Julius Caesar (play)

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare first performed in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history, such as Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra. Set in Rome in 44 BC, the play depicts the moral dilemma of Brutus as he joins a conspiracy led by Cassius to murder Julius Caesar to prevent him from becoming dictator of Rome. Following Caesar's death, Rome is thrust into a period of civil war, the republic the conspirators sought to preserve is lost forever. Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; the play opens with two tribunes discovering the commoners of Rome celebrating Julius Caesar's triumphant return from defeating the sons of his military rival, Pompey. The tribunes, insulting the crowd for their change in loyalty from Pompey to Caesar, attempt to end the festivities and break up the commoners, who return the insults.

During the feast of Lupercal, Caesar holds a victory parade and a soothsayer warns him to "Beware the ides of March", which he ignores. Meanwhile, Cassius attempts to convince Brutus to join his conspiracy to kill Caesar. Although Brutus, friendly towards Caesar, is hesitant to kill him, he agrees that Caesar may be abusing his power, they hear from Casca that Mark Antony has offered Caesar the crown of Rome three times and that each time Caesar refused it with increasing reluctance, in hopes that the crowd watching the exchange would beg him to accept the crown, yet the crowd applauded Caesar for denying the crown, upsetting Caesar, due to his wanting to accept the crown. On the eve of the ides of March, the conspirators meet and reveal that they have forged letters of support from the Roman people to tempt Brutus into joining. Brutus reads the letters and, after much moral debate, decides to join the conspiracy, thinking that Caesar should be killed to prevent him from doing anything against the people of Rome if he were to be crowned.

After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wife Calpurnia's own premonitions, Caesar goes to the Senate. The conspirators approach him with a fake petition pleading on behalf of Metellus Cimber's banished brother; as Caesar predictably rejects the petition and the others stab him. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line "Et tu, Brute?", concluding with "Then fall, Caesar!" The conspirators make clear that they committed this murder for the good of Rome, not for their own purposes, do not attempt to flee the scene. Brutus delivers an oration defending his own actions, for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However, Mark Antony makes a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse, beginning with the much-quoted "Friends, countrymen, lend me your ears!" In this way, he deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the rational tone of Brutus's speech, yet there is method in his rhetorical speech and gestures: he reminds them of the good Caesar had done for Rome, his sympathy with the poor, his refusal of the crown at the Lupercal, thus questioning Brutus's claim of Caesar's ambition.

Antony as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, an innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is taken by the mob, which kills him for such "offenses" as his bad verses. Brutus next attacks Cassius for soiling the noble act of regicide by having accepted bribes; the two are reconciled after Brutus reveals that his beloved wife committed suicide under the stress of his absence from Rome. That night, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat. At the battle and Brutus, knowing that they will both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius has his servant kill him after hearing of the capture of his best friend, Titinius. After Titinius, not captured, sees Cassius's corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day, he commits suicide by running on his own sword, held for him by a loyal soldier.

The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that Brutus has remained "the noblest Roman of them all" because he was the only conspirator who acted, in his mind, for the good of Rome. There is a small hint at the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays and Cleopatra; the main source of the play is Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives. Shakespeare makes Caesar's triumph take place on the day of Lupercalia instead of six months earlier. For dramatic effect, he makes the Capitol the venue of Caesar's death rather than the Curia Pompeia. Caesar's murder, the funeral, Antony's oration, the reading of the will and the arrival of Octavius all take place


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Larry Murray

Vice Admiral Larry E. Murray, is a Canadian civil servant, retired Vice Admiral and former acting Chief of the Defence Staff. Born in Stratford, Murray served as the Commanding Officer of various ships including the minesweepers HMCS Chaleur and HMCS Miramichi and the destroyer HMCS Iroquois, he was appointed Commander of the First Canadian Destroyer Squadron in 1987 and Director-General of Maritime Doctrine & Operations at the National Defence Headquarters in 1989. He went on to be Assistant Deputy Minister in 1991 and Deputy Commander of Maritime Command in 1993, he became Commander of Maritime Command, Nova Scotia in 1994. He became Vice Chief of the Defence Staff in 1995 continuing in that role while serving as Acting Chief of Defence Staff from October 8, 1996, until September 17, 1997. In 1997, Murray was appointed Associate Deputy Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada and in 1999 was appointed Deputy Minister of Veterans Affairs Canada, he was subsequently appointed Deputy Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada and served in that role from 2003 until his retirement from the public sector in 2007.

Murray was a member of the Task Force on Governance and Cultural Change in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, a Trudeau Foundation Mentor, served as President of the Nova Scotia Mainland Division of the Navy League of Canada. From 2008 to 2015, he served as an external Member of the National Defence Audit Committee and, from 2009 to 2017, as Chair of the Privy Council Audit Committee. In June 2010, Vice-Admiral Murray took over the honorary position of Grand President of the Royal Canadian Legion. In 2015, Murray became Chair of the Independent Review Panel on Defence Acquisition. In 1983, Murray was made an Officer of the Order of Military Merit, was promoted to the grade of Commander in 1994. In 1998, he was a recipient of the Vimy Award, which recognizes a Canadian who has made a significant and outstanding contribution to the defence and security of Canada and the preservation of its democratic values. Murray served in the honorary position of Colonel Commandant of the Chaplain Branch of the Canadian Forces for five years and was appointed a Member of the Order of St John in 2001.

He was awarded the Minister of Veterans Affairs Commendation for his contribution to the care and well-being of veterans and to the remembrance of their service and sacrifice. On June 28, 2013, he was appointed Member of the Order of Canada, "for his leadership in the public service and for his regional and national voluntary commitments". "Government of Canada biography". Archived from the original on December 30, 2004. Retrieved March 24, 2006