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Jumla District

Jumla District, is one of the ten directly constituent districts of the Karnali province of Nepal. This district has Jumla as an area of 2,531 square kilometres, its territory lies between longitudes 81⁰ 28' and 82⁰ 18' East, between latitudes 28⁰ 58' and 29⁰ 30' North. The Nepali language originated in the Sinja Valley. Sinja was the capital of Khas Kingdom, the dialect called "Khas Bhasa" is still spoken among that region's people. Jumla was a part of Khasa kingdom during 11th to 13th century. After 13th century Khasa Kingdom collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya in Karnali-Bheri region and Kingdom of Jumla was one of them; the Jumla Kingdom was one of the many kingdoms that dotted Nepal before its reunification by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha and by his younger son Bahadur Shah. The kingdom was founded around 1404 when Baliraja, who married the daughter of the last ruler of the Yatse Kingdom, succeeded his father-in-law, it was one of the most powerful kingdoms in western Nepal, being one of the 22 Baise principalities of the Karnali region which had once been part of the larger Yatse Kingdom.

After centuries of intermittent warfare it appropriated the kingdom of Mustang in 1760. In the late 18th century the Jumla kingdom defended itself against the first attack by King Prithivi Narayan Shah, legend has it that he got injured in the battle. With the help of the kingdoms surrounding Jumla, Bahadur Shah attacked again and annexed Jumla for the Gorkha kings in 1789; the Jumla kings were Thakuris like the Gorkha Kings. The Jumla Kingdom belonged to the more extensive pre-unification kingdoms in Nepal. At the height of its power it extended from Mustang in the east to present day Uttarakhand, a state in modern-day India, territory that Kingdom of Nepal lost to the East India Company in 1816 during the partition of Nepal; the Jumla kings belonged to the Kalyana dynasty, linked to the Sisodia clan of India. There have been marriages between the Jumla royal family and the Shah's royal family of Nepal; the direct descendants of the erstwhile Jumla royal family include Nepali Film legend Nir Shah, Former Director General of Nepal Electricity Authority Harish Chandra Shah, DIGP Sher Bahadur Shah, Colonel Nepal Army Bhim Bahadur Shah and AIGP of Nepal Police, Surendra Bahadur Shah.

The kings of Jumla, post-1400: Baliraja 1404-1445 Vaksaraja 1445-? Vijayaraja Visesaraja fl. 1498 Vibhogaraja Matiraja Sahiraja Bhanasahi c. 1529-90 Saimalsahi c. 1590-1599 Vasantaraja 1599-1602 Visekaraja 1599-1602 Vikramasahi 1602-c. 1635 Bahadurasahi c. 1635-65 Virabhadrasahi 1665-75 Prithvipatisahi 1676-1719 Surathasahi 1719-40 Sudarasanasahi 1740-c. 1758 Suryabhanasahi c. 1758-89 Geographically, Jumla is a Himalayan mountainous region of which elevations ranges from 915 metres to 4,679 metres. The Higher Himalyan Region consists of Patarasi and Kanjirowa Himalayan range; the major rivers in Jumla are Hima and Jawa. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, Jumla District had a population of 108,921. Of these, 98.6 % spoke 0.6 % Tamang as their first language. On 10 March 2017 Government of Nepal restricted old administrative structures and announced 744 new local level units as per the new constitution of Nepal 2015, According to new structure Jumla district is divided into 1 municipality and 7 rural municipality: Chandannath Kankasundari Sinja Hima Tila Guthichaur Tatopani Patarasi Note: UM=Urban Municipality, RM=Rural Municipality

2002 FIFA World Cup seeding

To calculate the seeding for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, FIFA used the FIFA World Rankings in combination with performances of national teams in the three previous World Cups. The formula is identical with the one used for the 1998 FIFA World Cup seeding. For the ranking part, points were allocated on the basis of 32 for the best achieving of the 32 qualifiers for 2002 FIFA World Cup in each of the three fields considered, down to one for the lowest ranking. For the World Cup performance part, points were allocated as follows: Teams qualified for the knockout stages were ranked by their overall performance and received between 32 points and 17 points. Teams eliminated in the group stage were ranked by their performance; the top half received the rest 8 points. The seedings table uses these points obtained from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, 1994 FIFA World Cup and the 1998 FIFA World Cup averaged in a 1:2:3 ratio added to the average number of points derived from the World Rankings at three given dates, December 1999, December 2000, November 2001.

All totals are rounded. South Korea and Japan were seeded as France as defending champions; the other seeds were: Brazil, Italy and Spain

USS Selfridge (DD-357)

The second USS Selfridge was a Porter-class destroyer in the United States Navy. She was named for Rear Admiral Thomas O. Selfridge and his son, Thomas O. Selfridge, Jr.. Selfridge was laid down by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation at Camden in New Jersey on 18 December 1933, launched on 18 April 1936 and commissioned at Philadelphia on 25 November 1936, Commander H. D. Clarke in command. Selfridge conducted her shakedown cruise in the Mediterranean in January and February 1937 and returned to the east coast, via the Caribbean, in March. From April into August, she underwent post-shakedown overhaul at, conducted training exercises out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In September, Presidential escort duties took her to New York. Diverted back to Norfolk for another Presidential escort mission in early November, she got underway again for the west coast on 9 December 1937. Selfridge transited the Panama Canal and joined the Battle Force as flagship of Destroyer Squadron 4 on 13 December 1937 and reached San Diego, California on the 22nd.

Except for fleet problems and exercises, she remained in the southern California area for the next two years. In 1940, she was reassigned to Pearl Harbor, whence she operated until after the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941; that day, having just completed an escort run from Palmyra Island, was moored in berth X-9. Within five minutes of the start of the bombing, Selfridge's guns were firing on the Japanese planes. By 1300, manned by a mixed crew from various ships, she was underway and soon thereafter joined other ships in patrolling off Oahu. During the remainder of the month, Selfridge patrolled the Hawaiian area and, screening Saratoga, participated in the abortive attempt to reinforce Wake Island. In January 1942, she continued operations in the Saratoga group until that carrier was torpedoed some 500 miles southwest of Oahu on the 11th. Selfridge screened the carrier back to Pearl Harbor. Exercises and patrols in the Hawaiian area followed until 20 January when she assumed escort duty for a merchant ship on a Canton Island run.

After arriving at Canton on the 27th, she patrolled off the island until the merchant ship completed offloading started back to Hawaii. En route, on the 30th, Selfridge depth charged and may have damaged an enemy submarine. Selfridge returned to Pearl Harbor on 6 February 1942 and was under way again on the 9th to escort Saratoga to Bremerton, Washington for permanent repairs. In mid-March, she returned to Hawaii in the screen of a convoy and, by the end of the month, had escorted more supplies to Canton. In April, she carried Marine Corps personnel and mail to Palmyra and Christmas islands, proceeded to Bora Bora in the Society Islands, to rendezvous with and escort convoys carrying reinforcements to the Samoan and Tonga groups. On 21 May 1942, she departed the latter group for the New Hebrides and Australia. A unit of TF 44, she remained in Australian waters into July. Soon after 0120 on 7 August 1942, TF 44, now designated TG 62.6, the screening group for the transports, arrived in the Guadalcanal area.

At 0620, Selfridge opened fire on a small gasoline carrier entering Tulagi harbor. A few hours the transports moved in toward the beaches. At 1320, the Japanese sent in a high level bombing attack. Shortly thereafter, they followed that strike with a dive bomber attack. On the 8th, Selfridge continued to screen the transports and, after a noon bombing attack, picked up two Japanese airmen. On the morning of the 9th, she assisted survivors of the Battle of Savo Island and, with Ellet, scuttled the badly-damaged Australian cruiser, Canberra. For the remainder of the month, the Australian group screened the carriers of the air support group. On 31 August 1942, the ships headed back to Brisbane. In May 1943, Selfridge was reassigned to the 3rd Fleet. On the 12th, she arrived at Nouméa. Through the summer, she operated with cruisers of TF 36 TF 37, participated in exercises with TF's 38, 39, 34. In late September, as a unit of the 3d Fleet's amphibious force, she escorted an LST convoy to Vella Lavella commenced nighttime patrols in the Solomon Islands up “the Slot” to intercept Japanese shipping.

On the night of 6 October 1943, Selfridge, O'Bannon, Chevalier intercepted an enemy force of six destroyers, three destroyer transports, smaller armed craft some 12 miles off Marquana Bay as it attempted to evacuate land forces from Vella Lavella. In the ensuing Battle of Vella Lavella, Chevalier was damaged beyond repair, she was sunk on the 7th by an American torpedo. Selfridge and O'Bannon were both damaged. Personnel casualties on board Selfridge amounted to 13 killed, 11 wounded, 36 missing. Temporary repairs to Selfridge were made at Nouméa. Permanent repairs, including the installation of a new bow and a complete new gun armament, were made at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard.

Aung Shwe Prue Chowdhury

Aung Shwe Prue Chowdhury was a Bangladeshi from Bandarban belonging to Bangladesh Nationalist Party. He was the 15th King of Bohmong Circle. Chowdhury was born on 1 August 1914, he was elected as a member of the East Pakistan Legislative Assembly in 1970. He was elected as a member of the Jatiya Sangsad from Chittagong Hill Tracts-2 in 1979, he was appointed as the state minister of the Ministry of Food. Chowdhury was appointed as the King of Bohmong Circle on 19 November 1998, he remained as the King of Bohmong Circle till his death. Chowdhury was married to Abain Prue Chowdhury, they had two daughters. His son Saching Prue Jerry is a former member of the Jatiya Sangsad, his co-sister-in-law Ma Mya Ching is a former member of the Jatiya Sangsad. Chowdury died on 8 August 2012 at the age of 98. Chowdhury collaborated with the Pakistan Army during the Liberation War of Bangladesh, he took oath as a member of a provincial cabinet during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Félix Pérez Cardozo

Félix Pérez Cardozo was a Paraguayan harpist. Pérez Cardozo died on June 1952 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Cardozo was born to Teodoro Pérez and Cándida Rosa Cardozo in the small town of Hyaty in the state of Guairá; as is common amongst musicians of the Paraguayan countryside, Cardozo learned the basics of playing from other harpists, without seeking tutelage from any one master. He was part of a paradigmatic trio consisting of one harp and two guitars, along with Ampelio Villalba and Diosnel Chase, he received support from the poet Pedro José Carlés, with whom he traveled to the Paraguayan capital city Asunción in 1928. During this time they would play at folk music festivals organized in the "Teatro Granados" by Aristóbulo "Nonón" Domínguez, as well as in night clubs. In 1931 he and his band left for Buenos Aires, where most of his artistic career took place, they were the first of a long list of Paraguayan musicians that would succeed in the Argentine capital for more than half a century. In a short period of time, the individualistic style of Cardozo's interpretations of various compositions gained him wide public recognition.

He was a member of several bands. He enjoyed huge fame throughout all the Río de la Plata area, his success was such. He married the Argentinian Victoria Sanchez - with whom he had three children: Angela Rosa and Victor. Among his greatest harp compositions are found: "Guyra campana" "Carreta guýpe", "Jataity" "Llegada" "Mi despedida" "Angela Rosa" "Che vallemi Hyaty" "Che vallemi Yaguarón" "En tí hallé consuelo" "Tren lechero" "El sueño de Angelita"He wrote music for various verses of distinguished poets such as Víctor Montórfano Antonio Ortiz Mayans, Félix Fernández, Rigoberto Fontao Meza, Andrés Pereira, the Argentine Hilario Cuadros the most important poet of Paraguayan history Emiliano R. Fernández, whose piece is seen as a pillar of Paraguayan epic music due to the rhythmic power, melodic beauty and patriotic content of the following texts ("1º de Marzo", "Che la reina", the lovable song. "Caaguy ryakua", "Isla Pukú", the recompilation of "Jaha che ndive", "Lui ryevu", "Misiones". The great "mitá guazú" died in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 9 June 1952.

Atahualpa Yupanki, a fundamental icon of inspirational folk music and poetry in this century in Argentina, sang "Canción del arpa dormida" in his honor "... En ese misterio de sol y de selva / de agreste romance de india y mensú / llegaron tus manos a mi tierra gaucha / tejiendo armonías, ¡oh! mita guazu./ Acunando ensueños se nos va la vida / y el viajero parte para no volver. / Hoy el arpa india se quedó dormida / como una guarania que no pudo ser". Centro Cultural de la República El Cabildo Diccionario Biográfico "FORJADORES DEL PARAGUAY", Primera Edición Enero de 2000. Distribuidora Quevedo de Ediciones. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lorenzo Manlio Paris "Félix Perez Cardozo, su vida y su música" Editorial ServiLibro, Asunción, Paraguay ISBN 9789995301002 Luis Szaran Diccionario de la Música Paraguaya" Edicción de la Jesuitenmission, Germany Melodías Paraguayas Staff Musicas Paraguayas

Dade massacre

The Dade massacre was an 1835 defeat for the United States Army that escalated the Second Seminole War, which lasted until 1842. Amid a dispute between the Government of the United States and the Seminole over the right of the latter to occupy land in Florida, two U. S. Army companies under the command of Major Francis L. Dade, consisting in total of 110 soldiers, were ambushed by Seminole warriors during a march. Only three men survived, one died of his wounds the following day. On December 23, 1835, two U. S. companies of 110 troops under Major Francis Langhorne Dade departed from Fort Brooke, heading up the King Highway on a resupply and reinforce mission to Fort King. The Native Americans in Florida had grown furious at attempts by the U. S. Army to forcefully relocate them to a reservation out west and Dade knew his men might be attacked by the Seminole Indians who were shadowing his regiment, but believed that if an attack were to occur, it would occur during one of the river crossings or in the thicker woods to the south.

Having passed these, he felt safe and recalled his flanking scouts in order that the command could move faster. Although the terrain he was now in, pines and palmettos, could not have concealed anyone, standing or walking, it could and did conceal crouched or prone warriors waiting in ambush; the Seminoles did not refrain from attacking in the other places because they thought they could achieve better surprise but because they were waiting for Osceola to join them. However, at the time he was busy killing Wiley Thompson, they gave up waiting and attacked without him. Several Seminoles with their warriors assembled secretly at points along the march. Scouts watched the troops in their sky-blue uniforms at every foot of the route and sent reports back to the Indian chiefs; the troops marched for five quiet days until December 28, when they were just south of the present-day city of Bushnell. They were passing through a high hammock with oaks, cabbage palms, saw palmetto when a shot rang out. Many sources state that the first storm of bullets brought down half his men.

As it would turn out, in the late afternoon of that day, 180 Seminoles lay in wait 25 miles south of Fort King. The Seminoles had the element of surprise in their favor. Major Dade, on horseback, was killed in the Seminoles' first shot fired by Chief Micanopy, which by pre-arranged plan began the attack. Following Dade's death, command passed to Captain George W. Gardiner. Many of the soldiers, in two single file lines, were quickly killed. Only a few managed to get their flintlock muskets from underneath their heavy winter coats. An eyewitness account by Seminole leader Halpatter Tustenuggee read as follows: "We had been preparing for this more than a year... Just as the day was breaking, we moved out of the swamp into the pine-barren. I counted, by direction of one hundred and eighty warriors. Upon approaching the road, each man chose his position on the west side... About nine o'clock in the morning the command approached... So soon as all the soldiers were opposite... Jumper gave the whoop, Micanopy fired the first rifle, the signal agreed upon, when every Indian arose and fired, which laid upon the ground, more than half the white men.

The cannon was discharged several times, but the men who loaded it were shot down as soon as the smoke cleared away... As we were returning to the swamp supposing all were dead, an Indian came up and said the white men were building a fort of logs. Jumper and myself, with ten warriors, returned; as we approached, we saw six men behind two logs placed one above another, with the cannon a short distance off... We soon came near, they had guns, but no powder, we looked in the boxes afterwards and found they were empty". The battle began either at 10:00 a.m. or at 8 a.m. and ending around 4 p.m. with the Indians leaving around sunset. After the battle, the Indians robbed the bodies; the Florida Indians had provided a haven for escaped slaves, whom the Indians employed as translators or joined the tribe. After this, "about 40 or 50 Negroes rode in on horseback." They butchered the remaining wounded, according to Ransome's statement. Only three U. S. soldiers were reported to have survived the attack. Private Edward Decourcey, covered by dead bodies, Ransom Clark who appeared "dead enough" with five wounds and bleeding cuts on his head.

The next day, a Seminole pursued them on horseback and Decourcey was killed after they had split to avoid joint capture. Clarke made it back to Fort Brooke, collapsing within a mile of the Fort and being helped all the way back by a friendly Indian woman. Clarke provided the only narrative from the Army's side of. A third soldier, Private Joseph Sprague returned to Fort Brooke and continued serving in the Army, he was illiterate, did not leave a report of the battle. In 1837, Louis Pacheco, the mulatto slave who guided and interpreted for the Dade command resurfaced and gave a third eyewitness account of the battle. Pacheco had been ahead of the column, by his account, taken prisoner by the Indians; some thought him to be a informer. He was shipped west with the Indians about that time, but returned to Florida shortly before his death in early 1895. After the battle, many large plantations were burned and settlers killed. By the end of 1836, all but one house in what is now Miami-Dade and Broward counties had