Varna is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Situated strategically in the Gulf of Varna, the city has been a major economic and cultural centre for three millennia. Varna known as Odessos, grew from a Thracian seaside settlement to a major seaport on the Black Sea. Varna is an important centre for business, education, tourism and healthcare; the city is referred to as the maritime capital of Bulgaria and headquarters the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine. In 2008, Varna was designated seat of the Black Sea Euroregion by the Council of Europe. In 2014, Varna was awarded the title of European Youth Capital 2017; the oldest gold treasure in the world, belonging to the Varna culture, was discovered in the Varna Necropolis and dates to 4200–4600 BC. Theophanes the Confessor first mentioned the name Varna, as the city came to be known, with the Slavic conquest of the Balkans in the 6th to 7th centuries; the name could be of Varangian origin, as Varangians had been crossing the Black Sea for many years, reaching Constantinople in the early Middle Ages.
In Swedish, the meaning of värn is "shield, defense" – hence Varna could mean "defended, fortified place". The name may be older than that. According to Theophanes, in 680 Asparukh, the founder of the First Bulgarian Empire, routed an army of Constantine IV near the Danube delta and, pursuing it, reached "the so-called Varna near Odyssos and the midlands thereof"; the new name applied to an adjacent river or lake, a Roman military camp, or an inland area, only to the city itself. By the late 10th century, the name Varna was established so that when Byzantines wrestled back control of the area from the Bulgarians around 975, they kept it rather than restoring the ancient name Odessos; the latter is said to be of Carian origin, though no modern scholarship supports this. Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Varna. Varna, Illinois, a small town of 400 people, was named in this city's honour; the War of Varna was going on at the time. Varnensky District and its administrative centre in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia are named in commemoration of the taking of Varna by the Russian army during the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War.
Varna Drive, in Toronto, Canada, is named after Varna. There is a hamlet in southern Ontario named Varna. Prehistoric settlements best known for the Chalcolithic necropolis, a key archaeological site in world prehistory, eponymous Varna culture and internationally considered the world's oldest large find of gold artifacts, existed within modern city limits. In the wider region of the Varna lakes and the adjacent karst springs and caves, over 30 prehistoric settlements have been unearthed with the earliest artefacts dating back to the Middle Paleolithic or 100,000 years ago. Since late Bronze Age the area around Odessos had been populated with Thracians. During 8th–9th c. BC local Thracians had active commercial and cultural contacts with people from Anatolia, Thessaly and the Mediterranean Sea; these links were reflected in some local productions, for example, forms of bronze fibula of the age, either imported or locally made. There is no doubt that interactions occurred by sea and the bay of Odessos is one of the places where the exchanges took place.
Some scholars consider that during the 1st millennium BC, the region was settled by the half-mythical Cimmerians. An example of their accidental, presence, is the tumulus dated 8th–7th c. BC found near Belogradets, Varna Province; the region around Odessos was densely populated with Thracians long before the coming of the Greeks on the west seashore of the Black Sea. Pseudo-Scymnus writes: "... Around the city lives the Thracian tribe named Crobises." This is evidenced by various ceramic pottery, made by hand or by a Potter's wheel, bronze ornaments for horse-fittings and iron weapons, all found in Thracian necropolises dated 6th–4th c. BC near the villages of Dobrina, Kipra and other, all in Varna Province; the Thracians in the region were ruled by kings, who entered into unions with the Odrysian kingdom, Getae or Sapaeans—large Thracian states existing between 5th–1st c. BC. Between 336–280 BC these Thracian states along with Odessos were conquered by Alexander the Great. Archaeological findings have indicated that the population of northeast Thrace was diverse, including the region around Odessos.
During 6th–4th c. BC the region was populated with Scythians who inhabited the central Eurasian Steppe and the area south of river Istros. Characteristic for their culture weapons and bronze objects are found all over the region. Scythian horse ornaments are produced in “animal style”, close to the Thracian style, a possible explanation for the frequent mixture of both folks in northeastern Thrace. Many bronze artefacts give testimony for such process, for example and front plates for horse heads, as well as moulds for such products in nearby and more distanced settlements. Since the 4th c. BC the region had been populated by more Getae, a Thracian tribe populating both shores around the Danube Delta. Celts started populating the re
Kufstein is a town in the Austrian state of Tyrol, the administrative seat of Kufstein District. With a population of about 18,400, it is the second largest Tyrolean town after the state capital Innsbruck; the greatest landmark is Kufstein Fortress, first mentioned in the 13th century. It is located in the Tyrolean Unterland region on the river Inn, at the confluence with its Weißache and Kaiserbach tributaries, near the border to Bavaria, Germany; the municipal area stretches along the Lower Inn Valley between the Brandenberg Alps in the northwest and the Kaiser Mountains in the southeast. The remote Kaisertal until was the last settled valley in Austria without transport connections, prior to the construction of a tunnel road from Kufstein to neighbouring Ebbs in 2006. North of the town, the Inn river leaves the Northern Limestone Alps and enters the Bavarian Alpine Foreland; the town area comprises several small lakes, such as Pfrillsee, Längsee, Hechtsee. The municipal arrangement comprises the cadastral communities of Kufstein and Thierberg.
Glass manufacturer Riedel, gunmaker Voere, textile mat manufacturer Kleen-Tex are based in Kufstein. Kufstein is home to the University of Applied Sciences Kufstein which specializes in providing business education and is a center for international exchange. Kufstein has two exits along the A12 motorway from Innsbruck to Rosenheim. Kufstein railway station, opened in 1876, forms part of the Lower Inn Valley railway section of the Brenner-axis from Munich to Verona; the Festungsbahn is a funicular. Archaeological findings in the Tischofer Cave in Kaisertal denote a settlement of the area more than 30,000 years ago, the oldest traces of human habitation in Tyrol. Incorporated into the Roman Empire in 15 BC, the Inn river formed the border between the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. A church at Caofstein was first mentioned in a 788 deed issued by Bishop Arno of Salzburg. At that time, the Lower Inn Valley was part of the Bavarian realm under the Agilolfing duke Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne and replaced by Prefect Gerold.
The Fortress is first documented in 1205 as a possession of the Bishop of Regensburg and the Duke of Bavaria. In the early 14th century, the Wittelsbach emperor Louis IV Bavarian duke, vested the Kufstein citizens with rights of jurisdiction. Kufstein passed to the County of Tyrol in 1342, when it was a wedding gift to Countess Margaret from her husband, Emperor Louis's son Louis the Brandenburger. However, it fell back to Bavaria upon Margaret's death in 1369. Duke Stephen III of Bavaria granted Kufstein city status in 1393, due to its prominence as a trading and docking point on the Inn River. From 1415 onwards, his son and successor Duke Louis VII had the Fortress rebuilt and expanded; the possession of the strategically important Kufstein border fortress remained disputed. In 1504, the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I took the opportunity of the War of the Succession of Landshut within the Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty: his Austrian forces laid siege to the town, at the Imperial Diet in Cologne the next year, the emperor resolved upon the cession of the Kufstein territories to the Habsburg lands of Tyrol.
Maximilian had the prominent Kaiserturm tower of the fortress erected, finished in 1522. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the castle was again besieged by Bavarian troops under Elector Maximilian II Emanuel in 1703 the Austrian domains were confirmed by the Treaty of Ilbersheim the next year. After the War of the Third Coalition, Kufstein once again was awarded to the newly established Kingdom of Bavaria in the 1805 Peace of Pressburg and the Tyrolean Rebellion of 1809 was crushed by the Bavarian Army. In 1813/14 it passed to the Austrian Empire. In the 19th century, Kufstein Fortress was turned into a bastille for political prisoners, such as the Hungarian outlaw Sándor Rózsa, who spent several years here before he was pardonned in 1868; the town's economic development was decisively promoted by the opening of the Lower Inn Valley Railway line in 1858. In the late days of World War II the historic town centre suffered from Allied bombing. After the war, Kufstein was occupied by US forces.
Due to its long history, the city of Kufstein has various sights to offer: The Fortress is built on a rock the height of which amounts to 90 metres. Sometimes erroneously called Schloss Garoldseck, the fortress was mentioned as Castrum Caofstein in a document for the first time in 1205, it was enlarged several times. The most important tower, the round and impressive Kaiserturm, was built from 1518-22. Several times in its history, the fortress was used as a prison. Today it is famous for its large organ; the old city center with several picturesque lanes the most famous of, Römerhofgasse. The sightworthy City Hall is on a square called Stadtplatz. Saint Vitus Church is the oldest church of Kufstein, it was built from 1390-1420 in a typical Gothic style. It was converted into a baroque church from 1660-61. A part of the medieval city wall is well worth a visit; the sightworthy Wasserbastei is in the Northern part of the old city center on the river Inn. In the Southern part of the wall, a former gate called.
Kufstein is twinned with Frauenfeld, Switzerland Rovereto, Italy Langenlois, Austria Ferenc Kazinczy, the regenerator of the Hungarian language an
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Jyväskylä is a city and municipality in Finland in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland, some 130 km north-east from Tampere. It is the largest city on the Finnish Lakeland. Elias Lönnrot, the compiler of the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, gave the city the nickname "Athens of Finland"; this nickname refers to the major role of Jyväskylä as an educational centre. The works of the most famous Finnish architect Alvar Aalto can be seen throughout the city; the city hosts the Neste Oil Rally Finland, part of the World Rally Championship. It is home of the annual Jyväskylä Arts Festival; as of 31 January 2019, Jyväskylä had a population of 141,374. The city has been one of the fastest growing cities in Finland during the 20th century. In 1940, there were only 8,000 inhabitants in Jyväskylä; the Jyväskylä sub-region includes Jyväskylä, Laukaa, Petäjävesi and Uurainen. The second part of the city's name, kylä, means village; the first part of the city's name, jyväs-, looks like the stem of an adjective *jyvänen, derived from jyvä, "grain".
Alternatively, it has been associated with Taxus, a genus of yews, the Old Prussian word juwis. It has been speculated that the word jyväs refers to the sun's reflection of the surface of the water. In the Jyväskylä region, there are archeological findings from the Stone Age. According to the oldest available taxation documents, there were seven estates on the Jyväskylä region in 1539. One of them, the estate of Mattila, alone possessed the areas stretching from the village of Keljo to the villages of Vesanka and Palokka; the oldest estate in Jyväskylä continuously held by the same family is the estate of Lahti, which emerged when the estate of Mattila was split between two brothers in 1600. The history of the estate of Lahti and the family of Lahti have had a significant impact on the development of Jyväskylä region. Lahdenrinne, in the south-west corner of Jyväsjärvi lake, belongs to the old heartland of the estate of Lahti; the City of Jyväskylä was founded on 22 March 1837, when Emperor of Russia and Grand Duke of Finland, Nicholas I of Russia, signed the charter of the city and the infrastructure was built from scratch.
At the times Finnish military battalion Suomen kaarti participated under his rule in military operations against the Polish November Uprising and in Hungary and Bessarabia. While Nicholas I of Russia abolished many autonomous areas, it has been argued, that the loyalty of Finnish military influenced his approach towards Finnish autonomy; the original town was built between Lake Jyväsjärvi and the Jyväskylä ridge, consisted of most of the current grid-style city centre. The establishment of schools in the 1850s and 1860s proved to be the most significant step in regards to the development of Jyväskylä; the first three Finnish-speaking schools in the world were founded in Jyväskylä, the lycée in 1858, the teachers’ college in 1863, the girls’ school in 1864. Well-trained teaching staff and pupils from different parts of the country changed the atmosphere of Jyväskylä irrevocably. In the early 20th century, the town expanded several times. Most of today's Jyväskylä was built after the Continuation War, when refugees from Karelia and other parts of the country moved to the city, housing was badly needed.
During the 21st century Jyväskylä has grown fast – by over 1,000 inhabitants every year. Säynätsalo was consolidated with Jyväskylä in 1993, Jyväskylän maalaiskunta and Korpilahti, for their part, on January 1, 2009. Jyväskylä is located on the northern coast of Lake Päijänne, 147 kilometres north-east of Tampere and 270 kilometres north of Helsinki; the hilly and forested terrain in Jyväskylä is surrounded by hundreds of lakes. To reach Jyväskylä from East, one needs to go through or pass the hill Kanavuori, which used to host a military depot full of ammunition and armaments. Jyväskylä is located in the Finnish Lakeland. There are 328 lakes in the city, lakes and rivers constitute 20,1% of the total area of the city; the city's largest lakes are Päijänne, Leppävesi, Tuomiojärvi, Palokkajärvi, Luonetjärvi, Alvajärvi-Korttajärvi. The city center is located on the shores of a small Jyväsjärvi; the landscape in Jyväskylä is hilly and full of waters. The architect Alvar Aalto compared the hilly landscape of Jyväskylä to Toscana in Italy: "The slope of Jyväskylä ridge is like the mountain vineyards of Fiesole".
The defined climate is a subarctic continental. Because of its northern location, winters are long, snowy and dark. During midwinter, the city receives daylight for only around five hours. Summers are mild, with the average daily maximum temperature being 22 °C in July. During the summer, Jyväskylä experiences long daylight and white nights i.e. midnight twilight. Jyväskylä was the fastest growing Finnish city in the 20th century; the population has continued to grow in the 21st century. 96.7% of the population spoke Finnish as their first language in 2010. The share of Swedish speakers was 0.2%. Other languages made up the remaining 3% of the population. In year 2014, there were about 3,700 foreigners in Jyväskylä; the largest immigrant groups in Jyväskylä are Russians and Afghans. Jyväskylä hosts the headquarters of Finnish Air Force, in Tikkakoski; as a central location, it has traditionally been important base for military operations. Jyväskylä got known as major firearms manufacturer during the world wars, producing machine guns and ammunition.
According to reporting in Helsingin Sanomat, since the 1990s Jyväskylä has served as a signals intell
Põlva is a town in southeastern Estonia, the capital of Põlva County, the centre of Põlva Parish. Põlva is home for the Intsikurmu Song Festival Grounds, which hosts concerts and summer activities, situated in a small forested area on the west side of the town; the name "Põlva" appears in the historical record in 1452. The name seems to derive from the Estonian word for "knee". Legend has it that a girl was immured in a kneeling position in St. Mary's Church to keep the devil away; this is reputedly. Põlva was an old military crossroad between the south of Livonia. Around 1240, shortly after the Christianization of Estonia, the Bernardine monks built a church, which they dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the church was subordinate to the Bishopric of Dorpat. The same parish was the result of the Livonian War under Russian domination in the 16th century. In 1582 it became part of Dorpat Voivodeship under Polish sovereignty, it belonged to Sweden. In 1721, in the Treaty of Nystad and Livonia were ceded to Russia.
Põlva and its church parish belonged first to Tartu County and from 1783 to newly established Võru County, part of the Governorate of Livonia. Only with the political independence of Estonia in 1918 Põlva gained national importance; the town grew around its artificial lake, whose sandy shores teem with vacationers during the summer. The town was developed around St. Mary's Church, which lay in ruins for a long time until it was rebuilt after the Great Northern War. In 1931, a railway from Tartu to Petseri through Põlva was completed. On 10 August 1993 Põlva gained town rights. Põlva is twinned with Vårgårda, located in Sweden; the importance of education is indicated by the town's coat of arms, which features a rooster with a pointer from an ABC primer. There are eight educational institutions in Polva, including the following: Põlva Coeducational Gymnasium, which has 737 students; this school is for mentally impaired children. In summertime, interesting music festivals are held in Põlva. 2011 was the first time for harmonica players to play music.
Festival of the Intsikurmu is targeted to young people - good music and visuals on the walls, taking place in tender August nights. The inhabitants of Põlva have always been positive and fond of sports. In and outside the town one can practise lots of activities, from swimming to riding; the new gymnasium provides excellent opportunities for sports and the shooting gallery of Põlva has been the hothouse of top sportsmen who hit targets at various competitions. Handball, which can be practised in the local sports school, has been undoubtedly popular in Põlva; the professional players from the Serviti Handball Club have become the masters of Estonia four times and the club is a serious competitor outside Estonia. The varied landscape offers inexhaustible opportunities for those who like running, orienteering or cycling; this facilitates the success of the sportsmen of the Kobras Orienteering Club at competitions and urges them to organise sports events. Football club Põlva FC Lootos was founded 1994.
One of the biggest sport clubs in county more than 30 players for Estonian national team was grown up within club history. Lootospark is a football stadium, a cooperative project between Põlva Town, Estonian Football Federation and Põlva FC Lootos; this stadium is covered with a 3rd generation synthetic lawn and its lighting and underheating systems are equipped according to international requirements. The stadium was opened on November 7, 2004. In addition to sports the inhabitants of Põlva are engaged in music. In the Põlva Art School one can learn graphic arts and ceramics; the Music School provides musical education and the E STuudio, an ensemble of young people, the brass band, the small symphony orchestra and a number of choirs practise actively. In October 2013, after the municipal elections, Põlva merged with the surrounding Põlva Parish and therefore lost its municipal status. Before that, the town council consisted of 17 members elected on 18 October 2009 by local votings; the government consisted of 5 members that were elected by the council on 20 November 2009.
Tarmo Tamm, the mayor of Põlva for more than 11 years, went to the parliament in April 2011. Since 11 May 2011 the mayor was Georg Pelisaar. Kannus, Finland Balvi, Latvia Sebezh, Russia AttributionThis article is based on the translation of the corresponding article of the German Wikipedia. A list of contributors can be found there at the History section. Põlva webcam
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac