The Wichita people or Kitikiti'sh are a confederation of Southern Plains Native American tribes. They spoke the Wichita language and Kichai language, both Caddoan languages, they are indigenous to Oklahoma and Kansas. Today, Wichita tribes, which include the Kichai people, Waco, Taovaya and the Wichita proper, are federally recognized as the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes are headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is in Oklahoma; the Wichitas are a self-governance tribe, who operate their own housing authority and issue tribal vehicle tags. The current tribal administration is. President: Terri Parton Vice-President: Jesse E. Jones Secretary: Myles Stephenson Jr. Treasurer: Vanessa Vance The tribe owns the Sugar Creek Casino, several restaurants, the Sugar Creek Event Center, Hinton Travel Inn in Hinton, it owns a smoke shop, travel plaza, historical center in Anadarko. Their annual economic impact in 2010 was $4.5 million. The Wichita language is one of the Caddoan languages.
They are related by language and culture with whom they enjoy close relations. The Wichita lived in fixed villages notable for their large, domed-shaped, grass-covered dwellings, sometimes up to 30 feet in diameter; the Wichita were skilled traders and negotiators. Their historical homelands stretched from San Antonio, Texas in the south to as far north as Great Bend, Kansas. A semi-sedentary people, they occupied northern Texas in the early 18th century, they traded with other Southern Plains Indians on both sides of the Red River and as far south as Waco. For much of the year, the Wichita lived in huts made of forked cedar poles covered by dry grasses. In the winter, they lived in hunting camps. Wichita hunters used all parts of the bison—for clothing and cooking fat, winter shelter, leather supplies and medicine; each spring, Wichita families to their villages for another season of cultivating crops. Wichita people wore clothing from tanned hides, which the women sewed, they decorated their dresses with elk canine teeth.
Both men and women tattooed their bodies with solid and dotted lines and circles. The Wichita tribes call themselves Kitikiti'sh / Kirikirish, because of the historical practice of tattooing marks around their eyes; the kindred Pawnee called them Kírikuuruks / Kírikuruks and the Arikara referred to them as Čirikuúnux. The Kiowa knew them as Thoe-Khoot. Wichita people have been a loose confederation of related peoples on the Southern Plains, including such bands or sub-tribes as Taovayas, Tawakonis and Guichitas or Wichita Proper; the Taovaya were the most important in the 18th century. The French called the Wichita peoples Panis Piqués or Panis Noirs. One Pawnee splinter grouping known as Panismahas moved from what is now Nebraska to the Texas-Arkansas border regions where they lived with the Taovayas. In 2018, the Wichita Tribes opened the Wichita Tribal History Center in Anadarko, which shares Wichita history, visual arts, culture with the public; the Wichita Annual Dance, a powwow, is held at the Wichita Tribal Park on US-281, north of Anadarko, every August.
After the man and woman were made they dreamed that things were made for them, when they woke they had the things of which they had dreamed... The woman was given an ear of corn... It was to be the food of the people that should exist in the future, to be used generation after generation. —Tawakoni Jim in The Mythology of the Wichita, 1904 The Ancestral Wichita people lived in the eastern Great Plains from the Red River in Arkansas north to Nebraska for at least 2,000 years. Early Wichita people were hunters and gatherers who adopted agriculture. Farming villages were developed about 900 CE on terraces above the Washita and South Canadian Rivers in present-day Oklahoma; the women of these 10th-century communities cultivated varieties of maize and squash, marsh elder, tobacco, important for religious purposes. The men hunted deer, rabbits and bison, caught fish and harvested mussels from the rivers; these villagers lived in thatched-roof houses. Archaeologists describe the Washita River Phase from 1250 to 1450, when local populations grew and villages of up to 20 houses were spaced every two or so miles along the rivers.
These farmers may have had contact with the Panhandle culture villages in the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles, farming villages along the Canadian River. The Panhandle villagers showed signs of adopting cultural characteristics of the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande Valley, with whom they interacted. In the late 15th century, most of these Washita River villages were abandoned for reasons that not known today. Numerous archaeological sites in central Kansas near the Great Bend of the Arkansas River share common traits and are collectively known as the "
The Concho River is a river in the U. S. state of Texas. Concho is Spanish for "shell"; the Concho River has three primary feeds: the North and South Concho Rivers. The North Concho River is the longest fork, starting in Howard County and traveling southeast for 88 mi until merging with the South and Middle forks near Goodfellow Air Force Base in San Angelo, Texas; the combined branches of the river flow east about 58 mi until it empties into the Colorado River within the waters of the O. H. Ivie Lake about 12 mi east of Texas. Hernando de Ugarte y la Concha, Governor of New Mexico, dispatched an expedition from Santa Fe in 1650 led by Captain Diego del Castillo, to explore what is now north central Texas; the expedition reached the territory of the Tejas Indians, reported finding pearls on the Concho River. The Diego de Guadalajara expedition was launched in 1654 to follow up on Castillo's findings; the Spanish explored the river for the gem-quality purple to pink pearls produced by that species.
The mussels were systematically harvested for only a short time because they soon realized that the yield of pearls was too low for their harvest to be economically viable. List of rivers of Texas North Concho River from the Handbook of Texas Online Southwest Paddler report on Concho River
A drought or drouth is a natural disaster of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought may be declared after as few as 15 days, it can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour. Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae, have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought; some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as grasslands. Prolonged droughts have caused humanitarian crisis. Most arid ecosystems have inherently low productivity; the most prolonged drought in the world in recorded history occurred in the Atacama Desert in Chile.
Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall. Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation over a longer duration. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Droughts occur in areas where normal levels of rainfall are, in themselves, low. If these factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficiently to reach the surface over a sufficient time, the result is a drought. Drought can be triggered by a high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of high pressure systems, winds carrying continental, rather than oceanic air masses, ridges of high pressure areas aloft can prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region.
Once a region is within drought, feedback mechanisms such as local arid air, hot conditions which can promote warm core ridging, minimal evapotranspiration can worsen drought conditions. Within the tropics, distinct and dry seasons emerge due to the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone or Monsoon trough; the dry season increases drought occurrence, is characterized by its low humidity, with watering holes and rivers drying up. Because of the lack of these watering holes, many grazing animals are forced to migrate due to the lack of water in search of more fertile lands. Examples of such animals are zebras and wildebeest; because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common. Since water vapor becomes more energetic with increasing temperature, more water vapor is required to increase relative humidity values to 100% at higher temperatures. Periods of warmth quicken the pace of fruit and vegetable production, increase evaporation and transpiration from plants, worsen drought conditions.
Drier and hotter weather occurs in parts of the Amazon River Basin and Central America during El Niño events. Winters during the El Niño are warmer and drier than average conditions in the Northwest, northern Midwest, northern Mideast United States, so those regions experience reduced snowfalls. Conditions are drier than normal from December to February in south-central Africa in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana. Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, decreasing air quality dramatically. Drier-than-normal conditions are in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria, inland New South Wales, eastern Tasmania from June to August; as warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, it causes extensive drought in the western Pacific. Singapore experienced the driest February in 2014 since records began in 1869, with only 6.3 mm of rain falling in the month and temperatures hitting as high as 35 °C on 26 February.
The years 2005 had the next driest Februaries, when 8.4 mm of rain fell. Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming, excessive irrigation and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water. In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind. Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind; the wind can cause small particles to be therefore moved to another region. Suspended particles within the wind may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion. Wind erosion occurs in areas with little or no vegetation in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. Loess is a homogeneous nonstratified, friable coherent calcareous, fine-grained, pale yellow or buff, windblown sediment, it occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess stands in either steep or vertical faces. Loess tends to develop into rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world.
Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, will erode readily. Therefore, windbreaks are planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. Wind erosion
The Tompiro Indians were Pueblo Indians living in New Mexico. They lived in several adobe villages east of the Rio Grande Valley in the Salinas region of New Mexico, their settlements were abandoned and they were absorbed into other Pueblo Nations in the 1670s. Little is known about the origin of the Tompiros, they spoke a language related to that of the Piro Indians who lived to their west in the Rio Grande Valley. The Piro and Tompiro languages are believed by most authorities to belong to the Tanoan language family. In the 16th century, the Tompiro lived in nine settlements in the Salinas clustered around the present day town of Mountainair; those whose ruins are preserved today are Quarai and Gran Quivira which today make up the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument. The ruin known as Gran Quivira today but during Spanish times as Las Humanas – was the largest settlement and may have had a population of 2,000 people. Las Humanas and the other Tompiro settlements were established about 1300 and became culturally similar to the other Pueblo Indians in the Rio Grande Valley.
The Tompiro name for Las Humanas was Cueloze, but Juan de Onate named the settlement the "Great Pueblo of the Humanas" when he visited in 1598, the name reflecting the inhabitant's custom of painting stripes or tattooing their faces. The Plains dwelling Jumano Indians were called by the same name, authorities differ as to whether they were related to the Tompiros or given similar names by the Spaniards; as village-dwelling and sedentary Pueblo Indians, the Tompiros lived in a marginal climate. Their region was more than 6,000 feet in elevation, near the upper climatic limit for corn cultivation, they had little surface water for irrigation, rainfall was sparse and sporadic, winters were long and cold. What made the Tompiro settlements viable was their proximity to salt deposits in the Salinas and to the bison herds of the Great Plains. Thus, they were important traders and middlemen between the Plains Indians and the Pueblos of the Rio Grande Valley for salt and bison skins and meat; the Tompiros hunted small and large game in the region deer and rabbits and gathered wild foods, including pinyon pine nuts.
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado did not visit the Tompiros during his expedition of 1539-1542. The first Spanish account of the Tompiros is from Antonio de Espejo in 1582-1583. Espejo was greeted with suspicion in the Tompiro settlements. In 1601, the aggressive and brutal founder of the colony of New Mexico, Juan de Onate, retaliated for the killing of two Spaniards with a raid on the Tompiros that left, according to one account, 900 Indians dead and three Pueblos destroyed; the Tompiros were distant from the early Spanish settlements in the Rio Grande Valley and not until 1627 was a Catholic mission, headed by the Franciscan Fray Alonso de Benavides, established at Las Humanas. Thus began a long struggle between the Spanish missionaries and the Tompiros about religion. At first and the Kiva religion of the Tompiros co-existed, but by 1660 the Franciscans were suppressing the native religion; the early days of Spanish settlement in New Mexico were characterized by bitter disputes between the civil authorities and the missionaries as each attempted to exert control – and exploit – the Pueblo Indians.
This dispute came to a head among the Tompiros. In 1659, Governor Bernardo Lopez de Mendizabal appointed Nicolas de Aguilar as Alcalde Mayor of the Tompiro settlements. Aguilar was a Mestizo soldier from Michoacán, Mexico and he carried out the policy of Governor Lopez forcefully. Among Lopez's dictates were that no Indian would be required to work for the Franciscan priests without pay and that the Indians had the right to practice their religion, he permitted the Pueblos to perform their religious dances in the Governor's Palace in Santa Fe, thus endorsing religious practices, prohibited for 30 years. Aguilar enforced the Governor's policy among the Tompiros over the opposition of the Franciscans. Aguilar went so far as to have Indians whipped. During a bitterly cold winter when the Franciscans requested Indian assistance to gather firewood, Aguilar told them to burn the 600 wooden crosses they had collected for ceremonies. Aguilar said it was too dangerous for the Indians to gather wood for the priests because of Apache raiders lurking in the area.
Aguilar permitted Indian dances and ordered Christian Indians to participate. The Franciscans took their grievances to the authorities in Mexico City and Lopez and Aguilar were charged under the Inquisition of obstructing the spread of the Catholic faith. Both were arrested. Lopez died during his trial. After a long trial he was convicted and exiled; the Church had won and its authority in New Mexico would go unchallenged until 1680 when the Pueblos rose up en masse and expelled the Spanish. The dispute would have consequences. Among the major causes of the Pueblo Revolt were the excesses of the Franciscans in suppressing the traditional religions; the problems of the Tompiros multiplied in the 1660s. European diseases took a heavy toll among the Tompiros as they did among other Pueblos. In addition, drought impacted the viability of the Tompiro economy. A priest stated in 1669, "For three years no crop has been harvested. In the past year, a great many Indians perished of hunger, lying dead along the roads, in the ravines, in their huts.
There were pueblos where more than four hundred and fifty died of hunger…there is not a fanega of corn or wheat in the whole kingdom." Labor required of the Tompi
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument
The Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument is a complex of three Spanish missions located in the U. S. state of New Mexico, near Mountainair. The main park visitor center is in Mountainair. Construction of the missions began in 1622 and was completed in 1635. Once, thriving Native American trade communities of Tiwa and Tompiro language-speaking Puebloans inhabited this remote frontier area of central New Mexico. Early in the 17th century Spanish Franciscans found the area ripe for their missionary efforts. However, by the late 1670s the entire Salinas District, as the Spanish had named it, was depopulated of both Indian and Spaniard. What remains today are austere yet beautiful reminders of this earliest contact between Pueblo Indians and Spanish Colonials: the ruins of three mission churches, at Quarai, Abó, Gran Quivira and the excavated pueblo of Las Humanas or, as it is known today, the Gran Quivira pueblo, it was first proclaimed Gran Quivira National Monument on November 1, 1909. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.
On December 19, 1980 it was enlarged and two New Mexico State Monuments were absorbed into it on November 2, 1981. It was renamed on October 28, 1988; the Quarai Ruins are located about 8 miles north at about 6650 feet above sea level. There is a 0.5 mile trail through the ruins. The Gran Quivira Ruins are located about 25 miles south of Mountainair, at about 6500 feet above sea level. There is a small visitor center near the parking lot. A 0.5 mile trail leads through excavated pueblo ruins and the ruins of the uncompleted mission church. The Gran Quivira, as it has been called for over a hundred years, is by far the best known of the Salinas pueblos, in fact is one of the most celebrated ruins in all of the Southwest; this is not strange, as it is altogether the largest ruin of any Christian temple that exists in the United States. How and when it first received its deceptive title of "Gran Quivira" we may never know. From the days of Coronado the name of "Quivira" had been associated with the idea of a great unknown city, of wealth and splendor, situated somewhere on the Eastern Plains.
The Gran Quivera Historic District was listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. National Register of Historic Places listings in Socorro County, New Mexico National Register of Historic Places listings in Torrance County, New Mexico List of National Historic Landmarks in New Mexico List of National Monuments of the United States Ivey, James E.. In the Midst of a Loneliness: The Architectural History of the Salinas Missions: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument Historic Structire Report. Southwest Cultural Resource Center Professional Papers. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Division of History, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Southwest Region, National Park Service, Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five became extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene in South Asia, was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus, the ancestor of all other Bison species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki, North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly related to the true buffalo; the North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, the Wood bison, B. b. athabascae, the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada.
A third subspecies, the Eastern Bison is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison. References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle and produce fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron; the American bison and the European bison are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. They are typical artiodactyl ungulates, are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo, they are muscular with shaggy coats of long hair. Adults grow up to 1.8 metres in length for American Bison and up to 2.8 metres in length for European bison. American bison can weigh from 400 kilograms to 900 kg and European bison can weight from 800 kilograms to 1,000 kilograms.
European bison tend to be heavier than American bison. Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds; the bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, join a male herd, which are smaller than female herds. Mature bulls travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes commingle. American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The Wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it removed from the Endangered Species List.
Although superficially similar and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison has 14; the American bison has four lumbar vertebrae. Adult American bison are less slim in have shorter legs. American bison tend to graze more, browse less than their European relatives, their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference. The body of the American bison is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison; the horns of the European bison point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American bison are more tamed than their European cousins, breed with domestic cattle more readily; the bovine tribe split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species.
This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini: Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison and yak and Banteng and gayalHowever, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison. An ear
Antonio de Espejo
Antonio de Espejo was a Spanish explorer who led an expedition into New Mexico and Arizona in 1582–83. The expedition created interest in establishing a Spanish colony among the Pueblo Indians of the Rio Grande valley. Espejo was born about 1540 in Cordova and arrived in Mexico in 1571 along with the Chief Inquisitor, Pedro Moya de Contreras, sent by the Spanish king to establish an Inquisition. Espejo and his brother became ranchers on the northern frontier of Mexico. In 1581, Espejo and his brother were charged with murder, his brother was imprisoned and Espejo fled to Santa Barbara, the northernmost outpost of Mexico. He was there. Espejo, a wealthy man and financed an expedition for the ostensible purpose of ascertaining the fate of two priests who had remained behind with the Pueblos when Chamuscado led his soldiers back to Mexico. Along with fourteen soldiers, a priest, about 30 Indian servants and assistants, 115 horses he departed from San Bartolome, near Santa Barbara, on November 10, 1582.
Espejo followed the same route as Chamuscado and Rodriguez, down the Conchos River to its junction with the Rio Grande and up the Rio Grande to the Pueblo villages. Along the Conchos River, Espejo encountered the Conchos Indians "naked people... who support themselves on fish, mesquite and lechuguilla". Further downriver, he found Conchos who grew corn and melons. Leaving the Conchos behind, Espejo next encountered the Passaguates "who were naked like the Conchos" and seemed to have had a similar lifestyle. Next, came the Jobosos who were few in number and ran away from the Spaniards. All of these tribes had been impacted by Spanish slave raids."Near the junction of the Conchos and the Rio Grande, Espejo entered the territory of the Patarabueyes who attacked his horses, killing three. Espejo succeeded in making peace with them; the Patarabueyes, he said, the other Indians near La Junta were called "Jumanos". -- the first use of the name for these Indians who would be prominent on the frontier for nearly two centuries.
To add to the confusion, they were called Otomoacos and Abriaches. Espejo saw five settlements of Jumanos with a population of about 10,000 people, they lived in low, flat roofed houses and grew corn and beans and hunted and fished along the river. They gave Espejo bison skins. Leaving the Jumano behind, he passed through the lands of the Caguates or Suma, who spoke the same language as the Jumanos, the Tanpachoas or Mansos, he found the Rio Grande Valley well populated all the way up to the present site of Texas. Upstream from El Paso, the expedition traveled 15 days without seeing any people. In February 1583, Espejo arrived at the territory of the Piros, the most southerly of the Pueblo villagers. From there the Spanish continued up the Rio Grande. Espejo described the Pueblo villages as "clean and tidy"; the houses were made of adode bricks. "They make fine tortillas," Espejo commented, the Pueblos served the Spanish turkeys, beans and pumpkins. The people "did not seem to be bellicose"; the southernmost Pueblos had only clubs for weapons plus a few "poor Turkish bows and poorer arrows".
Further north, the Indians were more aggressive. Some of the Pueblo towns were large, Espejo described Zia as having 1,000 houses and 4,000 men and boys. In their farming, the Pueblos used irrigation "with canals and dams, built as if by Spaniards"; the only Spanish influence that Espejo noted among the Pueblos was their desire for iron. They would steal any iron article. Espejo confirmed that the two priests had been killed by the Indians in the pueblo of Puala, near present-day Bernalillo; as the Spanish approached the Pueblo the inhabitants fled to the nearby mountains. The Spanish continued their explorations and west of the Rio Grande with no opposition from the Indians. Near Acoma, they noted that a people called Querechos lived in the mountains nearby and traded with the townspeople; these Querechos were Navajo. The related Apache of the Great Plains during this period were called Querechos. Espejo visited the Zuni and Hopi and heard stories of silver mines further west. With four men and Hopi guides he went in search of the mines, reaching the Verde River in Arizona in the area of Montezuma Castle National Monument.
He found the mines near present-day Jerome, but was unimpressed by their potential. He heard from the local Indians Yavapai, of a large river to the west, undoubtedly a reference to the Colorado. Among the Hopi and the Zuni, Espejo met several Spanish-speaking Mexican Indians, left behind by, or escaped from, the Coronado expedition more than 40 years earlier; the priest, several of the soldiers, the Indian assistants decided, despite Espejo's entreaties, to return to Mexico. It is possible that the priest was offended by the high-handed tactics of Espejo in dealing with the Pueblos. Espejo and eight soldiers stayed behind to look for silver and other precious metals; the little force had a skirmish with the Indians of Acoma because two women slaves or prisoners of the Spanish escaped. The Spanish recaptured the women but they fought their way free, wounding a Spanish soldier. In aiding the escape of the women, the Acomans and the Spanish exchanged volleys of harquebus fire and arrows; the Spanish, were placed on notice that the hospitality of the Pueblos had limits.
The Spanish returned to the Rio Grande Valley where they executed 16 Indians at a village who mocked them and refused them food. The Spanish departed the Rio Grande and expl