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Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne was a French novelist and playwright. Verne's collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the Voyages extraordinaires, a popular series of scrupulously researched adventure novels including Journey to the Center of the Earth, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Around the World in Eighty Days. Verne is considered a major literary author in France and most of Europe, where he has had a wide influence on the literary avant-garde and on surrealism, his reputation was markedly different in Anglophone regions where he had been labeled a writer of genre fiction or children's books because of the abridged and altered translations in which his novels have been printed. Verne has been the second most-translated author in the world since 1979, ranking between Agatha Christie and William Shakespeare, he has sometimes been called the "Father of Science Fiction", a title, given to H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback. Verne was born on 8 February 1828, on Île Feydeau, a small artificial island on the Loire River within the town of Nantes, in No. 4 Rue Olivier-de-Clisson, the house of his maternal grandmother Dame Sophie Allotte de la Fuÿe.

His parents were Pierre Verne, an attorney from Provins, Sophie Allote de la Fuÿe, a Nantes woman from a local family of navigators and shipowners, of distant Scottish descent. In 1829, the Verne family moved some hundred meters away to No. 2 Quai Jean-Bart, where Verne's brother Paul was born the same year. Three sisters, Anna and Marie would follow. In 1834, at the age of six, Verne was sent to boarding school at 5 Place du Bouffay in Nantes; the teacher, Mme Sambin, was the widow of a naval captain. Mme Sambin told the students that her husband was a shipwrecked castaway and that he would return like Robinson Crusoe from his desert island paradise; the theme of the Robinsonade would stay with Verne throughout his life and appear in many of his novels, including The Mysterious Island, Second Fatherland, The School for Robinsons. In 1836, Verne went on to École Saint‑Stanislas, a Catholic school suiting the pious religious tastes of his father. Verne distinguished himself in mémoire, Greek and singing.

In the same year, 1836, Pierre Verne bought a vacation house at 29 Rue des Réformés in the village of Chantenay on the Loire River. In his brief memoir "Souvenirs d'enfance et de jeunesse", Verne recalled a deep fascination with the river and with the many merchant vessels navigating it, he took vacations at Brains, in the house of his uncle Prudent Allotte, a retired shipowner, who had gone around the world and served as mayor of Brains from 1828 to 1837. Verne took joy in playing interminable rounds of the Game of the Goose with his uncle, both the game and his uncle's name would be memorialized in two late novels. Legend has it that in 1839, at the age of 11, Verne secretly procured a spot as cabin boy on the three-mast ship Coralie with the intention of traveling to the Indies and bringing back a coral necklace for his cousin Caroline; the evening the ship set out for the Indies, it stopped first at Paimboeuf where Pierre Verne arrived just in time to catch his son and make him promise to travel "only in his imagination".

It is now known that the legend is an exaggerated tale invented by Verne's first biographer, his niece Marguerite Allotte de la Füye, though it may have been inspired by a real incident. In 1840, the Vernes moved again to a large apartment at No. 6 Rue Jean-Jacques-Rousseau, where the family's youngest child, was born in 1842. In the same year Verne entered another religious school, the Petit Séminaire de Saint-Donatien, as a lay student, his unfinished novel Un prêtre en 1839, written in his teens and the earliest of his prose works to survive, describes the seminary in disparaging terms. From 1844 to 1846, Verne and his brother were enrolled in the Lycée Royal in Nantes. After finishing classes in rhetoric and philosophy, he took the baccalauréat at Rennes and received the grade "Fairly good" on 29 July 1846. By 1847, when Verne was 19, he had taken to writing long works in the style of Victor Hugo, beginning Un prêtre en 1839 and seeing two verse tragedies, Alexandre VI and La Conspiration des poudres, to completion.

However, his father took it for granted that Verne, being the firstborn son of the family, would not attempt to make money in literature but would instead inherit the family law practice. In 1847, Verne's father sent him to Paris to begin his studies in law school, secondarily to distance him temporarily from Nantes, his cousin Caroline, with whom he was in love, was married on 27 April 1847, to Émile Dezaunay, a man of 40, with whom she would have five children. After a short stay in Paris, where he passed first-year law exams, Verne returned to Nantes for his father's help in preparing for the second year. While in Nantes, he met Rose Herminie Arnaud Grossetière, a young woman one year his senior, fell intensely in love with her, he wrote and dedicated some 30 poems to her, including "La Fille de l'air", which describes her as "blonde and enchanting / winged and transparent". His passion see

Rui'an dialect

Ruian dialect is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in Ruian. It belongs to the Oujiang sub-group of Wu Chinese dialects, it is related to Pingyang dialect and Lucheng dialect referred as Wenzhounese. There are the following finals: 嘸, 兒 姹, 好, 包 海, 先, 思 下, 布 ~ 圖 ~ 水 全, 安, 歌 會, 走 李, 六 涼, 關, 花 經, 聽, 公. Additional finals for older accent including: 天, 橋, 頭 In Ruian dialect, a monosyllabic word can have one of the eight tones, but there are only four phonetically distinguished tones, divided into high and low categories. In combination with another tone, it can change depending on Tone Sandhi system. Yin Ping 陰平 44 江天飛三 Yang Ping 陽平 31 來同魚球 Yin Shang 陰上 35 懂紙古本 Yang Shang 陽上 24 近淡厚似 Yin Qu 陰去 52 對去貨歲 Yang Qu 陽去 22 外地路住 Yin Ru 陰入 323 七博塔各 Yang Ru 陽入 212 六肉白石 In bisyllabic words, there are phonetically only six tones, high flat ˦, middle flat ˧, rising ˨˦, departing ˦˨, entering ˨˩˨ and short ˨. We'll now use A, B, C, D, E, 0 for these six tones. Ruian dialect 1 the first three lectures are used when are alone or follow 第 to formordinal numerals, the three lectures are cardinal numerals and are followed by a classifier.

2 the first lecture is considered the second colloquial. Below is a list of the most common vocabulary in Ruian dialect. Like other Wu dialects, in Ruian dialect a Chinese character can have more than one reading, divided in vernacular readings and literary readings (文讀), in comparison with other Wu dialects, Ruian dialect has few multiple readings. Below are some samples. Shanghainese, another Wu Chinese dialect Suzhou dialect Ruian, the city Wenzhounese, of which the variety of Rui'an is considered a dialect A Study on the Phonetics of Ruian Dialect

Broscus cephalotes

Broscus cephalotes is a species of nocturnal, coastal ground beetle found throughout most of Europe. Its range spans from western Europe into western Siberia; the species was introduced in the eastern areas of Canada and has spread farther south and west into the United States. As a member of the family Carabidae, Broscus cephalotes is considered beneficial to humans due to its predatory habits, their varied diet includes crop pests and other small organisms. Broscus cephalotes has a dull black coloration, without any metallic hue, it can be quite large: between 16 and 23 mm; the morphology of the beetle is similar to other beetles in its family. B. cephalotes is flightless and flatter than many other species of Carabidae, which helps it hide in close spaces. Body shape and presence or absence of the ability of flight can provide clues to diet of beetles, but does not provide conclusive evidence. Although mouth-parts are a better indicator of the type of food consumed by the beetle, the best method of determining the diet of a beetle is gut dissection.

The asymmetric mandibles of B. cephalotes are twice as long as they are wide. The mandibles are curved to a rounded point at the end, with the left mandible is longer and wider than the right mandible; these mandibles are multi-purpose tools. The beetle uses them to maintain the tunnels in which they spend most of their lives; the opened mandibles can act as shovels or pull dirt and debris from the walls of their tunnels and deposit it outside the burrow. Additionally, the mandibles can act as shovels in the loose sand of the beetles’ coastal habitat. Another critical use of the mandibles is in feeding. Broscus cephalotes are carnivorous beetles, they are generalists, the adults do not discriminate much in what they consume. A recent study showed that B. cephalotes in laboratory conditions will attack everything that runs across the opening of its burrow, though they preferred to attack and eat woodlice and ants. Some of what has been found in various beetles’ digestive tract include: plant material and various types of insects: ants, wolf spiders, caterpillars, Acarina, Coleoptera, adult Lepidoptera, Heteroptera.

However, there has been no evidence of cannibalism in this species of beetle. The diet of the larvae of this family has not been as studied because the larvae spend their time in tunnels and are difficult to identify when not hidden in the soil. Carabidae larvae are more carnivorous than adults and have a more restricted diet; the limited diet may be due to their small size. Additionally, the larvae of Carabidae beetle tend to be fluid feeders, regardless of their status as adults. B. Cephalotes has two main methods to detect prey: olfactory cues; the olfactory cues, however, do not seem to be specific, as the responses to the cue do not correspond to preference of prey. The beetle, once in possession of its prey, holds the organism with its forelegs and tears off pieces of the organism to consume; the mandibles are used to tear open the cuticular structures of its meal and expose the soft tissue areas within the organism. Fluid is produced in the mouth during feeding that causes the discoloration of flesh and begins the digestive process.

This fluid is composed of a variety of enzymes that begin the digestive process before the prey has entered the beetle’s digestive tract. Many samples of B. cephalotes were found to have sand in their digestive tract in addition to prey. Sand in the digestive tract may help the beetle grind up the tougher parts of the prey, although it has not yet been determined if the sand is ingested for this purpose. B. cephalotes can be found all across temperate western and central Europe, extending into western Siberia. Specimens are found in the coastal regions, but can be found more inland, it can be found in the vegetated dunes on the coast, but prefers the more sparsely vegetated areas. The first appearance of B. cephalotes in North America was recorded in Nova Scotia in 1978. It seemed as though the species was well established in the area at the time, but still a new arrival; the species is still confined to the eastern seaboard in North America and is less common than in Europe. B. cephalotes are nocturnal, although they have been seen scurrying from one hiding place to another during the day.

They hide during the day burrowed under stones in loose, dry sand. They have been known to rest in groups, but no evidence points to that being the norm or anything but a matter of convenience, their nocturnal lifestyle may be helpful in the acquisition of prey. As the beetles are active during the night, they can more capture prey, diurnal. Nocturnal habits reduce the number of predators active while the beetle is active. Most adults do not live through the winter, but the larvae develop during the winter months and emerge as adults in the spring and summer. Fighting in the species has been observed under artificial daylight, but the purpose of the fighting has not been determined. Fighting could be over resources like burrows, or mates. B. cephalotes breed in the early autumn, when the air still dry. The eggs are deposited deep into the sandy soil during early autumn; the site of oviposition is prepared by the female beetle. After the eggs are laid there is no parental care; the eggs hatch and the larvae develop in the tunnels during early spring.

The larvae spend all their time below the surface, conseq