France was suggested, in 1874 the Union Franco-Americaine was established by Edouard de Laboulaye. Bartholdi's hometown in Alsace had just passed into German control in the Franco-Prussian War; these troubles in his ancestral home of Alsace are purported to have further influenced Bartholdi's own great interest in independence and self-determination. Bartholdi subsequently joined this group, among whose members were Laboulaye, Paul de Rémusat, William Waddington, Henri Martin, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, Oscar Gilbert Lafayette, François Charles Lorraine, Louis François Lorraine.
Bartholdi broached the idea of a massive statue. Bartholdi's design approved on, the Union Franco-Americaine raised more than 1 million francs throughout France for the building of the statue. In 1879, Bartholdi w
National Gallery of Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and most visited art museum; the NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection across two sites: NGV International, located on St Kilda Road in the Melbourne Arts Precinct of Southbank, the Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia, located nearby at Federation Square. The NGV International building, designed by Sir Roy Grounds, opened in 1968, was redeveloped by Mario Bellini before reopening in 2003, it is on the Victorian Heritage Register. Designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the Ian Potter Centre opened in 2002 and houses the gallery's Australian art collection. Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales in 1850, becoming effective on 1 July 1851. In the wake of the Victorian gold rush that began in August 1851, the new colony became Australia's richest, Melbourne, its capital, the largest and wealthiest city in Australia. With Melbourne's rapid growth came calls for the establishment of a public art gallery, in 1859, the Government of Victoria pledged £2000 for the acquisition of plaster casts of sculpture.
These works were displayed in the Museum of Art, opened by Governor Sir Henry Barkly in May 1861 on the lower floor of the south wing of the Public Library on Swanston Street. Further money was set aside in the early 1860s for the purchase of original paintings by British and Victorian artists; these works were first displayed in December 1864 in the newly opened Picture Gallery, which remained under the curatorial administration of the Public Library until 1882. Grand designs for a building fronting Lonsdale and Swanston streets were drawn by Nicholas Chevalier in 1860 and Frederick Grosse in 1865, featuring an enormous and elaborate library and gallery, but the visions were never realised. On 24 May 1874, the first purpose built gallery, known as the McArthur Gallery, opened in the McArthur room of the State Library, the following year, the Museum of Art was renamed the National Gallery of Victoria; the McArthur Gallery was only intended as a temporary home until the much grander vision was to be realised.
However such an edifice did not eventuate and the complex was instead developed incrementally over several decades. The National Gallery of Victoria Art School, associated with the gallery, was founded in 1867 and remained the leading centre for academic art training in Australia until about 1910; the School's graduates went on to become some of Australia's most significant artists. In 1887, the Buvelot Gallery was opened, along with the Painting School studios. In 1892, two more galleries were added: Stawell and La Trobe; the gallery's collection was built from both gifts of works of art and monetary donations. The most significant, the Felton Bequest, was established by the will of Alfred Felton and from 1904, has been used to purchase over 15,000 works of art. Since the Felton Bequest, the gallery had long held plans to build a permanent facility, however it was not until 1943 that the State Government chose a site, Wirth's Park, just south of the Yarra River. £3 million was put forward in February 1960 and Roy Grounds was announced as the architect.
In 1959, the commission to design a new gallery was awarded to the architectural firm Grounds Romberg Boyd. In 1962, Roy Grounds split from his partners Frederick Romberg and Robin Boyd, retained the commission, designed the gallery at 180 St Kilda Road; the new bluestone clad building was completed in December 1967 and Victorian premier Henry Bolte opened it on 20 August 1968. One of the features of the building is the Leonard French stained glass ceiling, one of the world's largest pieces of suspended stained glass, which casts colourful light on the floor below; the water-wall entrance is another well-known feature of the building. In 1999, redevelopment of the building was proposed, with Mario Bellini chosen as architect and an estimated project cost of $161.9 million. The proposal was to leave the original architectural fabric intact including the exterior facade and Leonard French stained glass ceiling, but to modernise the interior. During the redevelopment, many works were moved to a temporary external annex known as NGV on Russell, at the State Library with its entrance on Russell Street.
A major fundraising drive was launched on 10 October 2000 to redevelop the ageing facility and although the state government committed the majority of the funds, private donations were sought in addition to federal funding. The drive achieved its aim and secured $15 million from the Ian Potter Foundation on 11 July 2000, $3 million from Lotti Smorgon, $2 million from the Clemenger Foundation, $1 million each from James Fairfax and the Pratt Foundation. NGV on Russell closed on 30 June 2002 to make way for the staged opening of the new St Kilda Road gallery, it was opened by premier Steve Bracks on 4 December 2003. The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia in Federation Square was designed by Lab Architecture Studio to house the NGV's Australian art collection, it opened in 2002. As such, the NGV's collection is now housed in two separate buildings, with Grounds' building renamed NGV International; the NGV's Asian art collection began in 1862, one year after the gallery's founding, when Frederick Dalgety donated two Chinese plates.
The Asian collection has since grown to include significant works from across the continent. The NGV's Australian art collection encompasses Indigenous art and artefacts, Australian colonial art, Australian Impressionist art, 20th century and contemporary art; the 1880s saw the birth and development of
Georges Antoine Rochegrosse was a French historical and decorative painter. He was born at Versailles and studied in Paris with Jules Joseph Lefebvre and Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger, his themes are historical, he treated them on a colossal scale and in an emotional naturalistic style, with a distinct revelling in horrible subjects and details. He made his Paris Salon début in 1882 with Vitellis traîné dans les rues de Rome par la populace, he followed this the year afterwards with Andromaque, which won that year's prestigious Prix du Salon. There followed La Jacquerie, Le mort de Babylone, The death of the Emperor Geta, Barbarian ambassadors at the Court of Justinian, all of which exemplify his strong and spirited but sensational and brutal painting. In quite another style and beautiful in color is his Le Chevalier aux Fleurs, he was elected an Officer of the Legion of Honor in 1892 and received the medal of honor in 1906 for The Red Delight. Rochegrosse illustrated several books; some of the drawings for these illustrations are in the Department of Prints and Drawings at the British Museum, London.
He lived his final years in Algeria, but returned to Paris where he died and is buried in Montparnasse Cemetery. His wife, Marie Rochegrosse, had died in 1920; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Media related to Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse at Wikimedia Commons
American Impressionism was a style of painting related to European Impressionism and practiced by American artists in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. American Impressionism is a style of painting characterized by vivid colors; the style depicted landscapes mixed with scenes of upper-class domestic life. Impressionism emerged as an artistic style in France in the 1860s. Major exhibitions of French impressionist works in Boston and New York in the 1880s introduced the style to the American public; some of the first American artists to paint in an impressionistic mode, such as Theodore Robinson and Mary Cassatt, did so in the late 1880s after visiting France and meeting with artists such as Claude Monet. Others, such as Childe Hassam, took notice of the increasing numbers of French impressionist works at American exhibitions; as railroads and other new technology emerged, American impressionists painted vast landscapes and small towns in an effort to return to nature.
Before the invention of collapsible paint tubes artists were confined to using subjects in their studios or painting from memory. With the invention of paint tubes in 1841, artists could transport their paint and paint in nature. From the 1890s through the 1910s, American impressionism flourished in art colonies—loosely affiliated groups of artists who lived and worked together and shared a common aesthetic vision. Art colonies tended to form in small towns that provided affordable living, abundant scenery for painting, easy access to large cities where artists could sell their work; some of the most important American impressionist artists gathered at Cos Cob and Old Lyme, both on Long Island Sound. American impressionist artists thrived in California at Carmel and Laguna Beach; some American art colonies remained vibrant centers of impressionist art into the 1920s. However, impressionism in America lost its cutting-edge status in 1913 when a historic exhibition of modern art took place at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City.
The “Armory Show”, as it came to be called, heralded a new painting style regarded as more in touch with the fast-paced and chaotic world with the outbreak of World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Unlike early Renaissance painters, American Impressionists favored asymmetrical composition, cropped figures, plunging perspectives in their works in order to create a more "impressionist" version of the subject. In addition, American impressionists used pure color straight from the tubes to make the works more vibrant, used broken brushstrokes, practiced "impasto"- a style of painting characterized by thick raised strokes. European impressionists painted the lower and middle classes. American impressionists focused on landscapes like the European impressionists, but unlike their European counterparts, American impressionists painted scenes that depicted the upper class in an effort to show off America's economic prowess. Prominent impressionist painters, from the United States include: Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Hoosier Group Richmond Group Ten American Painters Gerdts, William H..
American Impressionism. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers. ISBN 0-7892-0737-0. Moure, Nancy. California Art: 450 Years of Painting and Other Media. Los Angeles: Dustin Publications. ISBN 0-9614622-4-8. Gerdts, William H.. California Impressionism. New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0176-3. Landauer, Susan. California Impressionists. Athens, Ga.: The Irvine Museum and Georgia Museum of Art. ISBN 0-915977-25-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Larkin, Susan G.. The Cos Cob Art Colony. New York: the National Academy of Design. ISBN 0-300-08852-3. Weinberg, Barbara H.. Childe Hassam: American Impressionist. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 1-58839-119-1. Westphal, Ruth Lilly. Plein Air Painters of California: The North. Irvine, Calif.: Westphal Publishing. ISBN 0-9610520-1-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Westphal, Ruth Lilly. Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland. Irvine, Calif.: Westphal Publishing. ISBN 0-9610520-0-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Peterson, Brian H.. Pennsylvania Impressionism.
Philadelphia: James A. Michener Art Museum and University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3700-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list American Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, a digitized 3 volume exhibition catalog American impressionism and realism: a landmark exhibition from the Met, a 1991 exhibition catalog from the Metropolitan Museum of Art libraries smARThistory: Cassatt's The Cup of Tea Weir Farm:Home of an American Impressionist, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Impressionism at the Smithsonian American Art Museum "The Artist's Garden: American Impressionism," Exhibition on Screen "American Impressionism," Florence Griswold Museum "American Impressionism of the Late 1800s and early 1900s," National Gallery of Art "American Impressionism," The Met Museum "Finding Beauty in Land," The New York Times
Napoléon, Prince Imperial
Napoléon, Prince Imperial known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III and his Empress consort, Eugénie de Montijo. After his father was dethroned in 1870, he relocated with his family to England. On his father's death in January 1873, he was proclaimed by the Bonapartist faction as Napoleon IV, Emperor of the French. In England, he trained as a soldier. Keen to see action, he put pressure on the British to allow him to participate in the Anglo-Zulu War. In 1879, serving with British forces, he was killed in a skirmish with a group of Zulus, his early death sent shockwaves throughout Europe, as he was the last serious dynastic hope for the restoration of the House of Bonaparte to the throne of France. Born in Paris, he was baptised on 14 June 1856, at Notre Dame Cathedral, his godfather was Pope Pius IX. His godmother was Eugène de Beauharnais's daughter, the Queen of Sweden, represented by Grand Duchess Stéphanie of Baden, his education, after a false start under the academic historian Francis Monnier, from 1867, supervised by General Frossard as governor, assisted by Augustin Filon, as tutor.
His English nurse, Miss Shaw, was recommended by Queen Victoria and taught the prince English from an early age. His valet, Xavier Uhlmann, his inseparable friend Louis Conneau figured in his life; the young prince was known by the nickname "Loulou" in his family circle. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, he accompanied his father to the front and first came under fire at Saarbrücken; when the war began to go against the Imperial arms, his father sent him to the border with Belgium. In September, he sent him a message to cross over into Belgium, he travelled from there to England, arriving on 6 September, where he was joined by his parents, the Second Empire having been abolished. The family settled in England at Camden Place in Kent. On his father's death, Bonapartists proclaimed him Napoleon IV. On his 18th birthday, a large crowd gathered to cheer him at Camden Place; the Prince Imperial attended elementary lectures in physics at King's College London. In 1872, he was accepted to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.
He finished seventh in his class of thirty four, came top in riding and fencing. He served for a time with the Royal Artillery at Aldershot. During the 1870s, there was some talk of a marriage between him and Queen Victoria's youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice. Victoria reportedly believed that it would be best for "the peace of Europe" if the prince became Emperor of France; the Prince remained a devout Catholic, he retained hopes that the Bonapartist cause might triumph if the secularising Third Republic failed. He supported the tactics of Eugène Rouher over those of Victor, Prince Napoléon, breaking with Victor in 1876. With the outbreak of the Zulu War in 1879, the Prince Imperial, with the rank of lieutenant, forced the hand of the British military to allow him to take part in the conflict, despite the objections of Rouher and other Bonapartists, he was only allowed to go to Africa by special pleading of his mother, the Empress Eugénie, by intervention of Queen Victoria herself. He went as an observer, attached to the staff of Frederic Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford, the commander in South Africa, admonished to take care of him.
Louis accompanied Chelmsford on his march into Zululand. Keen to see action, full of enthusiasm, he was warned by Lieutenant Arthur Brigge, a close friend, "not to do anything rash and to avoid running unnecessary risks. I reminded him of the Empress at home and his party in France."Chelmsford, mindful of his duty, attached the Prince to the staff of Colonel Richard Harrison of the Royal Engineers, where it was felt he could be active but safe. Harrison was responsible for the column's transport and for reconnaissance of the forward route on the way to Ulundi, the Zulu capital. While he welcomed the presence of Louis, he was told by Chelmsford that the Prince must be accompanied at all times by a strong escort. Lieutenant Jahleel Brenton Carey, a French speaker and British subject from Guernsey, was given particular charge of Louis; the Prince took part in several reconnaissance missions, though his eagerness for action led him into an early ambush, when he exceeded orders in a party led by Colonel Redvers Buller.
Despite this, on the evening of 31 May 1879, Harrison agreed to allow Louis to scout in a forward party scheduled to leave in the morning, in the mistaken belief that the path ahead was free of Zulu skirmishers. On the morning of 1 June, the troop set out, earlier than intended, without the full escort owing to Louis's impatience. Led by Carey, the scouts rode deeper into Zululand. Without Harrison or Buller present to restrain him, the Prince took command from Carey though the latter had seniority. At noon, the troop was halted at a temporarily deserted kraal while Louis and Carey made some sketches of the terrain, used part of the thatch to make a fire. No lookout was posted; as they were preparing to leave, about 40 Zulus rushed toward them screaming. The Prince's horse dashed off before he could mount, the Prince clinging to a holster on the saddle—after about a hundred yards a strap broke, the Prince fell beneath his horse and his right arm was trampled, he leapt up, drawing his revolver with his left hand, started to run—but the Zulus could run faster.
The Prince pulled the assegai from his wound. As he turned and fired on his pursuers, another assegai, thrown by a Zulu named Zabanga, struck his