Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant; the embryo is developed from the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates; the term "seed" has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Many structures referred to as "seeds" are dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate. Sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to and surrounding the actual seed. Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms. Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth; some fruits have layers of both fleshy material. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, which begin their development "naked" on the bracts of cones. However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales.
Seed production in natural plant populations varies from year to year in response to weather variables and diseases, internal cycles within the plants themselves. Over a 20-year period, for example, forests composed of loblolly pine and shortleaf pine produced from 0 to nearly 5 million sound pine seeds per hectare. Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, nine good seed crops, when evaluated for production of adequate seedlings for natural forest reproduction. Angiosperm seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: the embryo formed from the zygote, the endosperm, triploid, the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization, which involves the fusion of two male gametes with the egg cell and the central cell to form the primary endosperm and the zygote. Right after fertilization, the zygote is inactive, but the primary endosperm divides to form the endosperm tissue.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination. After fertilization the ovules develop into the seeds; the ovule consists of a number of components: The funicle or seed stalk which attaches the ovule to the placenta and hence ovary or fruit wall, at the pericarp. The nucellus, the remnant of the megasporangium and main region of the ovule where the megagametophyte develops; the micropyle, a small pore or opening in the apex of the integument of the ovule where the pollen tube enters during the process of fertilization. The chalaza, the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, where integument and nucellus are joined together; the shape of the ovules as they develop affects the final shape of the seeds. Plants produce ovules of four shapes: the most common shape is called anatropous, with a curved shape. Orthotropous ovules are straight with all the parts of the ovule lined up in a long row producing an uncurved seed. Campylotropous ovules have a curved megagametophyte giving the seed a tight "C" shape.
The last ovule shape is called amphitropous, where the ovule is inverted and turned back 90 degrees on its stalk. In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, this establishes the polarity of the embryo; the upper or chalazal pole becomes the main area of growth of the embryo, while the lower or micropylar pole produces the stalk-like suspensor that attaches to the micropyle. The suspensor absorbs and manufactures nutrients from the endosperm that are used during the embryo's growth; the main components of the embryo are: The cotyledons, the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis. There may be two; the cotyledons are the source of nutrients in the non-endospermic dicotyledons, in which case they replace the endosperm, are thick and leathery. In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are papery. Dicotyledons have the point of attachment opposite one another on the axis; the epicotyl, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.
The plumule, the tip of the epicotyl, has a feathery appearance due to the presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, will become the shoot upon germination. The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root transition zone; the radicle, the basal tip of the hy
Krummholz or krumholtz — called knieholz — is a type of stunted, deformed vegetation encountered in subarctic and subalpine tree line landscapes, shaped by continual exposure to fierce, freezing winds. Under these conditions, trees can only survive where they are sheltered by rock formations or snow cover; as the lower portion of these trees continues to grow, the coverage becomes dense near the ground. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the formation is known as tuckamore. Krummholz trees are found on beaches such as the Oregon coast, where trees can become much taller than their subalpine cousins. Common trees showing krumholtz formation include European spruce, mountain pine, balsam fir, red spruce, black spruce, subalpine fir, subalpine larch, Engelmann spruce, whitebark pine, limber pine, lodgepole pine. Instances of the krumholtz form of black spruce, Picea mariana, are found in the northern Canadian boreal forests. Krumholtz-form black spruce and balsam fir are abundant in the alpine transition zone of the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
Subalpine fir is the most common associate of spruce in krummholz vegetation. Other associated coniferous species include alpine larch, whitebark pine, limber pine, western white pine in southern British Columbia, mountain hemlock on the eastern slopes of the Coast Range and in the Revelstoke area. Lodgepole pine is a minor associate in most of the British Columbia interior, except in dry alpine areas of the southwest Cariboo/Chilcotin district where it is abundant. Ericaceous species are common in the snow accumulation zone around the base of krummholz colonies. A variation of krummholz formation is a flag banner tree. Branches on the windward side are killed or deformed by the constant strong winds, giving the tree a characteristic flag-like appearance. Where the lower portion of the tree is protected by snow cover or rocks, only the exposed upper portion may have this appearance; this is a rather common occurrence in red spruce trees of the highest peaks of the central and the southern Appalachian Mountains, is most seen in the windswept high peaks and plateaus of the Allegheny Mountains.
This formation most notably occurs with high frequency in the Dolly Sods and Roaring Plains West Wilderness areas along the Allegheny Front in eastern West Virginia occurring at elevations of 3,800 feet and higher. Trade winds in tropical regions near the equator can shape trees in a similar manner. Divi-divi Elfin forests Reaction wood Windthrow Krumholtz formation in Hudson Bay subarctic landscape
San Bernardino Mountains
The San Bernardino Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in Southern California in the United States. Situated north and northeast of San Bernardino and spanning two California counties, the range tops out at 11,489 feet at San Gorgonio Mountain – the tallest peak in all of Southern California; the San Bernardinos are popular for hiking and skiing. The mountains were formed about eleven million years ago by tectonic activity along the San Andreas Fault, are still rising. Many local rivers originate in the range, which receives more precipitation than the surrounding desert; the range's unique and varying environment allows it to maintain some of the greatest biodiversity in the state. For over 10,000 years, the San Bernardinos and their surroundings have been inhabited by indigenous peoples, who used the mountains as a summer hunting ground. Spanish explorers first encountered the San Bernardinos in the late 18th century, naming the eponymous San Bernardino Valley at its base. European settlement of the region progressed until 1860, when the mountains became the focus of the largest gold rush to occur in Southern California.
Waves of settlers brought in by the gold rush populated the lowlands around the San Bernardinos, began to tap the mountains' rich timber and water resources on a large scale by the late 19th century. Recreational development of the range began in the early 20th century, when mountain resorts were built around new irrigation reservoirs. Since the mountains have been extensively engineered for transportation and water supply purposes. Four major state highways and the California Aqueduct traverse the mountains today; the San Bernardinos run for 60 miles from Cajon Pass in the northwest – which separates them from the San Gabriel Mountains – to San Gorgonio Pass, across which lie the San Jacinto Mountains, in the southeast. The Morongo Valley in the southeast divides the range from the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Encompassing 2,100 square miles, the mountains lie in San Bernardino County, with a small southern portion reaching into Riverside County; the range divides three major physiographic regions: the urbanized Inland Empire to the southwest, the Coachella Valley in the southeast, the Mojave Desert to the north.
Most of the range lies within the boundaries of the San Bernardino National Forest. From its northwestern end, the crest of the mountains rises until they are interrupted by the gorge of Bear Creek; the northern part of the San Bernardinos is a large upland plateau characterized by a series of extensive subalpine basins, including Big Bear Valley, is home to several large water supply reservoirs. South of the Big Bear area the range is cut by the Santa Ana Canyon, the broad valley of the Santa Ana River, rises to culminate at Mount San Gorgonio and eleven other peaks that exceed 10,000 feet in elevation; the mountains feature a steep drop into the Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass – the latter of, one of the deepest mountain passes in the United States, exceeding the Grand Canyon's depth by over 2,000 feet. Many cities lie at the base of the San Bernardino Mountains; these include San Bernardino and Yucaipa in the south. In addition, there are several mid-sized to large towns in the mountains themselves, including Big Bear Lake, Big Bear City, Lake Arrowhead and Running Springs.
Cities within the San Bernardino Mountains total a population of about 44,000, with this number sometimes increasing tenfold during peak tourist season. Several regional streams and rivers have their headwaters in the mountains; the principal drainage is provided by the Santa Ana River, which runs westwards into the Pacific Ocean in Orange County. Other streams flowing off the mountains include the Whitewater River, flowing southeast through the Coachella Valley into the Salton Sea, the Mojave River, which drains northwards into the Mojave Desert; the San Bernardino Mountains are a humid island in the semi-arid southern California coastal plain. Parts of the San Bernardino Mountains have annual precipitation totals in excess of 40 inches, provide an important water resource for the coastal plain below. Most of the precipitation falls between March. During the colder winter storms, snow can fall above 3,000 feet, but most falls above 5,000 feet. Ski resorts capitalize on the most reliable south of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The San Bernardinos are part of the Transverse Ranges of Southern California, a mountain chain formed by tectonic forces between the North American and Pacific Plates along the San Andreas Fault. An early version of the range rose in the Miocene, between eleven and five million years ago, but has eroded; the range was shaped into its present form during the Pleistocene epoch beginning two million years ago, with regional uplift continuing to the present. The rocks that make up the mountains are much more ancient than the mountains themselves – ranging from 18 million years to 1.7 billion years old. The San Andreas Fault was responsible for the formation of both major mountain passes that mark the east and west ends of the range; these mountains are shaped by several primary tectonic or fault blocks – the Big Bear block, which forms the large montane plateau that character
Pinus ponderosa known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most distributed pine species in North America, it grows in various erect forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane. On that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens and coined the name Pinus ponderosa for its heavy wood. In 1836, it was formally described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman, it is the official state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large coniferous pine tree; the bark helps to distinguish it from other species. Mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to broad plates with black crevices.
Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as "blackjacks" by early loggers. Ponderosa pine's five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright-green needles; the Pacific subspecies has the longest—7.8 in —and most flexible needles in plume-like fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—4.7–8.1 in —and flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—3.6–5.7 in —and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 4.4–7.8 in, stout needles in fascicles of three. The central High Plains subspecies is characterized by the fewest needles. Needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa. Some state. Others state that it has no distinctive scent, while still others state that the bark smells like vanilla if sampled from a furrow of the bark. Sources agree that the Jeffrey pine is more scented than the ponderosa pine.
The National Register of Big Trees lists a Ponderosa Pine, 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference. In January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon; the tree was climbed on October 13, 2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high. This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine; this species is grown as an ornamental plant in large gardens. During Operation Upshot–Knothole in 1953, a nuclear test was performed in which 145 ponderosa pines were cut down by the United States Forest Service and transported to Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, where they were planted into the ground and exposed to a nuclear blast to see what the blast wave would do to a forest; the trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the ponderosa shrub forest.
Like most western pines, the ponderosa is associated with mountainous topography. However, it is found on banks of the Niobrara River in Nebraska. Scattered stands occur in the Willamette Valley of Oregon and in the Okanagan Valley and Puget Sound areas of Washington. Stands occur throughout low level valleys in British Columbia reaching as far north as the Thompson and Columbia watersheds. In its Northern limits, it is most common below 800m. Ponderosa covers 80 %, of the Black Hills of South Dakota, it is found on foothills and mid-height peaks of the northern and southern Rocky Mountains, in the Cascade Range, in the Sierra Nevada, in the maritime-influenced Coast Range. In Arizona, it predominates on the Mogollon Rim and is scattered on the Mogollon Plateau and on mid-height peaks in Arizona and New Mexico, it does not extend into Mexico. The fire cycle for ponderosa pine is 5 to 10 years, in which a natural ignition sparks a low-intensity fire. Pinus ponderosa needles are the only known food of the caterpillars of the gelechiid moth Chionodes retiniella.
Blue stain fungus, Grosmannia clavigera, is introduced in sapwood of P. ponderosa from the galleries of all species in the genus Dendroctonus, which has caused much damage. Modern forestry research has identified five different taxa of P. ponderosa, with differing botanical characters and adaptations to different climatic conditions. Four of these have been termed "geographic races" in forestry literature; some botanists treated some races as distinct species. In modern botanical usage, they have been formally published. Pinus ponderosa subsp. Brachyptera Engelm. — southwestern ponderosa pine. Four corners transition zone including southern Colorado, southern Utah and central New Mexico and Arizona, westernmost Texas, a single disjunct population in the far northwestern Oklahoma panhandle; the Gila Wilderness conta
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, in the mountains of Central America; the highest-known juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 ft in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low-spreading shrubs with long, trailing branches, they are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either dioecious; the female seed cones are distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with one to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species, these "berries" are red-brown or orange; the seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination.
The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with six to 20 scales. In zones 7 through 10, junipers can release pollen several times each year. A few species of junipers bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring. Many junipers have two types of leaves; when juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing'whip' shoots are intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is with no scale leaves. In some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed; the needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Bucculatrix inusitata and juniper carpet, is eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, pine beauty.
Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have no flowers or fruits. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 -- 3 years; the impermeable coat of the seed keeps water from getting in and protects the embryo when being dispersed. It can result in a long dormancy, broken by physically damaging the seed coat. Dispersal can occur from being swallowed whole by mammals; the resistance of the seed coat allows it to be passed down through the digestive system and out without being destroyed along the way. These seeds last a long time, as they can be dispersed long distances over the course of a few years; the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going; the section Juniperus is an obvious monophyletic group though. Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers.
The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, jointed at the base. Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus communis – Common juniper Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina – Alpine juniper Juniperus conferta – Shore juniper Juniperus rigida – Temple juniper or needle juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus brevifolia – Azores juniper Juniperus cedrus – Canary Islands juniper Juniperus deltoides – Eastern prickly juniper Juniperus formosana – Chinese prickly juniper Juniperus lutchuensis – Ryukyu juniper Juniperus navicularis – Portuguese prickly juniper Juniperus oxycedrus – Western prickly juniper or cade juniper Juniperus macrocarpa – Large-berry juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together. Juniperus drupacea – Syrian juniperJuniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers; the adult leaves are scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base.
Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here. Old World species Juniperus chinensis – Chinese juniper Juniperus convallium – Mekong juniper Juniperus excelsa – Greek juniper Juniperus excelsa polycarpos – Persian juniper Juniperus foetidissima – Stinking juniper Juniperus indica – Black juniper Juniperus komarovii – Komarov's juniper Juniperus phoenicea – Phoenicean juniper Juniperus pingii – Ping juniper Juniperus procera – East African juniper Juniperus procumbens – Ibuki juniper Juniperu