Dolley Payne Todd Madison was the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She was noted for holding Washington social functions in which she invited members of both political parties spearheading the concept of bipartisan cooperation, albeit before that term was in use, in the United States. While founders such as Thomas Jefferson would only meet with members of one party at a time, politics could be a violent affair resulting in physical altercations and duels, Madison helped to create the idea that members of each party could amicably socialize and negotiate with each other without resulting in violence. By innovating political institutions as the wife of James Madison, Dolley Madison did much to define the role of the President's spouse, known only much by the title First Lady—a function she had sometimes performed earlier for the widowed Thomas Jefferson. Dolley helped to furnish the newly constructed White House; when the British set fire to it in 1814, she was credited with saving the classic portrait of George Washington, but in reality it was her personal slave who saved the portrait.
In widowhood, she lived in poverty relieved by the sale of her late husband's papers. The first girl in her family, Dolley Payne was born on May 20, 1768, in the Quaker settlement of New Garden, North Carolina, in Guilford County, to Mary Coles Payne and John Payne Jr. both Virginians who had moved to North Carolina in 1765. Mary Coles, a Quaker, had married John Payne, a non-Quaker, in 1761. Three years he applied and was admitted to the Quaker Monthly Meeting in Hanover County, where Coles' parents lived, he became a fervent follower and they reared their children in the Quaker faith. In 1769, the Paynes had returned to Virginia and young Dolley grew up at her parents' plantation in rural eastern Virginia and became attached to her mother's family, she had three sisters and four brothers. In 1783, following the American Revolutionary War, John Payne emancipated his slaves, as did numerous slaveholders in the Upper South. Some, like Payne, were Quakers. From 1782 to 1810, the proportion of free blacks to the total black population in Virginia increased from less than one percent to 7.2 percent, more than 30,000 blacks were free.
When Dolley was 15, Payne moved his family to Philadelphia, where he went into business as a starch merchant, but the business had failed by 1791. This was seen as a "weakness" at his Quaker meetings, he died in October 1792 and Mary Payne made ends meet by opening a boardinghouse, but the next year she took her two youngest children and John, moved to western Virginia to live with her daughter Lucy and her new husband, George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of George Washington. In January 1790, Dolley Payne had married a Quaker lawyer in Philadelphia, they had two sons, John Payne and William Temple. After Mary Payne left Philadelphia in 1793, Dolley's sister Anna Payne moved in with them to help with the children. In August 1793, a yellow fever epidemic broke out in Philadelphia, killing 5,019 people in four months. Dolley was hit hard, as her husband, son William, mother-in-law, father-in-law all died. In addition to her grief, Dolley experienced, as many women did, the compounding effects of coverture law – the legal system that limited women's ability to own property and wages – to her time of mourning.
While undergoing the loss of much of her family, she had to take care of her surviving son without the monetary support of a husband and in the weakened financial position of being female under the coverture system. While her husband had left her money in his will, only men could be the executor of that money and, as such, her husband's brother was the executor. Like many women, Dolley experienced this injustice as her brother-in-law withheld the funds that her husband had left to her, so she had to sue him for the $19 she was owed. Dolley's loss of her early family, the accumulating expenses of both caring for her child and paying for the funerals of lost relatives, highlights the weight of the difficulties many women faced during times of great grief and mourning. Despite Dolley's weakened position after the death of most of her male relatives, she was still considered a beautiful woman and was living in the temporary capital of the United States, Philadelphia. While her mother went to live with another married daughter, Dolley caught the eye of James Madison, who represented Virginia in the U.
S. House of Representatives. While remarrying would have been crucial for her, as keeping herself and her child alive on the means that a woman could bring in would have been challenging, it is reported that she did seem to genuinely care for James; some sources state that Aaron Burr, a longtime friend of Madison's since their student days at the College of New Jersey, stayed at a rooming house where Dolley resided, it was Aaron's idea to introduce the two. In May 1794, Burr made the formal introduction between the young widow and Madison, who at 43 was a longstanding bachelor 17 years her senior. A brisk courtship followed and, by August, Dolley accepted his marriage proposal; as he was not a Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends for marrying outside her faith, after which Dolley began attending Episcopal services. Despite her Quaker upbringing, there is no evidence, they were marr
Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble was a notable British actress from a theatre family in the early and mid-19th century. She was a well-known and popular writer, whose published works included plays, eleven volumes of memoirs, travel writing and works about the theatre. In 1834, she married an American, Pierce Mease Butler, grandson of Pierce Butler, whom she had met on an American acting tour with her father in 1832. After living in Philadelphia for a time, Butler became heir to the cotton and rice plantations of his grandfather on Butler Island, just south of Darien, to the hundreds of slaves who worked them, he made trips to the plantations during the early years of their marriage, but never took Kemble or their children with him. At Kemble's insistence, they spent the winter of 1838–39 there and Kemble kept a diary of her observations, flavored by the abolitionist sentiment. Butler disapproved of Kemble's outspokenness, forbidding her to publish; the relationship grew abusive, Kemble went back to England with her two daughters.
Butler filed for a divorce in 1847, after they had been separated for some time, citing abandonment and misdeed by Kemble. She returned to the theatre and toured major US cities, giving successful readings of Shakespeare plays, her memoir circulated in American abolitionist circles, but she waited until 1863, during the American Civil War, to publish her anti-slavery Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839. It has become her best-known work in the United States: she published several other volumes of journals. In 1877, she returned to England with her second son-in-law, she was active in society, befriending the writer Henry James. In 2000, Harvard University Press published an edited compilation from her journals. A member of the famous Kemble theatrical family, Fanny was the eldest daughter of the actor Charles Kemble and his Viennese-born wife, the former Marie Therese De Camp, she was a niece of the noted tragedienne Sarah Siddons and of the famous actor John Philip Kemble.
Her younger sister was the opera singer Adelaide Kemble. Fanny was educated chiefly in France. In 1821, Fanny Kemble departed to boarding school in Paris to study art and music as befitted the child of, at the time, the most celebrated artistic family in England. In addition to literature and society, it was at Mrs. Lamb’s Academy in the Rue d’Angoulême, Champs Elysées, that Fanny received her first real personal exposure to the stage performing staged readings for students’ parents during her time at school; as an adolescent, Kemble spent time studying literature and poetry, in particular the work of Lord Byron. One of her teachers was Frances Arabella Rowden, associated with the Reading Abbey Girls' School since she was 16. Rowden was an engaging teacher, with a particular enthusiasm for the theatre, she was not only a poet, according to Mary Russell Mitford, "she had a knack of making poetesses of her pupils"In 1827, Kemble wrote her first five-act play, Francis the First. It was met with critical acclaim from multiple quarters.
Nineteenth century critics wrote of the script: “…it displays so much spirit and originality, so much of the true qualities which are required in dramatic composition, that it may stand upon its own intrinsic worth, that the author may fearlessly challenge a comparison with any other modern dramatist.” On 26 October 1829, at the age of 20, Kemble first appeared on the stage as Juliet in Romeo and Juliet at Covent Garden Theatre after only three weeks of rehearsal time. Her attractive personality at once made her a great favourite, her popularity enabled her father to recoup his losses as a manager, she played all the principal women's roles of the time, notably Shakespeare's Portia and Beatrice, Lady Teazle in Richard Brinsley Sheridan's The School for Scandal.. Kemble disliked the artificiality of stardom in general, but appreciated the salary which she accepted to help her family, in financial trouble. In 1832, Kemble accompanied her father on a theatrical tour of the United States. While in Boston in 1833, she journeyed to Quincy to witness the revolutionary technology of the first commercial railroad in the United States.
She had accompanied George Stephenson on a test of the L&M prior to its opening in England and described the tests in a letter written in early 1830. The Granite Railway was among many sights. Kemble returned to her acting career as a solo platform performer beginning her first American tour in 1849. During her readings she rose to focus her work on the presentation of edited works of Shakespeare, although unlike others she insisted on providing a representation of his entire canon building her repertoire to twenty-five of his plays, she performed in both Britain and the United States, concluding her career as a platform performer in 1868. In 1834, Kemble retired from the stage to marry an American on Pierce Mease Butler. Although they met and lived in Philadelphia, Butler was the grandson of Pierce Butler, a Founding Father, heir to a large fortune in cotton and rice plantations. By the time the couple's daughters and Frances, were born, Butler had inherited three of his grandfather's plantations on Butler Island, just south of Darien and the hundreds of people who were enslaved on them.
The family visited Georgia during the winter of 1838–39, where they lived at the plantations at Butler and St. Simons islands, in conditions primitive compared to their house in Philadelphia. Kemble was shocked by the living and working conditions of the slaves and their treatment at the hands of the overseer
Eliza McCardle Johnson
Eliza McCardle Johnson was the First Lady of the United States, the Second Lady of the United States, the wife of Andrew Johnson, the 17th President of the United States. Eliza was born in Telford, the only child of John McCardle, a shoemaker, Sarah Phillips, her father died. She was raised by her widowed mother in Tennessee. One day in September 1826, Eliza was chatting with classmates from Rhea Academy when she spotted Andrew Johnson and his family pull into town with all their belongings, they took a liking to each other. Andrew Johnson, 18, married Eliza McCardle, 16, on May 17, 1827, at the home of the bride's mother in Greeneville. Mordecai Lincoln, a distant relative of Abraham Lincoln, presided over the nuptials. At 16, Eliza Johnson married at a younger age than any other First Lady, she had hazel eyes, brown hair and a good figure. She was better educated than Johnson, who by this time had taught himself to read and spell a little. Johnson credited his wife for teaching him to do arithmetic and to write, as he had never attended school.
She tutored him patiently. She read aloud to him; the Johnsons had three sons and two daughters, all born in Greeneville: Martha Johnson. She married David T. Patterson, who after the Civil War served as U. S. Senator from Tennessee, she served as official White House hostess in place of her mother. The Pattersons maintained a farm outside Greeneville, she died at age 72. Charles Johnson – doctor, pharmacist. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he remained loyal to the Union. While recruiting Tennessee boys for the Union Army, he became the object of an intense Confederate manhunt, he joined the Middle Tennessee Union Infantry as an assistant surgeon. Mary Johnson, she married Dan Stover, who served as colonel of the Fourth Tennessee Union Infantry during the Civil War. The Stovers lived on a farm in Tennessee. Following the death of her husband in 1864, she married W. R. Brown, she died at age 50. Robert Johnson – lawyer and politician, he served for a time in the Tennessee state legislature. During the Civil War, he was commissioned colonel of the First Tennessee Union Cavalry.
He was private secretary to his father during his tenure as president. He became alcoholic and committed suicide at age 35. Andrew Johnson, Jr. – journalist. He founded the weekly Greeneville Intelligencer, he died soon thereafter at age 26. She had tried to avoid public appearances. During the American Civil War, Confederate authorities ordered her to evacuate her home in Greeneville. A few months after her husband became president, she joined him in the White House, but she was not able to serve as First Lady due to her poor health from tuberculosis, she remained confined to her bedroom there, leaving the social chores to her daughter Martha Johnson Patterson. Mrs. Johnson appeared publicly as First Lady on only two occasions—at a reception for Queen Emma of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1866 and at the president's birthday party in 1867. After episodes of tuberculosis, Eliza died on January 15, 1876, at the age of 65 in Greeneville, Tennessee. Eliza McCardle Johnson at Find a Grave The White House Web Site National First Ladies' Library Eliza Johnson at C-SPAN's First Ladies: Influence & Image
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is a 9.65-acre United States National Historic Site located 10 miles southwest of Downtown St. Louis, Missouri within the municipality of Grantwood Village; the site known as White Haven, commemorates the life, military career, Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. Five historic structures are preserved at the site including the childhood home of Julia Dent Grant, wife of Ulysses S. Grant. White Haven was a plantation worked by slaves at the time Grant was married to his wife in 1848 and remained so until the end of the American Civil War. After his marriage to Julia, Grant was stationed in New York. Julia traveled with him to these posts, returning to White Haven in 1850 for the birth of their first child, Fred, in 1850; when Ulysses was sent west in 1852, Julia was not able to go with him, being pregnant with their second child. She returned to her parents' home after stopping at Ulysses' parents' home in Ohio, where Ulysses Jr. was born. Grant's army pay was insufficient to bring his family out to the West Coast, he tried several business ventures to supplement his income.
Suffering from depression and loneliness after being separated for two years, Grant resigned from the army in 1854 and returned to White Haven. Grant farmed the White Haven property for his father-in-law, working with the slaves owned by Julia's father. Two more children were born, born on July 4, 1855, Jesse, in February 1858. Due to a financial panic in 1857, along with bad weather that destroyed many farmer's crops, Ulysses worked for a short time in the city of St. Louis in real estate and as an engineer. In 1860, Ulysses and their four children moved to Galena, Illinois. Ulysses worked with his brothers selling leather goods made in their father's tannery. Many visitors to Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site are surprised to learn that slaves lived and worked on the nineteenth century farm known as White Haven. According to the National Park Service, during the 1850s slave labor "was used extensively in the farming and maintenance of the 850-acre plantation." From 1854 to 1859 Grant lived here with his wife and their children, managing the farm for his father-in-law, Colonel Dent.
At that time no one suspected that Grant would rise from obscurity to achieve the success he gained during the Civil War. However, his experience working alongside the White Haven slaves may have influenced him in his roles as the Union general who won the war which abolished that "peculiar institution," and as President of the United States; the interpretation of slavery at White Haven is therefore an important part of the mission of this historic site. Most slaveholders in Missouri owned few slaves. In the southeastern Bootheel area and along the fertile Missouri River valley known as "little Dixie," large, single-crop plantations predominated, with an intensive use of slave labor. Elsewhere in the state, large farms produced a variety of staples, including hemp, oats and corn. On many of these estates the owner worked alongside his slaves to harvest the greatest economic benefit from the land. Slavery was less entrenched in the city of St. Louis, where the African American population was 2% in 1860, down from 25% in 1830.
Slaves were "hired out" by their masters in return for an agreed upon wage. A portion of the wage was sometimes paid to slaves, allowing a measure of self-determination and in some cases the opportunity to purchase their freedom; each of the farm's early residents owned slaves during their tenure on the Gravois property. When Theodore and Anne Lucas Hunt purchased William Lindsay Long's home in 1818, there existed "several good log cabins" on the property—potential quarters for the five slaves purchased earlier by Hunt; the work of Walace, Lydia and Adie would be an important part of the Hunts' farming venture. The Hunts sold the Gravois property to Frederick Dent in 1820, for the sum of $6,000. Naming the property "White Haven" after his family home in Maryland, Colonel Dent considered himself a Southern gentleman with slaves to do the manual labor of caring for the plantation. By the 1850s, eighteen slaves worked at White Haven. In 1830, half of the Dent slaves were under the age of ten. Henrietta, Sue and Jeff, among others, played with the Dent children.
Julia Dent recalled that they fished for minnows, climbed trees for bird nests, gathered strawberries. However, the slave children had chores such as feeding chickens and cows, they mastered their assigned tasks as the white children went off to school. Returning home from boarding school, Julia noted the transition from playmate to servant, she noted that the slave girls had "attained the dignity of white aprons." These aprons symbolized slave servitude, a departure from the less structured days of childhood play. Adult slaves performed many household chores on the Dent plantation. Kitty and Rose served as nurses to Emma, while Mary Robinson became the family cook; the wide variety of foods prepared in her kitchen were praised by Julia: "Such loaves of beautiful snowy cake, such plates full of delicious Maryland biscuit, such exquisite custards and puddings, such omelettes, gumbo soup, fritters." A male slave named "Old Bob," who traveled with the Dents from Maryland in 1816, had the responsibility to keep the fires going in White Haven's seven fireplaces.
Julia thought Bob was careless to allow the embers to die out, as this forced him "to walk a mile to some neighbors and bring home a brand of fire from their backlog." Such "carelessness" provided many other slaves an opportunity to escape their masters' eyes. Slave labor was used extensively in the farming and maintenance of the 850-acre plantati
Ulysses S. Grant Jr.
Ulysses Simpson "Buck" Grant Jr. was an American attorney and entrepreneur. He was the second son of President Ulysses S. Grant. Grant was born in Bethel, Ohio, on July 22, 1852, he graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1870, Harvard University in 1874, Columbia Law School in 1876. He served as personal secretary to his father while he was president and as Assistant United States Attorney in New York. Grant worked in private practice and became wealthy, he partnered in a brokerage firm with Ferdinand Ward. Grant and his father each asked veterans and millionaires to invest; the Grants thought that they would share one-half of the profits from the firm, but realized that Ward was only interested in using the Grant name for his own interests. In 1884, the firm went bankrupt, the Grants lost everything. Ward was served over 6 years in prison. Grant Sr. died the next year. When Buck was back on his feet financially, he bought Merryweather Farm in Salem Center, Westchester County, New York, his wife's health was failing.
Grant's mother suggested moving to California. His younger brother, Jesse Root Grant, was living in San Diego; the Grants moved into a three-story house in San Diego in 1893. Grant set up a law practice gave it up to invest in real estate, he purchased property throughout San Diego. In 1895, he bought the Horton House hotel, he wanted to name it after his father. In 1905, he razed the old hotel and built a new one, the U. S. Grant Hotel, in 1910. San Diego voters helped finance $700,000 for the $1.5 million needed to construct the hotel after Grant lacked the funds to do so. During his time in San Diego, Grant became a close associate of Charles T. Hinde, E. S. Babcock, John D. Spreckels. Hinde and Grant served on the boards of directors of multiple banks and invested in many companies and business ventures together. Grant continued to speculate in real estate, he became a leading citizen, who pushed for the creation of a city park, that would become Balboa Park. Grant was a delegate-at-large for California at the Republican National Conventions in 1896 and 1900.
He was an elector for California in the 1904 and 1908 presidential elections. In 1880, Grant married Fannie Josephine Chaffee, daughter of Jerome B. Chaffee, U. S. Senator from Colorado, they had five children: Miriam, Julia and Ulysses IV. Grant's wife died in 1909 and four years he married a widow, America Workman Will. Grant and America traveled extensively. In his years, they stayed closer to home and traveled in California, he was a member of the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. Grant died at age 77 at the Sandberg Lodge on the Ridge Route north of Los Angeles while on a road trip, he was buried at Greenwood Cemetery in San Diego. Banning, Evelyn I. "U. S. Grant Jr.: A Builder of San Diego." Journal of San Diego History Vol. 27, No. 1. Black, Samuel T. San Diego County California vol. 2, pp. 14–15. Biography
Earl Van Dorn
Earl Van Dorn was a United States Army officer and great-nephew of Andrew Jackson, fighting with distinction during the Mexican–American War, against several tribes of Native Americans, in the Western theater of the American Civil War as a Confederate general officer. The former military installation Camp Van Dorn is named for him. In the American Civil War, he served as a Confederate general, appointed commander of the Trans-Mississippi District. At the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, in March 1862, he was defeated by a smaller Union force because he had abandoned his supply-wagons for the sake of speed, leaving his men under-equipped in cold weather. At the Second Battle of Corinth in October 1862, he was again defeated through a failure of reconnaissance and removed from high command, he scored two notable successes as a cavalry commander, capturing a large Union supply depot at Holly Springs and an enemy position at the Battle of Thompson's Station, Tennessee. In May 1863, he was shot dead at his headquarters at Spring Hill by a doctor who claimed that Van Dorn had carried on an affair with his wife.
Van Dorn was born near Port Gibson in Claiborne County, Mississippi, to Sophia Donelson Caffery, a niece of Andrew Jackson, Peter Aaron Van Dorn, a lawyer and judge. He had eight siblings among whom were two sisters, Emily Van Dorn Miller and Octavia Van Dorn Sulivane, his sister Octavia, had a son, Clement Sulivane, a captain in the CSA forces and served on Earl's staff. In December 1843, Van Dorn married Caroline Godbold, they had a son named Earl Van Dorn, Jr. and a daughter Olivia. In 1838, Van Dorn enrolled in the United States Military Academy at West Point graduated 52nd out of 68 cadets in the class of 1842, his family relations to Andrew Jackson had secured him an appointment there. He was appointed a brevet second lieutenant in the 7th U. S. Infantry Regiment on July 1, 1842 and began his army service in the Southern United States. Van Dorn and the 7th were on garrison duty at Fort Pike, Louisiana, in 1842-43, were stationed at Fort Morgan, Alabama in 1843, he did garrison duty at the Mount Vernon Arsenal in Alabama from 1843 into 1844, he was ordered to Pensacola harbor in Florida from 1844 to 1845, during which Van Dorn was promoted to second lieutenant on November 30, 1844.
Van Dorn was part of the 7th U. S. Infantry when Texas was occupied by the U. S. Army from 1845 into 1846, spent the early stages of the Mexican–American War on garrison duty defending Fort Texas in Brownsville, the southernmost town in Texas. Van Dorn saw action at the Battle of Monterrey on September 21–23, 1846, during the Siege of Vera Cruz from March 9–29, 1847, he was transferred to Gen. Winfield Scott's command in early 1847 and promoted to first lieutenant on March 3. Van Dorn fought well in the rest of his engagements in Mexico, earning himself two brevet promotions for conduct. Van Dorn was wounded in the foot near Mexico City on September 3, wounded again during the storming of the Belén Gate on September 13. After the war with Mexico, Van Dorn served as aide-de-camp to Brev. Maj. Gen P. F. Smith from April 3, 1847, to May 20, 1848, he and the 7th were in garrison at Baton Rouge, from 1848 into 1849, at Jefferson Barracks in Lemay, Missouri, in 1849. He saw action in Florida against the Seminoles from 1849 to 1850, was on recruiting service in 1850 and 1851.
From 1852 to 1855 Van Dorn was stationed at the East Pascagoula Branch Military Asylum in Mississippi, serving as secretary treasurer of the post. He spent the remainder of 1855 stationed at New Orleans, Louisiana on recruiting service again, in garrison back at Jefferson Barracks, he was promoted to captain in the 2nd Cavalry on March 3, 1855. Van Dorn and the 2nd were on frontier duty at Fort Belknap and Camp Cooper, Texas, in 1855 and 1856, scouting in northern Texas in 1856, fought a minor skirmish with Comanche on July 1, 1856, he was assigned to Camp Colorado, Texas, in 1856 to 1857, scouting duty again in 1857, returned to Camp Colorado in 1857 to 1858, stationed at Fort Chadbourne located in Coke County, Texas, in 1858. Van Dorn saw further action against the Seminoles and the Comanches in the Indian Territory, he was wounded four separate times there, including when he commanded an expedition against Comanches and took two arrows at the Battle of Wichita Village on October 1, 1858. Not expected to live, Van Dorn recovered in five weeks.
Van Dorn led six companies of cavalry and a company of scouts recruited from the Brazos Reservation in a spring campaign against the Comanche in 1859. He located the camp of Buffalo Hump in Kansas in a valley he erroneously identified as the Nescutunga, defeated them on May 13, 1859, killing 49, wounding five and capturing 32 women, he served at Fort Mason, Texas, in 1859 and 1860. While at Fort Mason, Van Dorn was promoted to the rank of major on June 28, 1860, he was on a leave of absence from the U. S. Army for the rest of 1860 and into 1861. Van Dorn chose to follow his home state and the Confederate cause, he resigned his U. S. Army commission, accepted effective January 31, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier general in the Mississippi Militia on January 23, replaced Jefferson Davis as major general and commander of Mississippi's state forces in February when Davis was selected as the Confederacy's Presi
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806 known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. It began in Pittsburgh, Pa, made its way westward, passed through the Continental Divide of the Americas to reach the Pacific coast; the Corps of Discovery was a selected group of US Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it; the campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, geography, to establish trade with local American Indian tribes. The expedition returned to St. Louis to report its findings to Jefferson, with maps and journals in hand.
One of Thomas Jefferson's goals was to find "the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce." He placed special importance on declaring US sovereignty over the land occupied by the many different Indian tribes along the Missouri River, getting an accurate sense of the resources in the completed Louisiana Purchase. The expedition made notable contributions to science, but scientific research was not the main goal of the mission. During the 19th century, references to Lewis and Clark "scarcely appeared" in history books during the United States Centennial in 1876, the expedition was forgotten. Lewis and Clark began to gain attention around the start of the 20th century. Both the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis and the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon showcased them as American pioneers. However, the story remained shallow until mid-century as a celebration of US conquest and personal adventures, but more the expedition has been more researched.
In 2004, a complete and reliable set of the expedition's journals was compiled by Gary E. Moulton. In the 2000s, the bicentennial of the expedition further elevated popular interest in Lewis and Clark; as of 1984, no US exploration party was more famous, no American expedition leaders are more recognizable by name. Jefferson met John Ledyard in Paris in the 1780s, they discussed a possible trip to the Pacific Northwest. Jefferson had read Captain James Cook's A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, an account of Cook's third voyage, Le Page du Pratz's The History of Louisiana, all of which influenced his decision to send an expedition. Like Captain Cook, he wished to discover a practical route through the Northwest to the Pacific coast. Alexander Mackenzie had charted a route in his quest for the Pacific, following the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Ocean in 1789. Mackenzie and his party were the first to cross America north of Mexico to the Pacific when he arrived near Bella Coola, British Columbia in 1793—a dozen years before Lewis and Clark.
Mackenzie's accounts in Voyages from Montreal informed Jefferson of Britain's intent to control the lucrative fur trade of the Columbia River and convinced him of the importance of securing the territory as soon as possible. Two years into his presidency, Jefferson asked Congress to fund an expedition through the Louisiana territory to the Pacific Ocean, he did not attempt to make a secret of the Lewis and Clark expedition from Spanish and British officials, but rather claimed different reasons for the venture. He used a secret message to ask for funding due to poor relations with the opposition Federalist Party in Congress. In 1803, Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery and named Army Captain Meriwether Lewis its leader, who selected William Clark as second in command. Lewis demonstrated remarkable skills and potential as a frontiersman, Jefferson made efforts to prepare him for the long journey ahead as the expedition was gaining approval and funding. Jefferson explained his choice of Lewis: It was impossible to find a character who to a complete science in botany, natural history, mineralogy & astronomy, joined the firmness of constitution & character, habits adapted to the woods & a familiarity with the Indian manners and character, requisite for this undertaking.
All the latter qualifications Capt. Lewis has. In 1803, Jefferson sent Lewis to Philadelphia to study medicinal cures under Benjamin Rush, a physician and humanitarian, he arranged for Lewis to be further educated by Andrew Ellicott, an astronomer who instructed him in the use of the sextant and other navigational instruments. Lewis, was not ignorant of science and had demonstrated a marked capacity to learn with Jefferson as his teacher. At Monticello, Jefferson possessed the largest library in the world on the subject of the geography of the North American continent, Lewis had full access to it, he spent time conferring with Jefferson. Lewis and Clark met near Louisville, Kentucky in October 1803 at the Falls of the Ohio and the core "Nine Young Men" were enlisted into the Corps of Discovery, their goals were to explore the vast territory acquired by the Louisiana Purchase and to establish trade and US sovereignty over the Indians along the Missouri River. Jefferson wanted to establish a US claim of "discovery" to the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory by documenting an American presence there before European nations could claim the land.
According to some historians, Jefferson understood that he would have