Julia Gillard

Julia Eileen Gillard is an Australian former politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 2010 to 2013. She was the 13th Deputy Prime Minister of Australia from 2007 until 2010 and held the cabinet positions of Minister for Education, Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations and Minister for Social Inclusion from 2007 to 2010, she was the first and to date only woman to hold the positions of Deputy Prime Minister, Prime Minister and leader of a major party in Australia. Born in Barry, Gillard migrated with her family to Adelaide, South Australia, in 1966, she attended Unley High School. Gillard went on to the University of Adelaide, but switched to the University of Melbourne in 1982, where she graduated with Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Arts degrees, she worked with the Australian Union of Students during that time and was the organisation's president from 1983 to 1984. In 1987, Gillard joined the law firm Gordon, she became a partner in 1990, specialising in industrial law, but left in 1996 to become chief of staff to John Brumby, the leader of the Labor Party in Victoria.

This preceded her own entry into federal politics. Gillard was first elected to the House of Representatives at the 1998 federal election for the seat of Lalor. Following the 2001 election, she was elected to Shadow Cabinet; when Kevin Rudd was elected as party leader and Leader of the Opposition in December 2006, Gillard was elected unopposed as his deputy. Upon Labor's victory at the 2007 election, she became the first female Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, was made Minister for Education, Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations and Minister for Social Inclusion. On 24 June 2010, after Rudd lost the support of his party and resigned, Gillard was elected unopposed as his replacement, thus becoming prime minister; the subsequent 2010 federal election saw the first hung parliament since 1940. Gillard was able to form a minority government with the support of a Green MP and three independents. On 26 June 2013, after a leadership spill, Gillard lost the leadership of the Labor Party back to Rudd.

Her resignation as prime minister took effect the following day. Gillard retired from politics on 5 August 2013, before the impending federal election. Following her departure from politics, Gillard became an honorary visiting professor at the University of Adelaide, a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution's Center for Universal Education, she released her political memoir, My Story, in September 2014. She has been on the board of the mental health organisation Beyond Blue since December 2014 and its chair since July 2017, was made an honorary fellow of Aberystwyth University in June 2015. Gillard has served as the chairwoman of the Global Partnership for Education since February 2014. Gillard was born on 29 September 1961 in Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, she is the second of two daughters born to the former Moira Mackenzie. Gillard's father was of predominantly English descent, her mother was born in Barry, is of distant Scottish and Irish descent. After Gillard suffered from bronchopneumonia as a child, her parents were advised it would aid her recovery if they were to live in a warmer climate.

This led the family to migrate to Australia in 1966, settling in South Australia. The Gillard family's first month in Australia was spent in the Pennington Hostel, a now-closed migrant facility located in Pennington, South Australia. In 1974, eight years after they arrived and her family became Australian citizens; as a result, Gillard held dual citizenship until she renounced her British citizenship prior to entering the Australian parliament in 1998. Gillard attended Mitcham Demonstration School before going on to Unley High School, she began an arts degree at the University of Adelaide, during which she was president of the Adelaide University Union from 1981 to 1982. In her second year at the university, Gillard was introduced to politics by the daughter of a state Labor minister. Accordingly, she joined the Labor Club and became involved in a campaign to fight federal education budget cuts. Gillard cut short her courses in Adelaide in 1982, moved to Melbourne to work with the Australian Union of Students.

In 1983, she became the second woman to lead the Australian Union of Students, serving until the organisation's discontinuation in 1984. She was the secretary of the left-wing organisation Socialist Forum. Having transferred her studies to the University of Melbourne, Gillard graduated with a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1986 and a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1989. In 1987, she joined the law firm Slater & Gordon in Werribee, working in industrial law. In 1990, she was admitted as a partner. From 1985 to 1989, Gillard served as President of the Carlton branch of the Labor Party, she stood for Labor preselection in the Division of Melbourne prior to the 1993 federal election, but was defeated by Lindsay Tanner. At the 1996 federal election, Gillard won the third position on Labor's Senate ticket in Victoria, behind Robert Ray and Barney Cooney. However, on the final distribution of preferences she was defeated by Lyn Allison of the Australian Democrats. In 1996, Gillard resigned from her position with Slater & Gordon in order to serve as chief of staff to John Brumby, at that time the Leader of the Opposition in Victoria.

She was responsible for drafting the affir

Atonement in Judaism

Atonement in Judaism is the process of causing a transgression to be forgiven or pardoned. In Rabbinic Judaism, atonement is achieved through repentance, which can be followed by some combination of the following: confession restitution the occurrence of Yom Kippur tribulations the experience of dying; the carrying out of a sentence of lashes or execution imposed by an ordained court Temple service. Which of these additions are required varies according to the severity of the sin, whether it was done willfully, in error, or under duress, whether it was against God alone or against a fellow person, whether the Temple service and ordained law courts are in existence or not. Repentance is needed in all cases of willful sin, restitution is always required in the case of sin against a fellow person, unless the wronged party waives it; the following table, based on Maimonides, gives an outline of the requirements for atonement in sins between man and God: The sentence of an ordained court can substitute for Yom Kippur + tribulations + dying.

It is important to note that once a person has repented, he can be close to and beloved of God if his atonement is not yet complete. The Mishnah states: To a man who says,'I will sin and repent, I will sin and repent', Yom Kippur brings no atonement. For sins against God, Yom Kippur brings atonement. For sins against one's fellow man, Yom Kippur brings no atonement until he has become reconciled with the fellow man he wronged. According to Maimonides, in order to achieve true repentance the sinner must abandon his sin, remove it from his thoughts, resolve in his heart never to repeat it, as it is said, “Let the wicked forsake his way and the man of iniquity his thoughts", he must regret the past, as it is said, "Surely after I turned I repented". He must call Him who knows all secrets to witness that he will never return to this sin again; the third chapter of tractate Makkot enumerates 59 offenses, each entailing lashes. Of these, three are marital sins of priests; when the offense has been persisted in, the punishment depends on the number of forewarnings.

The Mishnah gives 39 as the maximum number of stripes the court. The convict is bound in bent position to a post, the public executioner administers the punishment with a leather strap while one of the judges recites appropriate Scriptural verses. Anyone guilty of a sin, punished by Kareth may be cleared by flagellation; the author of this midrash, Ḥanina b. Gamaliel, adds, "If by the commission of a sin one forfeits his soul before God, so much the more reason is there for the belief that, by a meritorious deed, such as voluntary submission to punishment, his soul is saved." The Pentateuch specifies capital punishment, as opposed to private retribution or vengeance, for the following crimes: adultery. For a minority of capital crimes, the particular mode of death is specified. Blasphemy, Sabbath-breaking, fornication by or with a betrothed virgin or the rape thereof, the rebellious son are punished with death by stoning. Bigamous marriage with a wife's mother or daughter, the prostitution of a priest's daughter, are punished by burning.

Murder and communal apostasy are punished by the sword. With reference to all other capital offenses, the law ordains that the perpetrator shall die a violent death, which traditionally was understood as strangulation; the Biblical text adds the expression, "His blood shall be upon him," which traditionally was understood as prescribing death by stoning. The Torah speaks of hanging, according to the rabbinical interpretation, not as a mode of execution, but rather of exposure after death; some Jewish denominations may differ with Rabbinic Judaism on the importance or mechanics of atonement. Consult the articles on specific denominations for details; the Concept of Atonement in Early Rabbinic Thought and the New Testament Writings Targum Isaiah 53 and the New Testament Concept of Atonement Rambam's Mishneh Torah on Teshuvah

Anna Severine Lindeman

Anna Severine Lindeman was a Norwegian composer and music teacher. Lindeman was born in the daughter of Peter Tangen Lindeman and Louise Augusta Bauck, her father's parents were Anna Severine née Hickmann. Anna Lindeman learned to play piano from her father's sister, Severine Dos, was taught to read music and harmony by her aunt Juliane Cathrine Lindeman Krogness and uncle Just Lindemann, she traveled from Trondheim to Christiania around 1878 with her musically gifted cousin Astrid Lindeman Swensen and devoted herself to music. In 1884 she married the organist Peter Brynie Lindeman. After half a year in Dresden, where Anna Severine was engaged in private piano teaching, the Lindeman family founded a music school in Christiania, renamed the Oslo Conservatory of Music in 1892. Lindeman's husband served as head of the conservatory, she taught at the school from 1912 onward, her son Trygve Lindeman was a cellist and succeeded his father as head of the conservatory in 1928. Her daughter Signe Lindeman was a composer.

Lindeman continued composing after her husband's death. Her compositions include songs, a string quartet, chamber pieces for piano, chamber pieces for violin or cello with piano, she died in Oslo