Hispania Ulterior was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania and Gallaecia. Its capital was Corduba. Hispania is the Latin term given to the Iberian peninsula; the term can be traced back to at least 200 BC by the poet Quintus Ennius. The word is derived from the Punic אי שפן "I-Shaphan" meaning "coast of hyraxes", in turn a misidentification on the part of Phoenician explorers of its numerous rabbits as hyraxes. Ulterior is the comparative form of ulter, which means "that is beyond". According to ancient historian Cassius Dio, the people of the region came from many different tribes, not sharing a common language nor a common government. After losing control of Sicily and Corsica in the 1st Punic War, Carthage began to expand into the south of the Iberian peninsula. Soon afterwards, the 2nd Punic War began. Much of the war involved Hispania until Scipio Africanus seized control from Hannibal and the Carthaginians in the Battle of Ilipa in 206 BC.
In 197 BC, the peninsula was divided into two provinces because of the presence of two military forces during its conquest. These two regions are Hispania Ulterior; the boundary was along a line passing from Carthago Nova to the Cantabrian Sea. Hispania Ulterior consisted of what are now Andalusia, Extremadura, León, much of Castilla la Vieja, Asturias and the Basque Country. There was peace in the region until 155 BC. Twice defeating Roman praetors, their success soon sparked multiple other rebellions in the peninsula; the Iberian peninsula became an opportunity for advancement. As Appian claims, “ took the command not for the advantage of the city, but for glory, or gain, or the honour of a triumph.” The area was conquered by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, but war continued until 19 BC when Agrippa defeated the Cantabrians in Hispania Citerior and Hispania had been conquered. In 19 BC, when Augustus completed the conquest of Hispania with the Cantabrian War, he reorganised the provinces in the peninsula.
Hispania Ulterior was divided into Lusitania. Hispania Citerior, which now included Cantabria and Basque country, was renamed to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the early fifth-century AD, the Vandals took over the south of Hispania; the Roman Emperor Honorius commissioned his brother-in-law, the Visigoth king, to defeat the Vandals. The Visigoths made Toledo the capital of their country; each province was to be ruled by a praetor. Members of the tribal elite of Hispania were introduced into the Roman aristocracy and allowed to participate in their own governance. Roman emperors Trajan and Theodosius I were all born in Hispania. Roman latifundia were granted to members of the aristocracy throughout the region. Cities in Hispania Citerior such as Valencia were enhanced, irrigation aqueducts were introduced; the economy thrived as a granary as well as by exporting gold, olive oil and wine. Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Strabo; the Geography of Strabo. Vol. II. London: Heinemann, 1923. Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia
Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, orator and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists, his influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher. Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement, it was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executing five conspirators.
During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches, he was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed on The Rostra. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity." The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume and Edmund Burke was substantial.
His works rank among the most influential in European culture, today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history the last days of the Roman Republic. Cicero was born in 106 BC in a hill town 100 kilometers southeast of Rome, he belonged to the tribus Cornelia. His father possessed good connections in Rome. However, being a semi-invalid, he studied extensively to compensate. Although little is known about Cicero's mother, Helvia, it was common for the wives of important Roman citizens to be responsible for the management of the household. Cicero's brother Quintus wrote in a letter. Cicero's cognomen, or personal surname, comes from the Latin for cicer. Plutarch explains that the name was given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea. However, it is more that Cicero's ancestors prospered through the cultivation and sale of chickpeas. Romans chose down-to-earth personal surnames.
The famous family names of Fabius and Piso come from the Latin names of beans and peas, respectively. Plutarch writes that Cicero was urged to change this deprecatory name when he entered politics, but refused, saying that he would make Cicero more glorious than Scaurus and Catulus. During this period in Roman history, "cultured" meant being able to speak both Greek. Cicero was therefore educated in the teachings of the ancient Greek philosophers and historians. Cicero used his knowledge of Greek to translate many of the theoretical concepts of Greek philosophy into Latin, thus translating Greek philosophical works for a larger audience, it was his broad education that tied him to the traditional Roman elite. Cicero's interest in philosophy figured in his career and led to him providing a comprehensive account of Greek philosophy for a Roman audience, including creating a philosophical vocabulary in Latin. In 87 BC, Philo of Larissa, the head of the Academy, founded by Plato in Athens about 300 years earlier, arrived in Rome.
Cicero, "inspired by an extraordinary zeal for philosophy", sat enthusiastically at his feet and absorbed Plato's philosophy. Cicero said of Plato's Dialogues. According to Plutarch, Cicero was an talented student, whose learning attracted attention from all over Rome, affording him the opportunity to study Roman law under Quintus Mucius Scaevola. Cicero's fellow students were Gaius Marius Minor, Servius Sulpicius Rufus, Titus Pomponius; the latter two became Cicero's friends for life, Pomponius would become, in Cicero's own words, "as a second brother", with both maintaining a lifelong correspondence. In 79 BC, Cicero left for Asia Minor and Rhodes; this was to avoid the potential wrath of Sulla, as Plutarch claims, though Cicero himself says it was to hone his skills and improve his p
The First Triumvirate was an informal alliance between three prominent Roman politicians: Julius Caesar and Crassus, at the end of the Roman Republic. The constitution of the Roman Republic was a complex set of checks and balances designed to prevent a man from rising above the rest and creating a monarchy. In order to bypass these constitutional obstacles, Caesar and Crassus forged a secret alliance in which they promised to use their respective influence to help each other. According to Goldsworthy, the alliance was "not at heart a union of those with the same political ideals and ambitions", but one where "all seeking personal advantage." As the nephew of Gaius Marius, Caesar was at the time well connected with the Populares faction, which pushed for social reforms. He was moreover Pontifex Maximus—the most important priest of the Roman religion—and could influence politics, notably through the interpretation of the auspices. Pompey was recognised as the greatest military leader of the time, having notably won the wars against Sertorius, Mithridates and the Cilician Pirates.
Crassus was known for his fabulous wealth. Both Pompey and Crassus had extensive patronage networks; the alliance was cemented with the mariage of Pompey with Caesar's daughter Julia in 59 BC. Thanks to this alliance, Caesar thus received an extraordinary command over Gaul and Illyria for five years, so he could start his conquest of Gaul. In 56 BC the Triumvirate was renewed at the Lucca conference, in which the triumvirs agreed to share the Roman provinces between them; the latter embarked into an expedition against the Parthians to match Caesar's victories in Gaul, but died in the disastrous defeat of Carrhae in 53 BC. The death of Crassus ended the Triumvirate, left Caesar and Pompey facing each other. Pompey sided with the Optimates, the conservative faction opposed to the Populares—supported by Caesar—and fought Caesar in the senate. In 49 BC, once the conquest of Gaul complete, Caesar refused to release his legions and instead invaded Italy from the north by crossing the Rubicon with his army.
The following civil war led to Caesar's victory over Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and the latter's assassination in Ptolemaic Egypt where he fled after the battle. In 44 BC Caesar was assassinated in Rome and the following year his heir Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate with Marcus Antonius and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the background of the formation of this alliance were the frictions between two political factions of the Late Republic, the populares and optimates; the former drew support from the plebeians. They espoused policies addressing the problems of the urban poor and promoted reforms that would help them redistribution of land for the landless poor and farm and debt relief, it challenged the power the nobiles exerted over Roman politics through the senate, the body that represented its interests. The Optimates were an anti-reform conservative faction that favoured the nobles, wanted to limit the power of the plebeian tribunes and the Plebeian Council and strengthen the power of the senate.
Julius Caesar was a leading figure of the populares. The origin of the process that led to Caesar seeking the alliance with Pompey and Crassus traces back to the Second Catilinarian conspiracy, which occurred three years earlier in 63 BC when Marcus Tullius Cicero was one of the two consuls. In 66 BC Catiline, the leader of the plot, presented his candidacy for the consulship, but he was charged with extortion and his candidacy was disallowed because he announced it too late. In 65 BC he was brought to trial along with other men who had carried out killings during the proscriptions of Lucius Cornelius Sulla when the dictator had declared many of his political opponents enemies of the state, he received the support of many prominent men and he was acquitted through bribery. In 63 BC Catiline was a candidate for the consulship again, he presented himself as the champion of debtors. Catiline was defeated again and Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida were elected, he plotted a coup d'état together with a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans as a means of preserving his dignitas.
One of the conspirators, Gaius Manlius, assembled an army in Etruria and civil unrest was prepared in various parts of Italy. Catiline was to lead the conspiracy in Rome, which would have involved arson and the murder of senators, he was to join Manlius in a march on Rome. The plot was to start with the murder of Cicero. Cicero discovered this, exposed the conspiracy, produced evidence for the arrest of five conspirators, he had them executed without trial with the backing of a final decree of the Senate – a decree the senate issued at times of emergency. This was done. Julius Caesar opposed this measure; when Catiline heard of this he led his forces in Pistoria with the intention of escaping to northern Italy. He was defeated; the summary executions were an expedient to discourage further violence. However, this measure, an unprecedented assertion of senatorial power over the life and death of Roman citizens, backfired for the optimates, it was seen by some as a violation of the rig
Servilia (mother of Brutus)
Servilia was a Roman matron from a distinguished family, the Servilii Caepiones, the half-sister of Cato the Younger. She was the wife of Marcus Junius Brutus, of Decimus Junius Silanus, but she is more famous as the mistress of Caesar, the mother of the younger Marcus Junius Brutus, the mother-in-law of Gaius Cassius Longinus, the leaders of the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar in 44 BC. Servilia was a patrician who could trace her line back to Gaius Servilius Ahala, was the eldest child of Livia and Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger, her parents had a younger Servilia and a Quintus Servilius Caepio. They divorced when she was young, her mother married Marcus Porcius Cato. From this union, Servilia's half-brother and half-sister, were born. However, her mother and stepfather both died before 91 BC; as a result, her younger siblings, her half-siblings were all brought up in the house of their maternal uncle, Marcus Livius Drusus. He was assassinated during his tribunate in 91 BC, when Servilia would have been around 16 years of age.
Servilia was married to tribune of the plebs and founder of a colony at Capua. They had one child, born about 85 BC; the elder Brutus was killed by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus after the surrender of Mutina in 77 BC. Servilia subsequently married Decimus Junius Silanus, by whom she had three daughters: Junia Prima, Junia Secunda, Junia Tertia. By 64 BC, Servilia had become the mistress of Caesar, they remained involved until the dictator's death in 44 BC. Caesar was fond of her and famously presented her with a priceless black pearl after his return to Rome after the Gallic Wars. Two conflicting tales were told concerning Servilia's youngest daughter, Junia Tertia. One was; this story was alluded to wittily by Cicero, when he remarked of a real estate transaction: "It's a better bargain than you think, for there is a third off." The second rumour was. A similar rumour held that Servilia's son, Marcus Junius Brutus, was Caesar's son, but this is unlikely on chronological grounds, as Caesar was only fifteen years old when Brutus was born.
In 63, Servilia contributed to a scandalous incident during a debate in the senate over the fate of those who had conspired with Catiline. Caesar and Cato, Servilia's half-brother, were on opposing sides in the debate, when someone handed Caesar a letter, Cato accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, demanded it be read aloud; the missive proved to be a love letter from Servilia. Servilia's loyalties were torn during the Civil War, as both Cato and Brutus espoused the side of Pompeius, despite the latter's role in the death of the elder Brutus. Out of a desire to avoid offending Servilia, Caesar gave orders that Brutus should not be harmed if encountered after the Pompeian defeat at Pharsalus. A rift developed between Servilia and her son in 45, when Brutus unexpectedly, some thought unreasonably, divorced Claudia Pulchra, in order to marry his cousin, the daughter of Cato. Servilia seems to have worried that Porcia would exert too strong an influence on her son, she may well have been jealous of the affection that Brutus showed his new bride.
After Caesar's assassination in 44, in a conspiracy headed by Servilia's son and son-in-law, the conspirators met at Servilia's house. Apart from Servilia, the only women in attendance were Junia Tertia. Despite her connections to the conspirators, Servilia escaped the purges of the second triumvirate unscathed. After Brutus' death, her son's ashes were sent to her from Philippi. While Porcia died soon after her husband, was rumoured to have taken her own life by swallowing hot coals, Servilia lived out the remainder of her life in relative comfort and affluence under the care of Cicero's friend, Titus Pomponius Atticus. Servilia died a natural death. Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder Marcus Junius Brutus Decimus Junius Silanus, the consul of 62 BC Marcus Junius Silanus, the consul of 25 BC Junia Prima Junia Secunda Junia Tertia A fictionalised Servilia appeared in the 2005 television series Rome, played by Lindsay Duncan. A fictionalised Servilia makes an appearance in the 2005 six-part mini series Empire, played by Trudie Styler.
A fictionalized Servilia appears in The Gates of Rome, by Conn Iggulden, who has portrayed her as a courtesan, the rest of books of the Emperor Series of Novels. Servilia appears in Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome Series. Natalie Medlock portrays Servilia in the 2018 Netflix television documentary series Roman Empire. Servilia Suetonius, Julius Caesar 50 Plutarch, Cato the Younger, Brutus Appian, Civil Wars Cicero, Letters F 12.7, A 14.21, A 15.11, A 15.12 Cornelius Nepos, Atticus The interesting family connections of Servilia
Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul)
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman senator, a supporter of his brother-in-law, Gaius Marius, the father of Gaius Julius Caesar. Caesar was married to a member of the Aurelii and Rutilii families, they had two daughters, known as Julia Major and Julia Minor, a son, born in 100 BC. He was the son of Gaius Julius Caesar. Caesar's progress through the cursus honorum is well known, although the specific dates associated with his offices are controversial. According to two elogia erected in Rome long after his death, Caesar was a commissioner in the colony at Cercina, military tribune, quaestor and proconsul of Asia; the dates of these offices are unclear. The colony is one of Marius' of 103 BC. Broughton dated the praetorship to 92 BC, with the quaestorship falling towards the beginning of the 90s BC. Brennan has dated the praetorship to the beginning of the decade. Caesar died in 85 BC, in Rome, while putting on his shoes one morning. Another Caesar his father, had died in Pisa, his father had seen to his education by one of the best orators of Marcus Antonius Gnipho.
In his will, he left Caesar the bulk of his estate, but after Marius's faction had been defeated in the civil war of the 80s BC, this inheritance was confiscated by the dictator Sulla. Livius.org: Gaius Julius Caesar
The gens Julia or Iulia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Ancient Rome. Members of the gens attained the highest dignities of the state in the earliest times of the Republic; the first of the family to obtain the consulship was Gaius Julius Iulus in 489 BC. The gens is best known, for Gaius Julius Caesar, the dictator, grand uncle of the emperor Augustus, through whom the name was passed to the so-called Julio-Claudian dynasty of the 1st century AD; the nomen Julius became common in imperial times, as the descendants of persons enrolled as citizens under the early emperors began to make their mark in history. The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which Tullus Hostilius removed to Rome upon the destruction of Alba Longa; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. Their connection with Bovillae is implied by the sacrarium, or chapel, which the emperor Tiberius dedicated to the gens Julia in the town, in which he placed the statue of Augustus.
Some of the Julii may have settled at Bovillae after the fall of Alba Longa. As it became the fashion in the times of the Republic to claim a divine origin for the most distinguished of the Roman gentes, it was contended that Iulus, the mythical ancestor of the race, was the same as Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, founder of Alba Longa. Aeneas was, in turn, the son of Anchises. In order to prove the identity of Ascanius and Iulus, recourse was had to etymology, some specimens of which the reader curious in such matters will find in Servius. Other traditions held that Iulus was the son of Aeneas by his Trojan wife, while Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia, daughter of Latinus; the dictator Caesar alluded to the divine origin of his race, as, for instance, in the funeral oration which he pronounced when quaestor over his aunt Julia, in giving Venus Genetrix as the word to his soldiers at the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Though it would seem that the Julii first came to Rome in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, the name occurs in Roman legend as early as the time of Romulus.
It was Proculus Julius, said to have informed the sorrowing Roman people, after the strange departure of Romulus from the world, that their king had descended from heaven and appeared to him, bidding him tell the people to honor him in future as a god, under the name of Quirinus. Some modern critics have inferred from this, that a few of the Julii might have settled in Rome in the reign of the first king. In the Empire, the distinction between praenomen and cognomen was lost, Julius was treated much like a personal name, which it became; the Latin form is common in many languages, but other familiar forms exist, including Giulio, Jules, Júlio, Iuliu and Юлий. The Julii of the Republic used the praenomina Lucius and Sextus. There are instances of Vopiscus and Spurius in the early generations of the family; the earliest of the Julii appearing in legend bore the praenomen Proculus, it is possible that this name was used by some of the early Julii, although no examples are known. In the Republic and imperial times and Proculus were used as personal cognomina.
The gens was always said to have descended from and been named after a mythical personage named Iulus or Iullus before he was asserted to be the son of Aeneas. The name was revived as a praenomen by Marcus Antonius, the triumvir, who had a son and grandson named Iulus. Classical Latin did not distinguish between the letters "I" and "J", which were both written with "I", for this reason the name is sometimes written Julus, just as Julius is written Iulius; the many Julii of imperial times, who were not descended from the gens Julia, did not limit themselves to the praenomina of that family. The imperial family set the example by mingling the praenomina of the Julii with those of the gens Claudia, using titles and cognomina as praenomina, changing their praenomina to reflect the political winds of the empire; the family-names of the Julii in the time of the Republic are Caesar, Iulus and Libo, of which the first three are undoubtedly patrician. On coins the only names which we find are Caesar and Bursio, the latter of which does not occur in ancient writers.
Due to the activity of Julius Caesar in Gaul over many years, a number of natives of the Gallic provinces adopted Julius as their gentilicum, have no other connection to the Republican Julii. Examples of their descendants include Julius Florus, Gaius Julius Civilis. Other Julii are descended from the numerous freedmen, it may have been assumed by some out of vanity and ostentation. Iulus written as Iullus and Julus, was the surnam