SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Juniper

Junipers are coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, in the mountains of Central America; the highest-known juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 ft in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low-spreading shrubs with long, trailing branches, they are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either dioecious; the female seed cones are distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with one to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species, these "berries" are red-brown or orange; the seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination.

The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with six to 20 scales. In zones 7 through 10, junipers can release pollen several times each year. A few species of junipers bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring. Many junipers have two types of leaves; when juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing'whip' shoots are intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is with no scale leaves. In some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed; the needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some moths and butterflies, including Bucculatrix inusitata, juniper carpet, Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, pine beauty.

Those of the tortrix moth. Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have no flowers or fruits. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 -- 3 years; the impermeable coat of the seed keeps water from getting in and protects the embryo when being dispersed. It can result in a long dormancy, broken by physically damaging the seed coat. Dispersal can occur from being swallowed whole by mammals; the resistance of the seed coat allows it to be passed down through the digestive system and out without being destroyed along the way. These seeds last a long time, as they can be dispersed long distances over the course of a few years; the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two studies giving different totals: Farjon accepted 52 species and Adams accepted 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still ongoing. Juniperus sect. Juniperus – needle-leaf junipers. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus – cones with 3 separate seeds.

Alpina – alpine juniper Juniperus conferta – shore juniper Juniperus rigida – Temple juniper or needle juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus – cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus – cones with 3 seeds fused together. Sabina – scale-leaf junipers. Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here. Old World species Juniperus chinensis – Chinese juniper Juniperus convalliumMekong juniper Juniperus excelsa – Greek juniper Juniperus excelsa polycarposPersian juniper Juniperus foetidissima – stinking juniper Juniperus indica – black juniper Juniperus komarovii – Komarov's juniper Juniperus phoenicea – Phoenicean juniper Juniperus pingii – Ping juniper Juniperus procera – East African juniper Juniperus procumbens – Ibuki juniper Juniperus pseudosabinaXinjiang juniper Juniperus recurva – Himalayan juniper Juniperus sabina – Savin juniper Juniperus saltuaria – Sichuan juniper Juniperus semiglobosa – Russian juniper Juniperus squamata – flaky juniper J

Fallen (For My Pain album)

Fallen is the only full-length album by the Finnish gothic metal supergroup band For My Pain.... My Wound Is Deeper Than Yours - 3:45 Dancer in the Dark - 3:46 Queen Misery - 5:25 Sea of Emotions - 3:57 Rapture of Lust - 3:56 Broken Days - 4:04 Dear Carniwhore - 3:56 Bed of Dead Leaves - 5:02 Autumn Harmony - 4:48 Tomorrow Is a Closed Gate - 4:51Re-released in 2009 with more 3 tracks of the single "Killing Romance" Killing Romance - 4:21 Joutsenlaulu - 5:40 Too Sad to Live - 5:06 Altti VeteläinenBass Petri SankalaDrums Tuomas HolopainenKeyboards Lauri Tuohimaa – Guitars Olli-Pekka Törrö – Guitars Juha KylmänenVocals Miriam Elisabeth "SfinX" Renvåg – Vocals, Backing Vocals

Timeline of Asheville, North Carolina

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Asheville, North Carolina, USA. 1792 – Settlement established. 1793 – Log courthouse built. 1797 – Town of Asheville incorporated. 1800 – Population: 38. 1824 – Buncombe Turnpike built in vicinity of Asheville. 1829 – Vance Circulating Library Society founded. 1849 – Asheville News begins publication. 1860 – Population: 502. 1870 North Carolina Citizen newspaper begins publication. Population: 1,400. 1879 – Public Library opens. 1880 – Western North Carolina Railroad begins operating. 1882 – The first organized fire department is created, which will become the Asheville Fire Department. 1883 – City of Asheville incorporated. 1889 – Streetcar begins operating. 1890 – Population: 10,235. 1893 – Young Men's Institute Building constructed. 1894 – Swannanoa Country Club founded. 1895 – Biltmore Estate built near Asheville. 1897 – Zebulon Baird Vance monument erected in Pack Square. 1898 Manor Hotel in business. Biltmore Forest School established near Asheville.

1899 – Appalachian National Park Association formed during a meeting in Asheville. 1900 – Future writer Thomas Wolfe born in Asheville. 1906 – Will Harris's murderous rampage 1909 St. Lawrence Church built. Palace Theatre in business. 1913 – Grove Park Inn in business. 1915 – Asheville Masonic Temple built. 1917 – West Asheville becomes part of the city of Asheville. Nov. 16, a fire at Catholic Hill School for Colored Children killed seven and destroyed the building. Considered to be one of the worst disasters in Asheville history. 1920 – Population: 28,504. 1922 – Imperial Theatre in business. 1924 – Hi-rise Jackson Building constructed. 1925 – Memorial Stadium opens. 1927 WWNC radio begins broadcasting. First Baptist Church built. 1928 Asheville City Hall and Buncombe County Courthouse built. Dutch-owned Enka rayon manufactory begins operating near city. 1929 – Kenilworth becomes part of Asheville. 1930 Southern Mountain Handicraft Guild founded. Population: 50,193. 1934 Bus begins operating. Great Smoky Mountains National Park established in vicinity of Asheville.

1936 – Blue Ridge Parkway constructed. 1941 – Black Mountain College of art relocates to vicinity of Asheville. 1948 – March 10: Highland Hospital fire. 1952 – Western North Carolina Historical Association organized. 1953 – WISE-TV begins broadcasting. 1954 – WLOS-TV begins broadcasting. 1959 – Asheville Industrial Education Center established. 1961 – Asheville Regional Airport begins operating. 1971 – Asheville Mall in business. 1976 – Preservation Society of Asheville and Buncombe County organized. 1978 – North Carolina Division of Archives and Records "Western Office" headquartered in Asheville. 1979 – Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society formed. 1980 – Population: 54,022. 1983 – James M. Clarke becomes U. S. representative for North Carolina's 11th congressional district. 1990 – Sister city agreement established with Vladikavkaz, Russia. 1991 – Asheville Citizen-Times newspaper in publication. 1994 – Sister city agreement established with San Cristóbal de las Casas, Mexico. 1996 – Sister city agreement established with Saumur, France.

1998 – City website online. 2000 – Population: 68,889. 2003 – Asheville Film Festival begins. 2004 – Sister city agreement established with Karpenisi, Greece. 2005 Terry Bellamy becomes first African-American in city elected mayor. Patrick McHenry becomes U. S. representative for North Carolina's 10th congressional district. 2006 – Sister city agreement established with Valladolid, Mexico. 2007 – Asheville-Buncombe Libraries changed name to Buncombe County Public Libraries. 2008 – Sister city agreement established with Osogbo, Nigeria. 2010 – Population: 83,393. 2013 – Esther Manheimer becomes mayor. List of mayors of Asheville, North Carolina National Register of Historic Places listings in Buncombe County, North Carolina Timelines of other cities in North Carolina: Charlotte, Fayetteville, Raleigh, Winston-Salem "North Carolina Room". Asheville: Pack Memorial Library. Collecting and preserving the history of Asheville, Buncombe County, western North Carolina Items related to Asheville, North Carolina, various dates Ramsey Library.

"Appalachian Studies". Research Guides. Asheville: University of North Carolina. Humanities and Social Sciences Division. "Resources for Local History and Genealogy by State: North Carolina". Bibliographies and Guides. Washington DC: Library of Congress