The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the equator. For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earths North pole. Due to the Earths axial tilt, winter in the Northern Hemisphere lasts from the December solstice to the March Equinox, the dates vary each year due to the difference between the calendar year and the astronomical year. Its surface is 60. 7% water, compared with 80. 9% water in the case of the Southern Hemisphere, the Arctic is the region north of the Arctic Circle. Its climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers, precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic experiences some days in summer when the Sun never sets, the duration of these phases varies from one day for locations right on the Arctic Circle to several months near the North Pole, which is the middle of the Northern Hemisphere. Between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer lies the Northern Temperate Zone, the changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally mild, rather than extreme hot or cold.
However, a temperate climate can have very unpredictable weather, tropical regions are generally hot all year round and tend to experience a rainy season during the summer months, and a dry season during the winter months. In the Northern Hemisphere, objects moving across or above the surface of the Earth tend to turn to the right because of the coriolis effect, as a result, large-scale horizontal flows of air or water tend to form clockwise-turning gyres. These are best seen in circulation patterns in the North Atlantic. For the same reason, flows of air down toward the surface of the Earth tend to spread across the surface in a clockwise pattern. Thus, clockwise air circulation is characteristic of high pressure weather cells in the Northern Hemisphere, air rising from the northern surface of the Earth tends to draw air toward it in a counterclockwise pattern. Hurricanes and tropical storms spin counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, the shadow of a sundial moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
When viewed from the Northern Hemisphere, the Moon appears inverted compared to a view from the Southern Hemisphere, the North Pole faces away from the galactic center of the Milky Way. The Northern Hemisphere is home to approximately 6.57 billion people which is around 90% of the total human population of 7.3 billion people
The Southern Hemisphere is the half sphere of Earth which is south of the equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and its surface is 80. 9% water, compared with 60. 7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32. 7% of Earths land. Due to the tilt of Earths rotation relative to the Sun, September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. The South Pole is in the middle of the southern hemispherical region, Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much land, water heats up. In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north, sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect, the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic.
Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique species or Nothofagus. The eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and, increasingly. Approximately 800,000,000 humans live in the Southern Hemisphere and this is due to the fact that there is significantly less land in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. Africa Antarctica Asia Australia South America Zealandia Media related to Southern Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons
House of Councillors (Japan)
The House of Councillors is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Representatives is the lower house, the House of Councillors is the successor to the pre-war House of Peers. If the two houses disagree on matters of the budget, treaties, or designation of the prime minister, in other decisions, the House of Representatives can override a vote of the House of Councillors only by a two-thirds majority of members present. The House of Councillors has 242 members who each serve six-year terms, Councillors must be at least 30 years old, compared with 25 years old in the House of Representatives. The House cannot be dissolved, as half of its membership is elected at each election. Of the 121 members subject to each time,73 are elected from the 47 prefectural districts and 48 are elected from a nationwide list by proportional representation with open lists. For a list of members, see the List of members of the Diet of Japan. The House initially had 250 seats, two seats were added to the House in 1970 after the agreement on the repatriation of Okinawa, increasing the House to a total of 252.
Legislation aimed at addressing malapportionment that favoured less-populated prefectures was introduced in 2000, further reforms to address malapportinoment took effect in 2007 and 2016, but did not change the total number of members in the house. From 1947 to 1983, the House had 100 seats allocated to a national block and it was originally intended to give nationally prominent figures a route to the House without going through local electioneering processes. Shintaro Ishihara won a record 3 million votes in the block in the 1968 election. The national block was last seen in the 1980 election and was replaced with a proportional representation block in the 1983 election. The national proportional representation block was reduced to 96 members in the 2000 reforms, List of Speakers of the House of Councillors of Japan List of districts of the House of Councillors of Japan Specific Bibliography Hayes, L. D.2009. ISBN 978-0-7656-2279-2 House of Councillors Website House of Councillors internet TV - Official site
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Deer hunting is survival hunting or sport hunting for deer, which dates back tens of thousands of years. There are many types of deer around the world that are hunted, New Zealand has had 10 species of deer introduced. From the 1850s, red deer were liberated, followed by fallow, wapiti, rusa, the introduced herds of axis and moose failed to grow, and have become extinct. In the absence of predators to control populations, deer were thought to be a pest due to their effect on native vegetation, from the 1950s the government employed professional hunters to cull the deer population. Deer hunting is now an activity and advocated for at the national level by the New Zealand Deerstalkers Association. The deer most sought after in North America, east of the Rocky Mountains, is the white-tailed deer, west of the Rockies, the mule deer is the dominant deer species. Blacktail deer are dominant along the west coast from Northern California to Southeast Alaska, with introduced populations in Prince William Sound, the most notable differences between these deer, other than distribution, are the differences in ears, antler shape, and body size.
The mule deers ears are longer than the ears of a white-tailed deer, they have different color skin and brighter faces. Mule deer have a tail which is proportionally smaller than that of the white-tailed deer. White-tailed bucks are slightly smaller than mule deer bucks, both of the species lose their antlers in January, and regrow the antlers during the following summer beginning in June. Velvet from the antlers are shed in August and September, each buck normally gets larger each year as long as good food sources are present. Antler growth depends on food sources, if food is not good one year, antlers will be smaller. Many deer do not reach their potential due to getting hit by automobiles. In Hawaii, axis deer were introduced into the environment in the 1950s, having no predators their numbers quickly grew and they are considered an invasive species especially on the islands of Lanai and Maui. Recently there have been sightings of deer on the big island of Hawaii. Most of the hunting on Maui is on privately held lands.
Moose and elk are popular game animals that are species of deer. However, hunting them is not usually referred to as deer hunting and they are considerably larger than mule deer or white-tailed deer, and hunting techniques are rather different
Lamb and mutton
Lamb and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages. A sheep in its first year is called a lamb, the meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget, outside North America this is a term for the living animal. The meat of a sheep is mutton, a term only used for the meat. The term mutton is almost always used to refer to meat in the Indian subcontinent. Lamb is the most expensive of the three types, and in recent decades sheep meat is increasingly only retailed as lamb, sometimes stretching the accepted distinctions given above. The stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find in many areas, in Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat. The definitions for lamb and mutton vary considerably between countries, younger lambs are smaller and more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two old, and has less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal, baby lamb meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red.
Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear, hogget — A term for a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear, or its meat. Still common in farming usage, it is now rare as a domestic or retail term for the meat, Much of the lamb sold in the UK is hogget to an Antipodean farmer. Mutton — a female or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear, under United States law, lamb is defined in terms of mutton, The term lamb means meat, other than mutton, produced from sheep. Under current federal regulations, only the lamb is used, Lamb — ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams The terms mutton. Nevertheless, the use of lamb in the United States may be confusing. Under the previous definition, lamb meant meat, other than mutton, the term mutton is applied to goat meat in most of these countries, and the goat population has been rising. For example, mutton-curry is always made from goat meat and it is estimated that over one-third of the goat population is slaughtered every year and sold as mutton.
The flavour and texture of milk-fed lamb when grilled or roasted is generally thought to be finer than that of older lamb, the areas in northern Spain where this can be found include Asturias, Castile and León, and La Rioja. Milk-fed lambs are prized for Easter in Greece, when they are roasted on a spit
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires, Ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems, together with amethyst, sapphire and diamond. They word ruby comes from ruber, Latin for red, the color of a ruby is due to the element chromium. The quality of a ruby is determined by its color and clarity, the brightest and most valuable red called blood-red or pigeon blood, commands a large premium over other rubies of similar quality. After color follows clarity, similar to diamonds, a stone will command a premium. Ruby is the birthstone for July and is usually more pink than garnet. The worlds most expensive ruby is the Sunrise Ruby, rubies have a hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Among the natural gems only moissanite and diamond are harder, with diamond having a Mohs hardness of 10.0, when a chromium atom replaces an occasional aluminum atom, it too loses 3 electrons to become a chromium3+ ion to maintain the charge balance of the Al2O3 crystal.
However, the Cr3+ ions are larger and have electron orbitals in different directions than aluminum, the octahedral arrangement of the O2− ions is distorted, and the energy levels of the different orbitals of those Cr3+ ions are slightly altered because of the directions to the O2− ions. Those energy differences correspond to absorption in the ultraviolet, violet, if one percent of the aluminum ions are replaced by chromium in ruby, the yellow-green absorption results in a red color for the gem. Additionally, absorption at any of the above wavelengths stimulates fluorescent emission of 694-nanometer-wavelength red light, after absorbing short-wavelength light, there is short interval of time when the crystal lattice of ruby is in an excited state before fluorescence occurs. If 694-nanometer photons pass through the crystal during that time, they can stimulate more fluorescent photons to be emitted in-phase with them, thus strengthening the intensity of that red light. By arranging mirrors or other means to pass emitted light repeatedly through the crystal, all natural rubies have imperfections in them, including color impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as silk.
Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, usually, the rough stone is heated before cutting. These days, almost all rubies are treated in some form, untreated rubies of high quality command a large premium. Some rubies show a three-point or six-point asterism or star and these rubies are cut into cabochons to display the effect properly. Asterisms are best visible with a source and move across the stone as the light moves or the stone is rotated. Such effects occur when light is reflected off the silk in a certain way and this is one example where inclusions increase the value of a gemstone
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
In the ancient Roman calendar, Quintilis or Quinctilis was the month following Junius and preceding Sextilis. Quintilis is Latin for fifth, it was the month in the earliest calendar attributed to Romulus. After the calendar reform that produced a 12-month year, Quintilis became the seventh month, in 45 BC, Julius Caesar instituted a new calendar that corrected astronomical discrepancies in the old. After his death in 44 BC, the month of Quintilis, his month, was renamed Julius in his honor. Quintilis was under the guardianship of the Romans supreme deity Jupiter, with sacrifices made particularly to Neptune, ten days of games were celebrated in honor of Julius Caesar at the end of the month. Like the modern month of July, this was one of the months that had 31 days. The Romans did not number days of a month sequentially from the 1st through the last day, they counted back from the three fixed points of the month, the Nones, the Ides, and the Kalends of the following month. Thus the last day of Quintilis was the pridie Kalendas Sextilis, Roman counting was inclusive, July 5 was ante diem III Nonas Quintilis, the 3rd day before the Nones of Quintilis, usually abbreviated a. d.
Sext. the 10th day before the Kalends of Sextilis, on a dies religiosus, individuals were not to undertake any new activity, nor do anything other than tend to the most basic necessities. On the calendar of religious observances known as the Feriale Duranum. After the latter 1st century AD, a number of dates are added to calendars for spectacles and games held in honor of deities in the venue called a circus. By the late 2nd century AD, extant calendars no longer show days marked with letters to show their religious status, probably in part as a result of calendar reforms undertaken by Marcus Aurelius. Unless otherwise noted, the dating and observances on the table are from H. H. Scullard and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic. Month names, Aprilis, Junius, September, November, December