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Julia Drusilla

Julia Drusilla was a member of the Roman imperial family, the second daughter and fifth child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder to survive infancy. She had two sisters, Julia Livilla and the Empress Agrippina the Younger, three brothers, Emperor Caligula, Nero Julius Caesar, Drusus, she was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, grand-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, niece of the Emperor Claudius, aunt of the Emperor Nero. Drusilla was born in Germany. After the death of her father, Germanicus and her siblings were brought back to Rome by their mother and raised with the help of their paternal grandmother, Antonia Minor. In 33 CE, Drusilla was married to a friend of the Emperor Tiberius. After Caligula became emperor in 37 CE, however, he ordered their divorce and married his sister to his friend, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. During an illness in 37 CE, Caligula changed his will to name Drusilla his heir, making her the first woman to be named heir in a Roman imperial will; this was an attempt to continue the Julian line through any children she might have, leaving her husband to rule in the meantime.

Caligula recovered however, in 38 CE, at the age of twenty-one, Drusilla died. Her brother went on to deify her, consecrating her with the title Panthea and mourning at her public funeral as though he were a widower. Drusilla was her brother's favorite. There are rumors that they were lovers. If true, that role gained her great influence over Caligula. Although the activities between the brother and sister might have been seen as incestuous by their contemporaries, it is not certain whether they were sexual partners. Drusilla earned a rather poor reputation because of the close bond she shared with Caligula and was likened to a prostitute by scholars, in attempts to discredit Caligula; some historians suggest that Caligula was motivated by more than mere lust or love in pursuing intimate relationships with his sisters, thinking instead, that he may have decided deliberately to pattern the Roman lineage after the Hellenistic monarchs of the Ptolemaic dynasty where marriages between jointly ruling brothers and sisters had become tradition rather than sex scandals.

This has been used to explain why his despotism was more evident to his contemporaries than those of Augustus and Tiberius. The source of many of the rumors surrounding Caligula and Drusilla may be derived from formal Roman dining habits, it was customary in patrician households for the host and hostess of a dinner to hold the positions of honor at banquets in their residence. In the case of a young bachelor being the head of the household, the female position of honor traditionally was to be held by his sisters, in rotation. In Caligula's case, Agrippina the Younger and Julia Livilla would have taken turns sitting in the place of honor. Caligula broke with this tradition and reserved the place of honor for Drusilla. Drusilla died on 10 June 38 AD of an illness, rampant in Rome at the time. Caligula was said never to have left her side throughout her illness and, after she had died, he would not let anyone take away her body. Caligula was badly affected by the loss, he acted as a grieving widower.

He had the Roman Senate declare her a Goddess, as Diva Drusilla, deifying her as a representation of the Roman goddess Venus or the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Drusilla was consecrated as Panthea, most on the anniversary of the birthday of Augustus. A year Caligula named his only known daughter, Julia Drusilla, after his dead sister. Meanwhile, the widowed husband of Drusilla, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus became a lover to her sisters, Julia Livilla and Agrippina the Younger, in an apparent attempt to gain their support that he would succeed Caligula; this political conspiracy was discovered during that autumn by Caligula while in Germania Superior. Lepidus was executed swiftly and Livilla and Agrippina were exiled to the Pontine Islands. In the Robert Graves novel, I, the narrator of the story states that he believes that Drusilla was killed by Caligula, although he admits that he does not have firm evidence of this; this theme was embellished in the 1976 BBC television adaptation of I, where Drusilla was played by Beth Morris.

A pregnant Drusilla was subjected to a brutal Caesarean section by an insane Caligula, who swallowed the child as Zeus did his children. Although scenes depicting that scenario were cut from the production before broadcast in the United States, they were restored for the VHS and DVD releases. Teresa Ann Savoy played Drusilla in the 1979 motion picture Caligula, which showed a version of Drusilla dying from a fever, followed by a scene of Caligula licking her corpse in mourning, having sexual intercourse with Drusilla one last time in an act of necrophilia; the last scene was deleted from all the released versions of the film. Julio-Claudian family tree Media related to Drusilla at Wikimedia Commons

Gospel in Islam

Injil is the Arabic name for the Gospel of Jesus. This Injil is described by the Qur'an as one of the four Islamic holy books, revealed by God, the others being the Zabur, the Tawrat, the Qur'an itself; the word Injil is used in the Quran, the Hadith and early Muslim documents to refer to both a book and revelations made by God to Jesus. The Arabic word Injil as found in Islamic texts, now used by Muslim non-Arabs and Arab non-Muslims, is derived from the Syriac Aramaic word awongaleeyoon found in the Peshitta, which in turn derives from the Greek word euangelion of the Greek language New Testament, where it means "good news" The word Injil occurs twelve times in the Quran. Muslim scholars have resisted identifying the Injil with the New Testament Gospels; some have suggested the Injil may be the Gospel of Gospel of Thomas. More Muslim scholars have argued that the Injil refers to a text now lost or hopelessly corrupted. For example, Abdullah Yusuf Ali wrote: The Injil spoken of by the Qur `.

It is not the four Gospels now received as canonical. It is the single Gospel which, Islam teaches, was revealed to Jesus, which he taught. Fragments of it survive in the received canonical Gospels and in some others, of which traces survive." The following verse is interpreted as implying that the Injil is preserved, but instead many Muslim scholars interpret it as God warning the Christians not to enforce the law contrary to the law sent by God: And We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, confirming that, before him in the Torah, We bestowed on him the Gospel wherein is guidance and a light, confirming that, before it in the Torah ] - a guidance and an admonition unto those who ward off. Let the People of the Gospel judge by that which Allah hath revealed therein". Regardless of scholarly disagreement, Muslims believe that Injil refers to a true Gospel, bestowed upon Jesus by God. Many Muslims believe that the Injil was revealed by God to Jesus in a manner comparable to the way the Quran was revealed to Muhammad.

Muslims reject the view that Jesus or any other person wrote the Injil, instead crediting its authorship to God. Many Muslim scholars continue to believe that the Biblical Gospel has undergone alteration, that the words and the meaning of the words have been distorted, with some passages suppressed and others added. A key Islamic principle of oneness and wholeness of God's divinity means that in their view it is impossible for Jesus to be God incarnate or the Son of God, claims to the contrary within the Biblical Gospels must be due to additions; the Bible has been used by Muslims as an historical source. It is said in the Quran: do you still fancy that they will believe you, although a group of them used to hear the word of Allah, having understood it, used to distort it knowingly? So woe to those who write the "scripture" with their own hands say, "This is from Allah," in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.

They have disbelieved who say, "Allah is the third of three." And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment. According to a hadith collected by al-Bukhari: The people of the Book used to read the Torah in Hebrew and explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. Allah's Messenger said. "Do not believe the people of the Book, nor disbelieve them, but say,'We believe in Allah and whatever is revealed to us, whatever is revealed to you.' " Biblical and Quranic narratives Christianity and Islam Islamic view of the Christian Bible List of Christian terms in Arabic Scrolls of Abraham A discussion of the Injil and some other scriptures

Albert Barnes Steinberger

Colonel Albert Barnes Steinberger, was an American agent who became the first Prime Minister of Samoa in 1875, in a context of colonial rivalries around the archipelago. His father was a doctor. At the age of 18, he moved to Colorado, where he entered politics and wrote plays. In the early 1860s, he lived in New York, he married in 1867, but his wife died four years after a long illness. In the early 1870s, Americans had commercial interests in the Samoan archipelago, which consisted of distinct and sometimes rival indigenous monarchies. British and German commercial interests were present. A Samoan national government existed, consisting of two joint kings, a bicameral assembly representing the different districts of the country. Malietoa Laupepa and Tupua Pulepule, from lineages of the traditional aristocracy, were the two kings. In 1873, United States President Ulysses S. Grant sent Steinberger as an emissary to Samoa, to represent him to the chiefs, to report on the situation on the islands.

Steinberger presented himself as a "colonel", but there is no evidence that he held such a rank, although he worked for a time in the US Army's treasury. He spent three months in Samoa went to Hamburg to negotiate with the Germans for the establishment of a Samoan government sensitive to American and German commercial interests. Returning to Samoa in 1874 on a US Navy ship, he managed to convene a large gathering of 8,000 chiefs, where a formal exchange of gifts between Samoans and Americans took place. Steinberger suggested to leaders the idea of an American protectorate on the archipelago, saying that it would preserve Samoan autonomy against any foreign power. However, he did not obtain the agreement of the US government for this proposal. Steinberger became popular with the Samoan authorities; as early as 1873, the government drafted a new constitution designed to promote stability favorable to the interests of foreign investors. Instead of a joint monarchy, the greatest chiefs would now alternate on the throne, Malietoa Laupepa exercising alone until his death the functions of king.

The parliament is reorganized, now including a chamber of ali'i or nobles and a chamber of elected representatives. Each district had a governor, responsible to the king. On July 4, 1875, he was appointed by the king to the new position of prime minister at the age of thirty-four years. Overall, Samoans are satisfied with these measures, the government led by Steinberger. Soon, Steinberger exercised an absolute power in the archipelago, he displeased the minority of settlers by insisting that laws passed by the indigenous parliament apply to all residents of the country, as the parliament restricted the sale of alcohol. The American and British consuls in Samoa, S. S. Foster and S. F. Williams, suspect him of having become an agent in the service of the Germans. Having obtained the assurance that the American government did not support Steinberger, the British and American consuls obtained from King Laupepa on February 8, 1876, that he dismissed his prime minister and ordered his deportation, he is deported to Fiji, British territory, never returned to Samoa.

His dismissal had important repercussions. For having acted on their own initiative, the American and British consuls were themselves sacked by their respective governments; the Samoan parliament, furious that the king thus yielded to foreign pressure, deposed Laupepa, without appointing another king immediately. Laupepa organized a rival government. During the next two decades, the country was marked by instability as the British and Germans sometimes support different factions; these tensions lead to the tripartite treaty of 1899. Samoa was split between a German colony and an American colony; the Samoan historian Malama Meleisea believed that Steinberger helped to consolidate a Samoan government in a difficult period, but that his secret agreements with German companies and planters made him a prime minister never devoted to the interests of the Samoans. Robert D. Craig, Historical Dictionary of Polynesia, Scarecrow Press, 2010, pp. 261–262 Stephen Statis, "Albert B. Steinberger: President Grant's Man in Samoa", Hawaiian Journal of History, n°16, 1982, p. 87-88 et 99 Malama Meleisea, Lagaga: A Short History of Western Samoa, Université du Pacifique Sud, 1987, pp. 83–85 Peter J. Hempenstall & Noel Rutherford and Dissent in the Colonial Pacific, Université du Pacifique Sud, 1984, pp. 21–22 Agency of A.

B. Steinberger in Samoan Islands. Washington D. C.: U. S. Congressional Documents. 1877. United States. Congress. House. House Documents, Otherwise Publ. as Executive Documents: 13th Congress, 2d Session-49th Congress, 1st Session. 9. Retrieved 2017-12-31