The French Revolution of 1830 known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, supporters of Louis Philippe Orléanists. Continental Europe, France in particular, was in a state of disarray; the Congress of Vienna met to redraw the continent's political map. Many European countries attended the Congress, but decision-making was controlled by four major powers: the United Kingdom, represented by its Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh. France's foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand attended the Congress. Although France was considered an enemy state, Talleyrand was allowed to attend the Congress because he claimed that he had only cooperated with Napoleon under duress.
He suggested that France be restored to her "legitimate" borders and governments—a plan that, with some changes, was accepted by the major powers. France was returned to its 1791 borders; the House of Bourbon, deposed by the Revolution, was restored to the throne in the person of Louis XVIII. The Congress, forced Louis to grant a constitution, La Charte constitutionnelle. On 16 September 1824, after a lingering illness of several months, the 68-year-old Louis XVIII died childless. Therefore, his younger brother, aged 66, inherited the throne of France. On 27 September Charles X made his state entry into Paris to popular acclaim. During the ceremony, while presenting the King the keys to the city, the comte de Chabrol, Prefect of the Seine, declared: "Proud to possess its new king, Paris can aspire to become the queen of cities by its magnificence, as its people aspire to be foremost in its fidelity, its devotion, its love."Eight months the mood of the capital had worsened in its opinion of the new king.
The causes of this dramatic shift in public opinion were many, but the main two were: The imposition of the death penalty for anyone profaning the Eucharist. The provisions for financial indemnities for properties confiscated by the 1789 Revolution and the First Empire of Napoleon—these indemnities to be paid to anyone, whether noble or non-noble, declared "enemies of the revolution."Critics of the first accused the king and his new ministry of pandering to the Catholic Church, by so doing violating guarantees of equality of religious belief as specified in La Charte. The second matter, that of financial indemnities, was far more opportunistic than the first; this was because, since the restoration of the monarchy, there had been demands from all groups to settle matters of property ownership: to reduce, if not eliminate, the uncertainties in the real estate market both in Paris and in the rest of France. But opponents, many of whom were frustrated Bonapartists, began a whispering campaign that Charles X was only proposing this in order to shame those who had not emigrated.
Both measures, they claimed, were nothing more than clever subterfuge meant to bring about the destruction of La Charte. Up to this time, thanks to the popularity of the constitution and the Chamber of Deputies with the people of Paris, the king's relationship with the élite—both of the Bourbon supporters and Bourbon opposition—had remained solid. This, was about to change. On 12 April, propelled by both genuine conviction and the spirit of independence, the Chamber of Deputies roundly rejected the government's proposal to change the inheritance laws; the popular newspaper Le Constitutionnel pronounced this refusal "a victory over the forces of counter-revolutionaries and reactionism."The popularity of both the Chamber of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies skyrocketed, the popularity of the king and his ministry dropped. This became unmistakable when on 16 April 1827, while reviewing the Garde Royale in the Champ de Mars, the king was greeted with icy silence, many of the spectators refusing to remove their hats.
Charles X "later told Orléans that,'although most people present were not too hostile, some looked at times with terrible expressions'."Because of what it perceived to be growing and vitriolic criticism of both the government and the Church, the government of Charles X introduced into the Chamber of Deputies a proposal for a law tightening censorship in regard to the newspapers. The Chamber, for its part, objected so violently that the humiliated government had no choice but to withdraw its proposals. On 17 March 1830, the majority in the Chamber of Deputies passed a motion of no confidence, the Address of the 221, against the king and Polignac's ministry; the following day, Charles dissolved parliament, alarmed the Bourbon opposition by delaying elections for two months. During this time, the liberals championed the "221" as popular heroes, whilst the government struggled to gain support across the country as prefects were shuffled around the departments of France; the elections that followed returned an overwhelming majority.
This came after another event: on the grounds th
Sodsai Pantoomkomol née Vanijvadhana is a Thai actress and teacher of dramatic arts. Known as Sondi Sodsai from her acting career in the United States during her studies, she returned to Thailand to become a lecturer and associate professor at the Faculty of Arts of Chulalongkorn University, where she founded the Dramatic Arts Department, the first such school in the country, she produced numerous theatrical works throughout her career, was named National Artist in 2011. Sodsai Vanijvadhana was born on 18 March 1934 in Bangkok, Siam, to Subhajaya Vanijvadhana and head of the Biology Department at Chulalongkorn University, Prayongsi Vanijvadhana, she attended Mater Dei School, enrolled at Chulalongkorn's Faculty of Arts. She graduated Bachelor of Arts with honors, subsequently received a Fulbright scholarship to study teaching English as a foreign language in the United States. However, with encouragement from her advisor Prince Prem Purachatra, she asked to study dramatic arts instead, she enrolled at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she caught up on drama courses including acting and playwriting.
She was selected for leading parts in plays, from which she became noticed, was subsequently invited to appear on The Tonight Show, received a record offer with Liberty Records, released as Sondi, appeared in Mickey Spillane's Mike Hammer. She transferred to the University of California, Los Angeles upon the suggestion of her advisers, to be able to pursue more career opportunities, she was offered a seven-year contract with Fox Studios, which she declined, settling for a two-year scholarship and training program instead. During her acting career in Hollywood she was a semi-regular on ABC's Adventures in Paradise, with Gardner McKay, guest starred on CBS's The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour, she represented Thailand in the Miss Universe 1959 beauty pageant, where she won the Miss Friendship Award. She went by the alias "Sondi Sodsai" in her acting career because her last name "was too difficult for foreigners to pronounce." Upon completing her studies, Sodsai returned to Thailand and became a lecturer at her alma mater, Chulalongkorn University's Faculty of Arts.
At the time, formal education in dramatic arts did not exist in Thailand. Sodsai pioneered the field, establishing the Faculty's Department of Dramatic Arts in 1970, she developed curricula based on the theories and practices of Western theater, helped lay out the foundations of drama education in both tertiary and secondary institutions, as well as in professional circles. Of the initial difficulties of establishing the school, she noted in an interview of how she and her students lacked a theater in which to perform: "We were like nomads, we performed under the trees, on the verandah, in the attic. Wherever they allowed us."Sodsai produced many works and directing numerous plays, as well as editing and composing. Her plays include Yankee Don't Go Home, Tukkata Kaew, Yot Pratthana, Koet Pen Tua Lakhon, Phu Phae–Phu Chana, Phrai Nam, Khon Di Thi Sechuan and her latest production Lam Di, released in 2009, she translated and presented works of Western drama, including The Glass Menagerie and Hedda Gabler, for the Thai audience.
She directed television dramas, winning a Mekhala Award for her 1984 adaptation of Chart Korbjitti's novel Kham Phiphaksa, which she applied Western technics in directing. Sodsai was married to Trong Pantoomkomol, former head of the Orthopedics Department at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, with three children. In recognition of her contributions to the field, Sodsai was named a National Artist in performing arts for 2011, received the Dushdi Mala Medal in 2014. Thailand's first playwriting competition, the Sodsai Award, Chulalongkorn University's Sodsai Pantoomkomol Center for Dramatic Arts, which opened in 2011, are named in her honor. Many of her students have gone on to become key figures in the show business, Ying Thai Magazine has called her the most influential woman in the Thai entertainment industry. Sondi Sodsai on IMDb
Bill Hannon was an American college basketball player for Army from 1951 to 1954. Hannon played basketball at West Point during his sophomore and senior years. In his sophomore year of 1951-52, he set an Army record with 277 points, beating Dale Hall's mark of 273. Hannon led the nation in rebounding with 20.9 per game. In his senior year, Hannon scored 44 points in a game against New Mexico, he pulled down 27 rebounds against Pittsburgh on February 22, 1954. Overall, Hannon led Army in rebounding each of his three years, he finished his college career with 1,155 points and 1,101 rebounds, both totals were school records at that time. His 19.0 career rebounding average in 58 games is still the highest in Army history. Hannon served in the U. S. retired as a colonel. In 2015, he was inducted into the Army Sports Hall of Fame