Cadwallader C. Washburn
Cadwallader Colden Washburn was an American businessman and soldier who founded a mill that became General Mills. A member of the Washburn family of Maine, he was a U. S. Congressman and governor of Wisconsin, served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Washburn was born in the son of Martha and Israel Washburn, he was one of seven brothers, who included Israel Washburn, Jr. Elihu B. Washburne, William D. Washburn, Charles Ames Washburn. Washburn attended school in Wiscasset and taught there in 1838–1839. In 1839 he moved to Davenport, Iowa where he taught school, worked in a store, worked as a surveyor. Inspired by his brother Elihu who set up a legal practice in nearby Galena, he studied law, In 1842 he was admitted to the Wisconsin bar and he moved to Mineral Point, Wisconsin where he began a legal practice. In 1844, Washburn formed a partnership with land agent Cyrus Woodman. Together the two men developed a number such as the Wisconsin Mining Company; the most successful business venture undertaken by the men was land acquisition.
In May 1855 they established Woodman's Mineral Point Bank. Washburn and Woodman dissolved their partnership amicably in 1855. In 1856, the Minneapolis Mill Company was chartered by the Minnesota territorial legislature. Among the incorporators were Washburn's cousin Dorilus Morrison, Robert Smith, an Illinois congressman who had acquired the rights to the water power at the west side of St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis; the company struggled and several of the early investors sold out. Washburn bought in and became president, his brother William moved to Minneapolis about that time, managed the company. The company built a dam, a canal and a complex set of water transfer tunnels which were leased, along with land that the company owned at the foot of the falls, to a variety of mills — cotton mills, woolen mills and grist/flour mills; the work and investment of the two brothers paid off well, they used their new-found capital to invest in mills themselves. In 1853, Washburn built a mill at Waubeck on the Chippewa River.
In 1859 Washburn moved to La Crosse and after his war time service, he engaged in a project to clear the Black River to make it easier to drive logs. In 1871 he formed the La Crosse Lumber Company, which sawed 20,000,000 board feet of lumber annually, he had the largest shingle mill in the upper Mississippi valley. In 1866, he built his own Washburn "B" Mill, thought at the time to be too large to turn a profit. However, he succeeded and in 1874 built an larger Washburn "A" Mill; the original "A" mill complex was destroyed, along with several nearby buildings, in a flour explosion in 1878, but was rebuilt. In 1877, Washburn teamed with John Crosby to form the Washburn-Crosby Company. At the same time, Washburn sent William Hood Dunwoody to England to open that market for spring wheat. Successful, Dunwoody became a silent partner and went on to become one of the wealthiest millers in the world. Dunwoody became a philanthropist endowing hospitals, educational facilities which became Dunwoody College of Technology, a charitable home which became Dunwoody Village.
The corporation became known as General Mills. In 1854, Washburn ran for Congress as a Republican serving three terms as part of the 34th, 35th and 36th United States Congresses representing Wisconsin's 2nd congressional district, from March 4, 1855 to March 3, 1861. In his last term Washburn served as chairman of the Committee on Private Land Claims, he declined to run again in 1860. The Washburn family had always been opposed to slavery. Washburn moved to La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1861 but returned to Washington, D. C. that year as a delegate in the peace convention, held in an attempt to prevent the American Civil War. He served in the Union Army during the Civil War, becoming colonel of the 2nd Wisconsin Volunteer Cavalry, on February 6, 1862. Washburn had the honor of having his appointment document signed by President Abraham Lincoln. At one point Ulysses S. Grant called Washburn "one of the best administrative officers we have." He commanded the cavalry of the XIII Corps in the opening stages of Ulysses S. Grant's Vicksburg Campaign.
Once siege operations had begun against the city of Vicksburg and Grant called for all available forces, Washburn led a detachment of the XVI Corps during the siege of Vicksburg. He commanded the 1st Division in the XIII Corps in Nathanial P. Banks' operations along the Texas Coast leading the expedition against Fort Esperanza in November 1863. For the rest of the war he served in administrative capacities in Tennessee. While commanding Union forces in Memphis, he was the target of an unsuccessful raid led by Nathan B. Forrest to kidnap him and other Union generals, he left the Union Army on May 25, 1865. After the conclusion of the war, Washburn returned to his home in La Crosse, where he was elected again for two terms in the House of Representatives; this time he represented Wisconsin's 6th congressional district at the 40th and 41st Congresses from March 4, 1867 to March 3, 1871, where he was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures on Public Buildings in the first term. He declined to run in 1870.
In 1871, he was urged to run for Governor of Wisconsin against James R. Doolittle. Washburn won the election and was inaugurated governor of Wisconsin on the first Monday in January 1872 and served from 1872 to 1874, he ran unsuccessfully for reelection in
Walter Samuel Goodland
Walter Samuel Goodland was an American politician and the 31st Governor of Wisconsin. He was a Republican, he attended Lawrence University in Wisconsin. Goodland, born in Sharon, was a lawyer and newspaper owner. Goodland spent time on the Gogebic Range as a young man, he began practicing law in Wakefield, Michigan. There he began one of the early daily newspapers of the range, he established the Ironwood Times, disposing of it in May 1895 to Bennett and Green. The Ironwood Times continued to publish until May 1946. Goodland served in the Wisconsin State Senate. From 1911 to 1915, he was mayor of Wisconsin. From 1939 to 1943, Walter Goodland was the 29th Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin. In 1942, he was reelected lieutenant governor. On December 7, 1942, Governor-elect Orland Steen Loomis died before his inaugural; the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that Lieutenant Governor Goodland would serve Orland Loomis's term as governor, overriding the view of Governor Julius Heil that he should continue in office.
Goodland was paid as the Lieutenant Governor, with a salary of $1,500 a year. He earned a six dollar daily bonus for being governor while the legislature was in session, a five dollar daily bonus when it was not. In 1944, Walter Goodland was elected Governor of Wisconsin in his own right, in 1946 he was reelected. Walter Goodland died of a heart attack on Wednesday, March 12, 1947 while in office in Madison, Wisconsin, at age 84; as of 2006, according to Guinness World Records, Goodland was the oldest individual to date to serve as Governor of any state in the union. He had the distinction of both assuming and relinquishing the office of Governor due to a death, the death of Loomis and his own. Goodland Hall at Mendota Mental Health Institute was named for the Governor. Walter Goodland Elementary School, Wisconsin was named in his honor. Goodland Park, one of Dane County's oldest parks, named for Wisconsin's oldest Governor. Walter S. Goodland, Dictionary of Wisconsin History, Wisconsin State Historical Society Walter S. Goodland, Wisconsin State Historical Society, articles
William D. Hoard
William Dempster Hoard was an American politician, a newspaper editor, the 16th Governor of the U. S. state of Wisconsin from 1889 to 1891. Born in Stockbridge, New York, he moved to Wisconsin. During the American Civil War, Hoard served in the 4th Wisconsin Volunteer Regiment as a musician until he was discharged for medical reasons, he went back to New York to recover and served to the end of the war in the 1st New York Artillery Regiment. Returning to Wisconsin, he got involved with the hops industry, but the glut and decline in the industry left him without money, he was an outsider and an amateur in politics. He was a leading promoter of the dairy industry, through his weekly magazine Hoard's Dairyman. In 1889, Hoard asked the legislature to pass the Bennett Law, the state's first compulsory school attendance law, it required all private schools to teach major subjects in English. The German Lutherans and German Catholics, who each had a large parochial school system that used German-speaking teachers, strenuously objected.
Hoard made the controversial law the centerpiece of his reelection campaign, rejecting the advice of professional politicians that it would doom the GOP. The law, Hoard, were repudiated by the state's large German community. Hoard was defeated in an intense campaign by Democrat George Wilbur Peck, the Yankee mayor of Milwaukee; the Republican establishment was outraged at Hoard. In turn the moralistic rank and file bridled at the boss rule. Hoard joined forces with Robert M. La Follette Sr. and created the Progressive faction of the state GOP. It propelled La Follette to the governorship and the U. S. Senate, but Hoard, still an influential publisher, broke with La Follette in 1912. Hoard died in Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, on November 22, 1918, he is interred at Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. In honor of Hoard's service to the dairy industry, a statue of Hoard by Gutzon Borglum was erected in 1922 at the head of Henry Mall of what is now the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the original quadrangle of the university's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.'
Gutzon Borglum went on to create Mount Rushmore. Hoard's birthday is celebrated in Wisconsin as an official holiday named William D. Hoard Day. Son of William Bradford and Sarah Katherine White Hoard, he married Agnes Elizabeth Bragg and they had three sons, Halbert Louis, Arthur Ralph, Frank Ward. Hoard Historical Museum Osman, Loren H. W. D. Hoard: A Man For His Time. Fort Atkinson, Wis.: W. D. Hoard, 1985. Risjord, Norman K. "From the Plow to the Cow: William D. Hoard and America's Dairyland". Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 88, no. 3:40-49. Wyman, Roger E. "Wisconsin Ethnic Groups and the Election of 1890". Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 51, no. 4: 269-293. William D. Hoard at Find a Grave
Edward Salomon was an American politician and the Lieutenant Governor and eighth Governor of Wisconsin during the American Civil War after the accidental drowning of his predecessor, Louis P. Harvey. Salomon was born in the son of Dorothea and Christoph Salomon, he attended the University of Berlin, but as a revolutionary sympathizer, fled the country in 1849. He immigrated to the United States and settled in Manitowoc, where he was a school teacher, a surveyor, served as deputy circuit court clerk. In 1852 he moved to Milwaukee, where he read law, was admitted to the bar in 1855, set up a law practice with Winfield Smith. Haaretz revealed in 2014 that Salomon was Jewish and was a cousin of Edward S. Salomon, the future Governor of Washington Territory, considered to be one of the highest ranking Jewish heroes in the American Civil War. In 1860, Salomon changed from his Democratic party affiliations to support Abraham Lincoln for the presidency, in 1861 was nominated by the Republican Party as'Union' candidate for lieutenant governor of Wisconsin winning by a narrow margin.
In 1862, when Governor Lewis P. Harvey was drowned, Salomon became Wisconsin's first German-born and Jewish governor. In 1862 Governor Salomon responded to a request from the War Department for more troops by asking for volunteers and setting up a draft, he was able to raise 14 regiments. Salomon had to call up federal troops to quell the Port Washington Draft Riot. Suppression of the rioters with use of federal troops cost him the 1864 Republican nomination. Salomon served as a general for the Union during the Civil War, his brothers, Frederick C. Salomon and Charles Eberhard Salomon, served as officers in the Union Army. On July 18, 1862, Frederick was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as a brigadier general of volunteers to rank from July 16, 1862. President Lincoln submitted the nomination to the U. S. Senate on May 17, 1862 and the Senate confirmed the appointment on July 16, 1862. Charles served as colonel of the 5th Missouri Volunteer Infantry and on September 26, 1862 rejoined the army and succeeded Frederick as colonel of the 9th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
On March 13, 1865, his cousin Edward S. Salomon was made a brigadier general for his “distinguished gallantry and meritorious service.” On January 13, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Charles Eberhard Salomon for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865, the Senate confirmed the appointment on March 12, 1866. In 1864, Salomon resumed his law practice in Milwaukee. In 1869 he moved to New York City, where he continued his law practice for a number of years was legal representative for various important German interests; when he retired in 1894, he lived there until his death. Salomon died April 1909 in Germany at Frankfurt am Main, his burial place is unknown. Son of Christoph and Dorothea Klussman Salomon, he married Elise Nebel, he had three brothers, Charles Eberhard Salomon, Frederich Salomon, Herman Salomon who were involved in the American Civil War. Prussia in the American Civil War List of U. S. state governors born outside the United States Edward Salomon at Find a Grave Salomon, Gov. Edward | Wisconsin Historical Society
Governor of Wisconsin
The Governor of Wisconsin is the highest executive authority in the government of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The position was first filled by Nelson Dewey on June 1848, the year Wisconsin became a state. Prior to statehood, there were four Governors of Wisconsin Territory; the current governor is Tony Evers, a Democrat who took office on January 7, 2019. The governor of Wisconsin is responsible for ensuring that the laws of Wisconsin are carried out, is required to "communicate to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, recommend such matters to them for their consideration as he may deem expedient."Any bill passed by the Wisconsin State Legislature must be presented to the governor, who either signs it into law, or vetoes it. In the event of a veto, the bill is returned the legislature, who may vote to override the veto. In 1930, the Wisconsin Constitution was amended to give the governor line-item veto power, which allows portions of appropriations bills to be struck out without rejecting the entire bill.
The partial veto may still be overridden by the legislature. In 1990 a further amendment specified that the line-item veto does not give the governor power to veto individual letters of appropriations bills, thereby forming new words; the governor is the commander-in-chief of the militia of the state. If it is deemed necessary, the governor may convene extraordinary sessions of the state legislature; the governor has the power to pardon or commute sentences or grant reprieves thereto, except in cases of treason or impeachment. In cases of treason, the governor may suspend the carrying out of the sentence until the next session of the legislature, who vote to grant a pardon, commutation or reprieve, or to carry out the sentence; the governor of Wisconsin is elected in a direct election—the candidate with the most votes becomes governor. In the event that two candidates receive an equal number of votes, higher than that received by any other candidate, the members of the state legislature vote between the two at their next session.
In order to be eligible for the office of governor of Wisconsin, a candidate must be a citizen of the United States and a qualified voter in the state of Wisconsin. Under the original Wisconsin Constitution, governors were elected for a term of two years. There is no limit to the number of terms; the governor may be removed from office through a recall election. An impeachment trial is carried out by the Wisconsin State Assembly, if a majority of its members agree to the impeachment. A governor may choose to resign from office. Four governors have resigned for various reasons, none have been removed from office through impeachment, although Arthur MacArthur, Sr. who, as lieutenant governor, became acting governor upon the resignation of William Barstow in 1856, was removed after the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that Barstow's opponent in the previous election, Coles Bashford, was the election's legitimate winner. In 2012, Scott Walker became the only governor in Wisconsin history to face a recall election.
He retained his seat, defeating Milwaukee mayor Tom Barrett by seven percentage points, a margin one point greater than that of the 2010 election, becoming the first governor in American history to survive a recall attempt. The state constitution specified that the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin were voted upon separately, but in 1967, the constitution was amended to state that they were elected together. Prior to this amendment, there were nine incidents in which the elected governor and lieutenant governor were not of the same political party; the state constitution only said that in the event of the impeachment, removal from office, resignation or absence of the governor, or in the event of the governor being unfit to serve due to illness, "the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the lieutenant governor" for the remainder of the term or until the governor is able to return to office. In 1979, the constitution was amended to specify that in the event of the governor's death, resignation or removal from office, the lieutenant governor becomes governor for the remainder of the term, but in the event of impeachment, incapacitation or absence, the lieutenant governor becomes "acting governor" until the governor can return to his duties.
The original constitution specified that in any of the aforementioned events the Secretary of State would become governor if the lieutenant governorship was vacant, but after 1979 this provision, was amended to distinguish between "governor" and "acting governor." There have been 44 Governors of 45 individual governorships. One governor, Philip La Follette, served non-consecutive terms. Four parties have had their candidates elected governor: the Democratic, the Whig, the Republican and the Progressive; the longest-serving governor was Tommy Thompson, from January 5, 1987 until February 1, 2001, a total of 14 years and 28 days. Four governors have resigned: William Barstow due to fraud allegations, Robert La Follette, Sr. to take his seat in the United States Senate, Patrick Joseph Lucey to become Ambassador to Mexico, Tommy Thompson to become United States Secret
William Robert Taylor
William Robert Taylor was an American politician and the 12th Governor of Wisconsin from 1874 to 1876. Taylor was born in Connecticut, he was orphaned at age 6. Cared for by his neighbors, he moved with his guardians to Jefferson County, New York. Taylor moved to Ohio, where he taught school, studied medicine, served in the local militia, he served as president of the Dane County Agricultural Society and the State Agricultural Society after he moved in 1848 to a farm in Cottage Grove, Wisconsin. There he was involved with lumbering as well as farming, he was a member of both the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1855 and the Wisconsin State Senate 1859-1860. He was chairman of the city and served as a member of the Dane County Board, County Superintendent of Schools, County Superintendent of the Poor, he was trustee of the State Hospital for the Insane in Mendota from 1860 to 1874. Although he was a Democrat, he supported the North during the Civil war and was elected to one term as Wisconsin's governor at the head of the "Reform" or "People's Reform" Party, a short-lived coalition of Democrats and Liberal Republicans, Grangers.
He served as governor from January 5, 1874 to January 3, 1876, paying for his own inauguration and refusing free railroad passes and telegrams. Impoverished, Taylor died in the Gisholt Home for the Aged in Burke, Wisconsin, on March 17, 1909, he is interred at Forest Hill Cemetery, Wisconsin. Taylor County, Wisconsin is named for him. Son of Robert and Mary Taylor, he was orphaned at age six when his father was lost at sea, was cared for by neighbors, he married Catherine Hurd in 1842 and they had three children. National Governors Association William Robert Taylor at Find a Grave
A tank car is a type of railroad car or rolling stock designed to transport liquid and gaseous commodities. The following major events occurred in the years noted: 1865: Flatcars with banded wooden planks or decking mounted on top are employed for the first time to transport crude oil from the fields of Pennsylvania during the Pennsylvanian oil rush. 1869: Wrought iron tanks, with an approximate capacity of 3,500 US gal per car, replace wooden tanks. 1888: Tank-car manufacturers sell units directly to the oil companies, with capacities ranging from 6,000 to 10,000 US gal. 1903: Tank-car companies develop construction safety standards. More than 10,000 tank cars are in operation. 1915: A classification system is developed by the tank-car industry to ensure the correct match of car type to product being shipped. Some 50,000 tank cars are in use. 1930: 140,000 tank cars transport some 103 commodities. 1940s: Virtually every tank car is engaged in oil transport in support of the war effort. 1945–1950: Welding replaces riveting in car construction for the major manufacturers, including American Car & Foundry and General American.
1950: Pipelines and tank trucks begin to compete for liquid transport business. 1963: The Union Tank Car Company introduces the "Whale Belly" tank car. Many variants exist due to the wide variety of gases transported. Tank cars can be pressurized or non-pressurized, insulated or non-insulated, designed for single or multiple commodities. Non-pressurized cars may have fittings on the bottom; some of the top fittings are covered by a protective housing. Pressurized cars have a pressure plate, with all fittings, a cylindrical protective housing at the top. Loading and unloading are done through the protective housing. Tank cars are specialized pieces of equipment; as an example, the interior of the car may be lined with a material, such as glass, or other specialized coatings to isolate the tank contents from the tank shell. Care is taken to ensure; as a result of this specialization, tank cars have been "one-way" cars. Other cars, like boxcars, can be reloaded with other goods for the return trip. Combinations of the two types were attempted, such as boxcars with fluid tanks slung beneath the floors.
While the car could carry a load in both directions, the limited tank size made this unsuccessful. A large percentage of tank cars are owned by companies serviced by railroads instead of the railroads themselves; this can be verified by examining the reporting marks on the cars. These marks invariably end in X. Within the rail industry, tank cars are grouped by their type and not by the cargo carried. Food-service tank cars may be lined with glass, or plastic. Tank cars carrying dangerous goods are made of different types of steel, depending on the intended cargo and operating pressure, they may be lined with rubber or coated with specialized coatings for tank protection or product purity purpose. The tank heads are stronger to prevent ruptures during accidents; the whale-belly type is giving way to higher-capacity, yet AAR Plate "C", cars. All tank cars undergo periodic inspection for corrosion. Pressure relief valves are inspected at every loading. Pressurized cars are pressure-tested to ensure the integrity of the tank.
All tank cars operating throughout North America today feature AAR TypeE double shelf couplers that are designed to prevent disengaging in event of an accident or derailment. This reduces the chance of couplers puncturing adjacent tank cars. However, if cars are prevented from disengaging in a derailment, the torsional forces of a derailing car can be transferred to other cars, resulting in the derailment of the adjacent cars. Insulated cars are used. For example, the Linde tank car depicted below carries liquefied argon. Cars designed for multiple commodities are constructed of two or more tanks; each compartment must have separate fittings. The lower capacity and added complexity of multicompartment cars means that they make up a small percentage of the tank car inventory. Outside of North America, tank cars are known as tank wagons or tanker wagons. In the United Kingdom tank wagons were traditionally four-wheel vehicles; some long-wheelbase four-wheelers are still in use but bogie vehicles are now used as well.
British tank wagons The DOT-111 tank car, which are designed to carry liquids, such as denatured fuel ethanol, is built to a US standard. The design has been criticized on safety grounds; the train in the Lac-Mégantic derailment of 2013 was made up of 72 of these cars. DOT-112 tank cars are used in North America to carry pressurized gases. DOT-114 tank cars are used in North America to carry pressurized gases. A milk car is a specialized type of tank car designed to carry raw milk between farms and processing plants. Milk is now chilled, before loading, transported in a glass-lined tank car; such tank cars are placarded as "Food service use only". Tank cars of this type are designed to carry cryogenic liquid Hydrogen. North American cars are classified as DOT113, AAR204W, AAR204XT A pickle car was a specialized type of tank car designed to carry pickles; this car consisted of several wooden or metal vats and was roofed. Pickles which are preserved in salt brine were loaded through hatches in the roof.
A tank containe